Kofta (see section Name for other names) is an Albanian, Afghan, Azerbijanian, Armenian, Greek, Kurdish, Balkan, Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, Israeli, Iranian, Arab, and Turkish meatball or meatloaf. In the simplest form, koftas consist of balls of minced or ground meat—usually beef or lamb—mixed with spices and/or onions. In Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Turkey and Iran, koftas are usually made of lamb, beef, mutton or chicken, whereas Greek and Cypriot varieties are usually made of beef, veal, pork or mixtures of them.
They are often shaped into meatballs which are prepared with a mixture of ground meat, rice and leeks, and served dry. In India, vegetarian varieties, like lauki kofta and shahi aloo kofta, are popular, as religious beliefs generally forbid consumption of meat. In Iran,iraq and Azerbaijan, koftas are served with a spiced gravy, as dry versions are considered to be kebabs. Shrimp and fish koftas are found in South India and West Bengal, and in some parts of the Persian Gulf states.
The meat is often mixed with other ingredients such as rice, bulgur, vegetables, or eggs to form a smooth paste. They can be grilled, fried, steamed, poached, baked or marinated, and may be served with a rich spicy sauce. Koftas are sometimes made with fish or vegetables rather than red meat, especially in India; deep-fried kofta made from shrimp is known in Egypt. Variations occur in North Africa, the Mediterranean, Balkans, and India. According to a 2005 study done by a private food company, there were 291 different kinds of kofta in Turkey.  In Arab countries, kufta is usually shaped into cigar-shaped cylinders.
Early recipes (included in some of the earliest known Arabic cookbooks) generally concern seasoned lamb rolled into orange-sized balls, and glazed with egg yolk and sometimes saffron. This method was taken to the West and is referred to as gilding, or endoring. Many regional variations exist, notable among them the unusually large Azerbaijan (Iran) Tabriz kuftesi, having an average diameter of 20 cm, (8 in). and despite its association with Iran.
In Central Asia kofta is cooked with liberal amounts of tail fat. Koftas were introduced to India with the Muslim conquests. Koftas in Indian and Pakistani cuisine are normally cooked in a spiced gravy, or curry, and sometimes simmered with hard boiled eggs. Kofta dishes are very popular with immigrants from the Indian Subcontinent to the U.K., and are widely available from many and Indian restaurants. Vegetarian koftas are generally eaten by Hindus, with the exception of Kashmiri Hindus who by and large prefer meat koftas. The British dish Scotch egg may have been inspired by the Moghul dish nargisi kofta ("narcissus kofta"), where hard-boiled eggs are encased in a layer of spicy kofta meat. In Bengal, a region of eastern India, koftas are made with prawns, fish, green bananas, cabbage, as well as minced goat meat. In Kashmir, mutton is often used in the preparation of koftas, as opposed to beef or lamb.
In Lebanese cuisine, kafta is usually prepared by mixing the ground beef with onion, parsley, allspice, black pepper and salt.
In Moroccan cuisine, kufta may be prepared in a tagine.
In Albania they are usually made from beef, veal, pork or a mixture of them. They are usually served with Meze or Tarator. They are very popular all around Albania and there are many small shops called Qofteri which offer Qofte and also serve beer.
The word kofta comes from Greek sykopton (σύκοπτον), meaning "minced", from the verb kopto (κόπτω), meaning "to grind", hence grinding the meat of the meatball.
- Afghanistan: کوفته (kofta)
- Albania: qofte
- Arab countries: كفته (kufta in standard Arabic & most dialects; kafta)
- Armenia: քյուֆթա (kyuft’a)
- Azerbaijan: küftə
- Bangladesh: kofta
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: ćufta
- Bulgaria: кюфте (kyufte)
- Croatia: ćufta
- Georgia: კუტლეტი (often served with sour plum sauce)
- Greece: κεφτές (keftés)
- Israel: כופתא (kufta)
- India: कोफ़्ता (kofta)
- Iran: کوفته (kufteh)
- Kurdistan: کفته (kefta)
- Macedonia: ќофте (kjofte)
- Pakistan: كوفته (kofta)
- Romania: chiftea
- Serbia: ћуфтa (ćufta) or ћуфтe (ćufte)
- Slovenia: čufta
- Turkey: köfte
- Abdel Fattah, Iman Adel (5 December 2013). "Bites Fil Beit: Koftet el Gambari – Shrimp kofta". Daily News Egypt. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
- Inegol Koftesi
- Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. kofta
- Jill Tilsley-Benham, ""Sheep with Two Tails: Sheep's Tail-Fat as Cooking Medium in the Middle East", In: Oxford Symposium on Food & Cookery, 1986: The Cooking Medium, p. 48
- Hinkhoj.com: Meaning of "Nargisis" in Hindi Retrieved 2013-01-28
- Oxford Companion to Food, s.v. kofta and Scotch egg
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