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Kim Novak

Kim Novak
File:611px-Kim Novak.jpeg
Novak in 1959
Born Marilyn Pauline Novak
(1933-02-13) February 13, 1933 (age 87)
Chicago, Illinois, USA
Residence Sams Valley, Oregon,[1] USA
Nationality American
Education David Glasgow Farragut High School
Alma mater School of the Art Institute of Chicago
Occupation Actress, Artist[2]
Years active 1954–1991
Spouse(s) Richard Johnson (m. 1965–66)
Dr. Robert Malloy (m. 1976)

Kim Novak (born Marilyn Pauline Novak on February 13, 1933 in Chicago) is an American actress. She began her career in "Pushover" (1954) at age 21, and came to prominence almost immediately with a leading role in the film Picnic (1955). Other films from this period of her career include The Man With the Golden Arm (1955), The Eddy Duchin Story (1956), Pal Joey (1957), Jeanne Eagels (1957), the Alfred Hitchcock film Vertigo (1958), Bell, Book and Candle (1958), and Middle of the Night (1959). After a decade in the entertainment industry, Novak withdrew from the public eye in 1966 and appeared in films only sporadically until 1991,[3] when she retired from acting following a tempestuous experience with director Mike Figgis on the set of Liebestraum, her last film to date.[4]

Novak married veterinarian Robert Malloy in 1976. The couple took up residence on a ranch in Sams Valley, Oregon.[1] Novak, also an accomplished painter, exhibited her works at least once, in March 2012.[5]

Early life

Novak was born Marilyn Pauline Novak in Chicago, Illinois, to Joseph and Blanche (née Kral) Novak.[6] Both her parents were of Czech descent.[7][8][9] Her father was a history teacher and worked as a dispatcher on the Chicago, Milwaukee and St. Paul Railroad,[9] and her mother was a factory worker.[7][10][11]

She attended William Penn Elementary, Farragut High School,[12] and Wright Junior College. She won two scholarships to the School of the Art Institute of Chicago,[10][11][13] and during the summer break in her last semester of junior college, Novak went on a cross-country tour modeling for a refrigerator company at trade shows.[14] While stopping by Los Angeles, Novak and two other models stood in line to be extras in The French Line (1954), a film starring Jane Russell. It was here that she was discovered by an agent, who signed her to a long-term contract with Columbia Pictures.[15]

Acting career

Early career and success (1954–1959)

Kim Novak wanted to be an original and not another stereotype. Therefore, she fought with Columbia's chief, Harry Cohn, when he wanted to change her name to “Kit Marlowe.” He argued, “Nobody's gonna go see a girl with a Polack name!” But Novak insisted on keeping her name, saying, “Well, I'm Czech, but Polish, Czech, no matter, it's my name.” They ended up with “Kim” for her first name as a compromise.[16]

Novak made her film debut in the film noir Pushover (1954), starring Fred MacMurray and Philip Carey. Though the movie was only moderately successful, Novak received good reviews for her performance. She then played the role of Janis in the romantic comedy Phffft!, opposite Judy Holliday, Jack Lemmon, and Jack Carson. Soon afterward, she had her first starring role in 5 Against the House (1955), a crime drama.

In 1955, Novak had a supporting role in the highly successful The Man with the Golden Arm, with Frank Sinatra and Eleanor Parker. Her next role was as the lead character, Madge Owens, in Picnic, opposite William Holden. The film proved to be a breakthrough for the young actress; she won the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer and was nominated for the BAFTA Film Award for Best Foreign Actress. The film was also very successful at the box office.

In 1956, she played opposite Tyrone Power in The Eddy Duchin Story. In 1957, she worked with Sinatra again in the box office hit Pal Joey, which also starred Rita Hayworth. That same year, she portrayed 1920s film star Jeanne Eagels in the self-titled biographical film opposite Jeff Chandler.

By 1956, Novak had become the number one box office star in the world, and she held that position for three solid years of outstanding film making.[11]

Vertigo (1958)

File:Vertigo 1958 trailer Kim Novak at Golden Gate Bridge Fort Point.jpg
Kim Novak at the Golden Gate Bridge in Vertigo.
Director Alfred Hitchcock was working on his next film, Vertigo, when his leading actress, Vera Miles, became pregnant and had to withdraw from the complex role of Judy Barton.[17] Hitchcock approached Harry Cohn to offer Novak the female lead without even requesting a screen test. Though Cohn hated the script, he allowed Novak to read it because he considered Hitchcock to be a great director.[18] Novak loved it and could identify with the character. At the same time, she was striking for more money from Columbia, and refused to show up for work on the Vertigo set to protest her salary of $1,250 a week. Novak hired new agents to represent her and demanded an adjustment in her contract. Cohn suspended her but, after a few weeks of negotiations, he relented and offered her a new contract worthy of a major star.[19] Novak could identify with the personality of her character Judy as she felt she went through the same thing when she arrived in Hollywood:
From my point of view, when I first read those lines where she says, "I want you to love me for me," and all the talking in that scene, I just identified it with so much because going to Hollywood as a young girl and suddenly finding they want to make you over totally, it's such a total change and it was like I was always fighting to show some of myself, feeling that I wanted to be there as well. It was like they'd do my hair and go and redo a bunch of things. So I really identified with the fact of someone that was being made over with the resentment, with wanting to. Needing approval and wanting to be loved and willing, eventually, to go to any lengths to get that by changing her hair and all of these different things. And then when Judy appears, it's another story and then when she has to go through that change. I really identified with the movie because it was saying, "Please, see who I am. Fall in love with me."[17]

The film was poorly received at the time of its release in 1958, but has since been re-evaluated and is widely considered one of the director's best works. In the 2012 British Film Institute's Sight & Sound critics' poll, Vertigo was voted as the best film of all time, displacing Orson Welles' Citizen Kane from the position it had occupied since 1962.[20][21] Novak received mixed reviews for her performance, but she managed to surprise film critics. While Bosley Crowther, writing for The New York Times, described her as "really quite amazing,"[22] the Variety review noted that she was "interesting under Hitchcock’s direction" and "nearer an actress than she was in either Pal Joey or Jeanne Eagles."[23] The consensus regarding her performance also changed with time. For example, film critic David Thomson thought it was "one of the major female performances in the cinema"[24] and film director Martin Scorsese called it "extraordinary," adding that Novak's work was "so brave and emotionally immediate."[25] However, Novak was disappointed by her performance when she watched the film in 2013. "I was really disappointed. Both characters were exaggerated. They’ll always remember me in Vertigo, and I’m not that good in it, but I don’t blame me because there are a couple of scenes where I was wonderful."[26]

Decline and other early ventures (1958–1969)

File:Kim Novak 1962.jpg
Photo of Kim Novak. Madrid, 1962

In 1958, Novak again worked with Stewart in Richard Quine's Bell, Book and Candle, a comedy tale of modern-day witchcraft, that proved to be a box office success. The following year, she starred opposite Fredric March in the acclaimed Middle of the Night (1959), which she has described as her favorite film that she has been in. Novak also cites her performance in Middle of the Night as her best.

Novak starred opposite Kirk Douglas in Strangers When We Meet (1960). Richard Quine was the director, as well as her fiancé at the time. The studio planned to give them the house that was built as part of the story line during the filming as a wedding gift, but their wedding never came to be. Instead it was during the last film that she and Quine made together in 1962, The Notorious Landlady with Jack Lemmon, that she discovered and purchased her future home by the sea near Big Sur, California. It was to become her retreat and salvation after leaving Hollywood.

She made an independent five-picture deal with Martin Ransohoff and Filmways Pictures to co-produce, but it proved to be a bad choice due to clashes with personalities over scripts. Their first endeavor, Boys' Night Out (1962), was unsuccessful.[27][28] After her Hollywood house survived the big Bel Air fire of 1961, it was finally lost a few years later when it was swept away with most of her belongings in a mudslide in 1966.[29] During that interim, she made W. Somerset Maugham's drama Of Human Bondage (1964) with Laurence Harvey in Ireland.[30][31]

File:Kim Novak - autographed.JPG
Photo of Kim Novak. Los Angeles, 1964

Kiss Me, Stupid followed for director Billy Wilder. Actor Peter Sellers had originally been selected, but he had suffered a heart attack, so Ray Walston took his place. Also co-starring was Dean Martin. The film had problems getting released due to conflicts with the Legion of Decency. Later it was rediscovered and acclaimed for its forward thinking and got rave reviews, particularly for Novak’s performance as “Polly the Pistol.” In 1965, she made The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders in England with British actor Richard Johnson.[32] Novak married Johnson in 1965 and divorced him in the spring of 1966. They remained good friends. By the end of 1966, she was burned out and no longer wanted to live the life of a Hollywood movie star, in the glare of the spotlight with the press criticizing her every move.[33] When the mudslide took her Bel Air home and cost her entire life’s savings in bulldozer fees, she moved away from Hollywood to discover herself anew.

From then on acting became a job and was no longer a career of choice. Novak preferred to concentrate on her first love, the visual arts, often writing poetry to accompany her paintings, and even writing some song lyrics. Harry Belafonte and the Kingston Trio recorded some of her folk songs in the 1960s.[11]

In 1968, she returned to the screen for The Legend of Lylah Clare (1968), starring Peter Finch and Ernest Borgnine, and directed by Robert Aldrich. She played a dual role, portraying a person who becomes possessed by a look-alike film actress who gets made over by her obsessive-compulsive director lover. Robert Aldrich asked Novak to do a German accent for that role, but she felt it was unbelievable and over the top, so she did not want to do it; however, he never insisted. At the premiere, Novak was totally shocked to hear her voice had been overdubbed by a German actress in many scenes. Aldrich had never told her, nor had he given her the opportunity to dub it herself. She was extremely upset.[16][34][35] The last film Novak made in the '60s was The Great Bank Robbery (1969), opposite Zero Mostel, Clint Walker, and Claude Akins.

Acting sporadically (1970–1991)

File:Kim Novak 01.jpg
Photo of Kim Novak.

After spending nearly four years she described as a "self-imposed vacation," Novak agreed to take part in two projects. She returned to the screen with a role in the horror anthology film Tales That Witness Madness (1973). Novak also starred as Las Vegas chorus girl Gloria Joyce, a character she could identify with, in the made-for-TV movie, The Third Girl From the Left (1973), with her real-life boyfriend at the time, Michael Brandon.[36] Novak admitted a preference for TV films as she thought they were faster to shoot than features. She described scripts of that time as offensive, saying she disliked the unnecessary sex she found in most of them. In 1975, Novak took part in the ABC movie Satan's Triangle because she liked the story which dealt in the supernatural.[37] Novak had a small role in The White Buffalo (1977), a western starring Charles Bronson. She ended the decade by playing Helga in Just a Gigolo (1979), opposite David Bowie.

In 1980, Novak played fictional actress Lola Brewster in the British mystery-thriller The Mirror Crack'd, based on the story by Agatha Christie. She co-starred alongside Angela Lansbury, Tony Curtis, Rock Hudson, and Elizabeth Taylor.
Novak did not appear in any feature films during the remainder of the 1980s. Her acting credits during the decade included the ensemble television movie Malibu[38] (1983) and the pilot episode of The New Alfred Hitchcock Presents (1985).

Producers of the successful primetime soap opera Falcon Crest offered Novak to play a role in the same line than Vertigo in their series.[39] She appeared as the secretive "Kit Marlowe" in 19 episodes from 1986 to 1987. It was Novak's idea to name her character Kit Marlowe, as it was the stage name that Columbia had wanted her to use when she started out in the business.[40] The former Marilyn Pauline Novak wryly described this turn of events as effectively being Cohn's revenge on her from beyond the grave.[citation needed]

File:Kim Novak 05.Jpg
Photo of Kim Novak.

Novak decided to re-establish contact with her agent and seek challenging roles. She returned to film with the leading role of Rose Sellers in The Children (1990) opposite Ben Kingsley. A British-German coproduction, the film only had a limited release.[41]

Director Mike Figgis offered Novak the role of a terminally ill writer with a mysterious past in his thriller Liebestraum (1991) opposite Kevin Anderson and Bill Pullman. Novak loved the script and thought it was going to be an important picture. However, she had a difficult experience with Figgis. She agreed to do the film under the impression she was going to play the whole character with the flashbacks scenes. Figgis felt Novak was unable to play the flashback role the way he wanted and hired actress Sarah Fearon for those scenes.[42] Novak and Figgis had conflicts on the set as their visions of the script differed, clashed, and were in many ways[which?] diametrically opposed. She felt the story was too personal for the director, as it was about his own life and Novak was playing his mother. She felt he considered her a puppet and, owing to battles with him over how to play her character, most of her scenes were cut. "He wanted what he thought Hitchcock had made over," she said. "But Hitchcock didn’t do that. [Figgis] didn’t know Hitchcock. So he treated me the way he thought Hitchcock must have, tried to manipulate me into doing exactly… I went crazy." Novak was hurt and distraught with the Liebestraum experience as it took her back to her Columbia: "It was such a painful thing for me because it took me right back to Harry Cohn and all that time. And back into saying, 'Look, for God’s sake, haven’t you heard it enough? We don’t want you to do anything. Just be “Kim Novak.”' That movie pained me more than any movie in the world could do." Novak later told Hollywood Life magazine in 2005. "I know he thinks I'm a total bitch. That role was fabulous, full of depth. When I interpreted it the way I thought was evident in the incredible script, he said, 'We're not making a Kim Novak movie, just say the lines. If you continue to play the role this way, I'm going to cut you out of the movie,' and he pretty much did that."[43] In the interview, Novak admitted she was "unprofessional" not to obey her director.

Novak was supposed to do a comedy with the French director Claude Berri and also starring Peter Falk. The film never got made and following the difficult experience with Liebestraum, she has usually cited the film as the reason for her decision to retire from the film industry.[44] In 2004, she told the Associated Press:
I got so burned out on that picture that I wanted to leave the business, but then if you wait long enough you think, "Oh, I miss certain things." The making of a movie is wonderful. What's difficult is afterward when you have to go around and try to sell it. The actual filming, when you have a good script—which isn't often—nothing beats it.[45]

The 2000s and beyond

After her retirement from acting, Novak has made only rare public appearances and turned down most offers she received.[46] In 1996, Vertigo was given a restoration by Robert A. Harris and James C. Katz and re-released to theaters. Novak loved their work so much she agreed to make appearances at screenings of the film, something she originally refused when Universal asked her in 1984.[16] She also took part in Obsessed with Vertigo, a documentary retracing the making and restoration of the film. In 1997, Novak received an Honorary Golden Bear Award for lifetime achievement at the 47th Berlin International Film Festival. [47]

File:Kim Novak 2004.JPG
Kim Novak in 2004

In 2003, Novak was presented with the Eastman Kodak Archives Award for her major contribution to film. (Prior honorees include Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, James Stewart, Martin Scorsese and Meryl Streep.) During that time, Novak received several offers to do some major films and to appear on high profile television shows. She made an appearance on Larry King Live in 2004 where she stated she would consider returning to the screen "if it was the right role." [48] In 2010, Novak was the recipient of a special tribute from the American Cinematheque in Hollywood, where her films were shown at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre. She made a rare personal appearance with a Q&A onstage between showing of Pal Joey and Bell, Book and Candle, earning a two-long minute standing ovation upon her entrance.[49]

In April 2012, Novak was honored at the TCM Classic Film Festival where she introduced a screening of Vertigo. She joined in conversation with Robert Osborne for a Q&A session in which she discussed her career and personal life. The hour-long interview aired on TCM as Kim Novak: Live from the TCM Classic Film Festival on March 6, 2013. Novak broke down in tears while discussing Liebestraum. As she nearly sobbed in front of the audience, Novak said, "I couldn't do a movie after that. I've never done a movie after that. I just couldn't do a movie after that."[15] The interview was an eye-opener for many fans who had wondered why Novak made so few films. Acknowledging that she never reached her potential as an actress, Novak revealed to the audience that she was bipolar and explained, "I was not diagnosed until much later. I go through more of the depression than the mania part."[50] "I don't think I was ever cut out to have a Hollywood life," Novak also commented. "Did I do the right thing, leaving? Did I walk out when I shouldn't have? That's when I get sad."[50] On the possibility of acting again, Novak said in another interview, with the fashion website LifeGoesStrong, "Who knows what the future holds? It would take an awful lot to lure me out there, but I would never say never."[51] Also during the TCM Festival, Novak was honored in a handprint and footprint ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre.[52] That same year, Novak received the San Francisco Cinematic Icon Award from the San Francisco Museum and Historical Society.[53]

In 2013, Novak was recognized as the guest of honor by the Cannes Film Festival. She attended the 2013 Festival where she introduced a new restored version of Vertigo. [54] She also took part in the festival’s closing ceremony where she presented the Grand Prix Award to Joel and Ethan Coen’s film Inside Llewyn Davis. Audiences gave Novak a standing ovation for every appearance she made during the festival.[55]

In 2014, she appeared as a presenter at the 86th Academy Awards. That same year, she introduced a screening of her 1958 movie, Bell, Book and Candle at the TCM Classic Film Festival. Also in 2014, Novak was invited by Cunard Line to be a speaker onboard during a New York-to-London cruise on RMS Queen Mary 2. She introduced screenings of Vertigo and Bell, Book and Candle, and did a Q&A session with Hollywood expert Sue Cameron, who is also her manager.[56]


In 1955 she won the Golden Globe Award for Most Promising Newcomer - Female. Two years later she won another Golden Globe for World Favorite Female Actress.

In 1995, Novak was ranked 92nd by Empire Magazine on a list of the 100 sexiest stars in film history.

In 1997, Novak won a Golden Bear at the 47th Berlin International Film Festival.[47]

In 2003 Novak was presented with the Eastman Kodak Archives Award for her major contribution to film. (Prior honorees include Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, James Stewart, Martin Scorsese and Meryl Streep.)

In 2005, British fashion designer Alexander McQueen named his first It Bag The Novak.[57]

In 2010, Novak was also the recipient of a special tribute from the American Cinematheque in Hollywood, where her films were shown at Grauman's Egyptian Theatre. She made a rare personal appearance with a Q&A onstage between showing of Bell, Book and Candle and Vertigo (both 1958).[58]

In April 2012, Novak was interviewed by Robert Osborne at the TCM Classic Film Festival, in which she discussed her career and personal life.[3][59]

Also in 2012, Novak was honored in a handprint and footprint ceremony at Grauman's Chinese Theatre.[60] And for her contribution to motion pictures, Novak was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, at 6332 Hollywood Boulevard.[61]

In 2013, Novak was the guest of honor at the 2013 Cannes Film Festival, where she introduced a new, restored version of Vertigo and personally received a standing ovation upon her entrance.[62]

Novak was a presenter at the 2014 Academy Awards.

The first public exhibition of Novak’s art, Life is But a Dream, was held at the Old Mint in the San Francisco Museum and Historical Society in 2012.[63]

In May 2014, Novak appeared with both of her art mentors, Harley Brown and Richard McKinley, for a solo show of her paintings at the Butler Institute of American Art.[64]

Personal life

Novak's first marriage was to English actor Richard Johnson, for thirteen months (March 15, 1965 – April 23, 1966). The two remained friends afterwards.[11] After her engagement to director Richard Quine, much was made of her relationships with Sammy Davis, Jr., and Ramfis Trujillo from the Dominican Republic.[10] She dated Prince Aly Khan as well as Frank Sinatra, Richard Beymer and actor Michael Brandon.[65] In a BBC Documentary it was disclosed that Columbia Studios chief, Harry Cohn, in order to end her relationship with a black man - had mobsters threaten Sammy Davis, Jr. with being blinded or having his legs broken if he didn't marry a black woman within 48 hours.[66]

File:Kim Novak 03.Jpg
A private photo of Kim Novak taken by her husband Robert Malloy

In the 1960s Novak left Hollywood for Big Sur, where she started to raise horses and concentrate on painting, not making more than the occasional film. In 1974, she met her present husband, veterinarian Robert Malloy, when he did a house call after one of her Arabian mares started suffering from colic.[6] They have been together ever since, and married on March 12, 1976. Through him, she now has two grown-up step children.[67]

In 1997 Novak bought a 43-acre ranch in Sams Valley, Oregon, which they made into their home.[1] There, Novak began to take classes in painting with pastels from artists Harley Brown and Richard McKinley.

In July 2000 their home on the ranch burned to the ground and she lost all her art and the only draft of the biography she had been working on for ten years.[1]

In 2006, Novak was injured in a horse riding accident. She suffered a punctured lung, broken ribs, and nerve damage but made a full recovery within a year.[68]

In October 2010, her manager, Sue Cameron, reported that Novak had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Cameron also noted that Novak is "undergoing treatment" and "her doctors say she is in fantastic physical shape and should recover very well." Upon completion of treatment, Novak was declared cancer-free.[69]

Novak continues her creative endeavors today as a photographer, poet and visual artist who paints in watercolor, oil and pastel. Her paintings are impressionistic and surrealistic.[70]


Year Title Role Notes
1954 The French Line Model Uncredited
1954 Pushover Lona McLane
1954 Phffft! Janis
1955 Son of Sinbad Harem Girl Uncredited
1955 5 Against the House Kay Greylek
1955 Picnic Marjorie "Madge" Owens
1955 The Man with the Golden Arm Molly
1956 The Eddy Duchin Story Marjorie Oelrichs
1957 Jeanne Eagels Jeanne Eagels
1957 Pal Joey Linda English
1958 Vertigo Judy Barton
1958 Bell, Book and Candle Gillian "Gil" Holroyd
1959 Middle of the Night Betty Preisser
1960 Strangers When We Meet Margaret "Maggie" Gault
1962 The Notorious Landlady Mrs. Carlyle "Carly" Hardwicke
1962 Boys' Night Out Cathy
1964 Of Human Bondage Mildred Rogers
1964 Kiss Me, Stupid Polly the Pistol
1965 The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders Moll Flanders
1968 The Legend of Lylah Clare Lylah Clare/Elsa Brinkmann/Elsa Campbell
1969 The Great Bank Robbery Sister Lyda Kebanov
1973 Tales That Witness Madness Auriol Segment 4" "Luau"
1973 The Third Girl From the Left Gloria Joyce Television film
1975 Satan's Triangle Eva Television film
1977 The White Buffalo Mrs. Poker Jenny Schermerhorn Alternative title: Hunt to Kill
1979 Just a Gigolo Helga von Kaiserling
1980 The Mirror Crack'd Lola Brewster
1983 Malibu Billie Farnsworth Television film
1990 The Children Rose Sellars
1991 Liebestraum Lillian Anderson Munnsen
Television series
Year Title Role Notes
1985 The New Alfred Hitchcock Presents Rosa Segment: "Man From The South"
1986-1987 Falcon Crest Kit Marlowe 19 episodes

Awards and nominations

Year Award Category Title of work Result
1957 BAFTA Awards Best Foreign Actress Picnic Nominated
1997 47th Berlin International Film Festival Honorary Golden Berlin Bear
1957 Golden Apple Award Most Cooperative Actress
1955 Golden Globe Award Most Promising Newcomer - Female
1957 Golden Globe Award World Film Favorite - Female
1958 Laurel Awards Top Female Star
Third place
1959 Laurel Awards Top Female Star
1960 Laurel Awards Top Female Star
1961 Laurel Awards Top Female Star
1962 Laurel Awards Top Female Star
1963 Laurel Awards Top Female Star
1956 Photoplay Awards Most Popular Female Star

See also


  1. ^ a b c d Mail Tribune, July 25, 2000: Kim Novak's home burns Relinked 2014-06-20
  2. ^
  3. ^ a b TV Guide, March 5, 2013: Reclusive Film Legend Kim Novak Opens Up About Life, Regrets and Her TCM Tribute Relinked 2014-06-20
  4. ^ SFGate, August 29, 2010: Kim Novak surfaces to retrace past in boxed set Relinked 2014-06-20
  5. ^ Stark Insider, March 18, 2012: Kim Novak’s artworks unveiled at the Old Mint, San Francisco Relinked 2014-06-20
  6. ^ a b Chicago Tribune, July 29, 2010: Kim Novak: The road from Chicago Relinked 2014-06-20
  7. ^ a b Larry Kleno (1980). Kim Novak ("On Camera" series). A.S. Barnes. p. 16. 
  8. ^ Kashner, Sam; Jennifer Macnair (2003). The bad & the beautiful: Hollywood in the fifties. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 200. Retrieved February 23, 2010. 
  9. ^ a b Stephen M. Silverman (October 21, 1996). "Animal Magnetism – Personal Success, Kim Novak". People Magazine. Retrieved February 23, 2011. 
  10. ^ a b c Rosenbaum, Jonathan (2010), "Kim Novak as Midwestern Independent", Goodbye Cinema, Hello Cinephilia, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 9780226726656 
  11. ^ a b c d e Cameron, Sue. "Kim Novak, Elusive Legend". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  12. ^ Ebert, Roger (17 October 1996). "Kim Novak on Hitchcock, Hollywood". RogerEbert.Com. Retrieved November 5, 2011. 
  13. ^ Turnquist, Kristi (31 July 2010). "Interview with actress Kim Novak, who lives in Oregon and is revisiting her cinematic past". The Oregonian. Retrieved November 5, 2011. 
  14. ^ Kim Novak: Live from the TCM Classic Film Festival
  15. ^ a b Stated in live interview with Robert Osborne; aired on Turner Classic Movies March 6, 2013.
  16. ^ a b c Shales, Tom (October 14, 1996). "Kim Novak: No Fear of Falling". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 27, 2014. 
  17. ^ a b "Obsessed with Vertigo" (1996), directed by Harrison Engle, documentary included on many DVD releases
  18. ^ Rebello, Stephen (April 17, 2004). "Interview with Kim Novak". Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  19. ^ Thomas, Bob (November 27, 1957). "Kim Novak Explains Her Sit-Down Strike". The Miami News. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  20. ^ "Vertigo is named 'greatest film of all time'". BBC News. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2012-08-18. 
  21. ^ "BFI's Sight & Sound Critics' poll 2012". BFI. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  22. ^ Crowther, Bosley (May 29, 1958). "Vertigo,' Hitchcock's Latest; Melodrama Arrives at the Capitol". The New York Times. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  23. ^ Variety Staff (1958). "Review: ‘Vertigo’". Variety. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  24. ^ David Thomson The New Biographical Dictionary of Film, London: Little, Brown, 2002, p.640
  25. ^ Scorsese, Martin (March 5, 1999). "Why Vertigo is truly great". The Guardian. Retrieved June 10, 2014. 
  26. ^ Boedeker, Hal (April 17, 2004). "Kim Novak: A talk with TCM's Star of the Month". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved September 4, 2013. 
  27. ^ Ben Mankiewicz, Turner Classic Movies, aired July 26, 2009.
  28. ^ Nixon, Rob. "Boys' Night Out (1962)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  29. ^ Ryfle, Steve (Mar 19, 2001). "NEWSMAKERS: 'Vertigo' Star's Home Burns". Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  30. ^ Graham, Sheila (October 12, 1963). "Hollywood Today". The Virgin Islands Daily News. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  31. ^ Wilson, Earl (October 23, 1964). "Ho, Hum, Kim Is In Love Again". Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  32. ^ "Most Popular Film Star." Times [London, England] 31 Dec. 1965: 13. The Times Digital Archive. Web. 16 Sept. 2013.
  33. ^ IMDb Bio
  34. ^ Miller, Frank. "The Legend of Lylah Clare (1968)". Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  35. ^ Rushfield, Richard (January 22, 2006). "The Lost Picture Show: Kim Novak’s Forgotten Shoot". Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Screenplay Lures Kim Novak". The Robesonian. October 14, 1973. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  37. ^ Thomas, Bob (January 9, 1975). "Kim Novak Spends Most Of Her Time Away From Hollywood". Lewiston Evening Journal. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  38. ^ Goodman, Walter (January 23, 1983). "TV: 'MALIBU,' FOUR HOURS, TWO PARTS". The New York Times. 
  39. ^ "Actress Kim Novak Ponders Her Future On TV's Falcon Crest". The Toledo Blade. June 16, 1987. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  40. ^ "Kim Novak name on 'Falcon Crest' has a trivia story". The Free Lance–Star. June 16, 1987. Retrieved February 28, 2014. 
  41. ^ Forsberg, Myra (August 19, 1990). "FILM; Once Again, Ready on the Set For Kim Novak". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  42. ^ Forsberg, Myra (August 19, 1990). "FILM; Once Again, Ready on the Set For Kim Novak". The New York Times. p. 2. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  43. ^ Smith, Liz (August 5, 2005). "Excite - Liz Smith". Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  44. ^ Kim Novak surfaces to retrace past in boxed set
  45. ^ Thomas, Bob (May 14, 2004). "Rustic Oregon life is a real picnic for Kim Novak". Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  46. ^ Stein, Ruthe (October 14, 2013). "Kim Novak returning to S.F. to share her art". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 1, 2014. 
  47. ^ a b "Berlinale: 1997 Prize Winners". Berlinale. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  48. ^ "Interview With Kim Novak". CNN. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2004. 
  49. ^ "Platinum Career: A Tribute to Kim Novak". 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  50. ^ a b "Kim Novak says she's bipolar, regrets leaving Hollywood". Los Angeles Times. April 13, 2012. 
  51. ^ Kim Novak: Her Tips on Aging, Lasting Beauty and Life Advice
  52. ^ "'Vertigo' Star Kim Novak to Be Honored at TCM Classic Film Festival". The Hollywood Reporter. March 6, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  53. ^ "Kim Novak tribute at Old Mint". Sfgate. July 9, 2012. Retrieved April 23, 2015. 
  54. ^ "Kim Novak, Guest of Honour at the 66th Festival de Cannes". Cannes. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  55. ^ "Todd McCarthy's Cannes Awards Analysis". The Hollywood Reporter. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 21 April 2015. 
  56. ^ "CUNARD TO WELCOME KIM NOVAK ABOARD QUEEN MARY 2 THIS JULY". Cruise Line. 26 May 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2014. 
  57. ^ "How The Times tracked Alexander McQueen's career". The Times (London). February 11, 2010. Retrieved May 7, 2010. 
  58. ^ "Platinum Career: A Tribute to Kim Novak". 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  59. ^ TCM, April 2012: Kim Novak: Live From The TCM Classic Film Festival Relinked 2014-06-20
  60. ^ "'Vertigo' Star Kim Novak to Be Honored at TCM Classic Film Festival". The Hollywood Reporter. March 6, 2012. Retrieved April 4, 2012. 
  61. ^ "Hollywood Star Project: Kim Novak". LA Times Hollywood Star Project. 2010. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Kim Novak, Guest of Honour at the 66th Festival de Cannes". Cannes. 22 April 2013. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  63. ^ Kim Novak’s artworks unveiled at the Old Mint, San Francisco
  64. ^ "Kim Novak: Pastel Paintings - Butler Institute of American Art". Youngstown Live. Retrieved May 1, 2014. 
  65. ^ According to his official website,
  66. ^ December 2014 BBC Documentary, Sammy Davis, Jr. "The Kid in the middle"
  67. ^ CNN, January 5, 2004: Larry King Live: Interview With Kim Novak (transcript) Relinked 2014-06-20
  68. ^ Army Archerd: "Novak talks of quitting" (July 24, 1967)
  69. ^ Johnston, Alex (October 19, 2010). "Kim Novak, Star of 1958's 'Vertigo,' Has Cancer". The Epoch Times. Retrieved October 19, 2010. 
  70. ^ Kim Novak's official artist website Linked March 21, 2014

Further reading

External links

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