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Kumyk language

Kumyk
къумукъ тил. Qymyk til
Native to Russia
Region Dagestan, Chechnya, North Ossetia
Ethnicity Kumyks
Native speakers
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Turkic
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
23x15px Dagestan (Russia)
Language codes
ISO 639-2 kum
ISO 639-3 kum
Glottolog kumy1244[2]

Kumyk (къумукъ тил,[3] qumuq til) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 365,000 speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation.

Irchi Kazak (Yırçı Qazaq; born 1839) is usually considered to be a founder of Kumyk literature. Kumyk was written using Arabic script until 1928, Latin script from 1928–1938, and Cyrillic script since then.

The first regular newspapers and magazines appeared in 1917–18. Currently, the newspaper Ёлдаш (Yoldash, Companion), the successor of the Soviet-era Ленин ёлу (Lenin yolu, Lenin's Path), prints around 5,000 copies 3 times a week.

It was composed sequentially of several Turkic dialects—those of the Oghur, Oghuz and Kypchak types—, which, in addition, have been interacting with Caucasian languages, namely Avar, Dargwa, Chechen, as well as with Ossetic.[3] The language has also been influenced by Russian during the last century.

Orthography

Latin based alphabet (1927–1937)

File:Kumyk alphabet 1935.JPG
Kumyk alphabet from newly introduced Latin school book (1935).
A a B b C c Ç ç D d E e F f G g
Ƣ ƣ H h I i J j K k L l M m N n
Ŋ ŋ O o Ɵ ɵ P p Q q R r S s Ş ş
T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z Ƶ ƶ
Ь ь

Cyrillic based alphabet (since 1937)

А а Б б В в Г г Гъ гъ Гь гь Д д Е е
Ё ё Ж ж З з И и Й й К к Къ къ Л л
М м Н н Нг нг О о Оь оь П п Р р С с
Т т У у Уь уь Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш
Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

Bibliography

  • Saodat Doniyorova and Toshtemirov Qahramonil. Parlons Koumyk. Paris: L'Harmattan, 2004. ISBN 2-7475-6447-9.

References

  1. ^ 2010 Russian Census
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Kumyk". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b L. S. Levitskaya, "Kumyk language", in Languages of the world. Turkic languages (1997). (in Russian)

External links

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