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Lancia Stratos

Lancia Strato's HF
File:Lancia Stratos HF 001.JPG
Lancia Stratos HF Stradale (road version)
Overview
Manufacturer Lancia
Production 1973–1978
ca. 492 produced
Assembly Italy: Turin
Designer Marcello Gandini at Bertone[1]
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Rally car
Layout Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout
Chassis Steel space-frame structure with integral roll-cage. Fiberglass body
Powertrain
Engine Script error: No such module "convert". Dino V6[2]
Power output Stradale: Script error: No such module "convert".[3]
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase Script error: No such module "convert".[4]
Length Script error: No such module "convert".[4]
Width Script error: No such module "convert".[4]
Height Script error: No such module "convert".[4]
Curb weight Stradale: Script error: No such module "convert".[4]
Group 4: Script error: No such module "convert".[5]
Chronology
Predecessor Lancia Fulvia HF
Successor Lancia Rally 037
File:Lancia Stratos HF 02.jpg
Lancia Stratos HF at the Lancia centenary celebrations in Turin in 2006
File:Lancia Stratos HF.jpg
Lancia Stratos HF Prototype

The Lancia Strato's HF [1] (Tipo 829), widely and more simply known as Lancia Stratos, is a sports car and rally car made by Italian car manufacturer Lancia. The HF stands for High Fidelity. It was a very successful rally car, winning the World Rally Championship in 1974, 1975 and 1976.

A Bertone-designed concept car called the Lancia Stratos Zero was shown to the public in 1970, but shares little but the name and mid-engined layout with the Stratos HF version. A new car called the New Stratos was announced in 2010 which was heavily influenced by the design of the original Stratos, but was based on a Ferrari chassis and engine.

History

Bertone had previously done no business with Lancia, who were traditionally linked with Pininfarina, and he wanted to come into conversation with them. Bertone knew that Lancia was looking for a replacement for the ageing Fulvia for use in rally sports and so he designed an eyecatcher to show to Lancia. Bertone used the running gear of the Fulvia Coupé of one of his personal friends and built a running showpiece around it. When Bertone himself appeared at the Lancia factory gates with the Stratos Zero he passed underneath the barrier and got great applause from the Lancia workers. After that a cooperation between Lancia and Bertone was decided to develop a new rally car based on ideas of Bertone’s designer Marcello Gandini who already had designed the Lamborghini Miura and Countach.

Lancia presented the Bertone-designed Lancia Stratos HF prototype at the 1971 Turin Motor Show, a year after the announcement of the Stratos Zero concept car. The prototype Stratos HF (Chassis 1240) was fluorescent red in colour and featured a distinctive crescent-shaped-wrap-around windshield providing maximum forward visibility with almost no rear visibility. The prototype had three different engines in its early development life: the Lancia Fulvia engine, the Lancia Beta engine and finally for the 1971 public announcement, the mid-mounted Dino Ferrari V6 producing Script error: No such module "convert".. The use of the Dino V6 was planned right from the beginning of the project, but Enzo Ferrari was reluctant to sign off the use of this engine in a car he saw as a competitor to his own Dino V6. After the production of the Dino car had ended the Commendatore agreed on delivering the engines for the Stratos and all of a sudden 500 engines were dumped on Lancia’s door.

The Stratos was a very successful rally car during the 1970s and early 1980s. It started a new era in rallying as it was the first car designed from scratch for this kind of competition.[6] The three leading men behind the entire rallying project were Lancia team manager Cesare Fiorio, British racer/engineer Mike Parkes and factory rally driver Sandro Munari with Bertone's Designer Marcello Gandini taking a very personal interest in designing and productionising the bodywork.

Lancia did extensive testing with the Stratos and raced the car in several racing events where Group 5 prototypes were allowed during the 1972 and 1973 seasons. Production of the 500 cars required for homologation in Group 4 commenced in 1973 and the Stratos was homologated for the 1974 World Rally Championship season.[5] The Ferrari Dino V6 engine was phased out in 1974, but 500 engines among the last built were delivered to Lancia.[7] Production ended in 1975 when it was thought that only 492 were made (for the 1976 season, the Group 4 production requirement was reduced to 400 in 24 months[8]). Manufacturer of the car was Bertone in Turin, with final assembly by Lancia at the Chivasso plant.[9] Powered by the Dino 2.4 L V6 engine that was also fitted to the rallying versions, but in a lower state of tune, it resulted in a power output of Script error: No such module "convert"., giving the road car a 0–100 km/h time of 6.8 seconds, and a top speed of Script error: No such module "convert"..[3] The car was sold as the Lancia Stratos HF Stradale.

File:Lancia Stratos Turbo.jpg
Lancia Stratos Turbo Group 5

The Stratos weighed between 900 to 950 kilograms, depending on configuration. Power output was around Script error: No such module "convert". for the original 12 valve version and Script error: No such module "convert". for the 24 valve version. Beginning with the 1976 season the 24 valve heads were banned from competition for being non-standard. Even with this perceived power deficit the Stratos was the car to beat in competition and when it did not suffer an accident or premature transmission failure (of the latter there were many) it had great chances to win. Despite of the fact that the Stratos was never intended to be race car, there were two Group 5 racing car built with Script error: No such module "convert"., using a single KKK turbocharger.


The car won the 1974, 1975 and 1976 championship titles in the hands of Sandro Munari and Björn Waldegård, and might have gone on to win more had not internal politics within the Fiat group placed rallying responsibility on the Fiat 131 Abarths. As well as victories on the 1975, 1976 and 1977 Monte Carlo Rally, all courtesy of Munari, the Stratos won the event with the private Chardonnet Team as late as 1979.[6]

Without support from Fiat, and despite new regulations that restricted engine power, the car would remain a serious competitor and proved able to beat works cars in several occasions when entered by an experienced private team with a talented driver. The last victory of the Stratos was in 1981, at the Tour de Corse Automobile, another World Rally Championship event, with a victory by longtime Stratos privateer Bernard Darniche.

When the Fiat group favoured the Fiat 131 for rallying Lancia also built two Group 5 turbocharged 'silhouette' Stratos for closed-track endurance racing. These cars failed against the Porsche 935s on closed tracks but proved successful in hybrid events. While they failed in the Tour de France Automobile, one of these cars won the 1976 Giro d'Italia Automobilistico, an Italian counterpart of the Tour de France Automobile. One of the cars was destroyed in Zeltweg, when it caught fire due to overheating problems.[10] The last surviving car would win the Giro d'Italia event again before it was shipped to Japan to compete in the Fuji Speedway based Formula Silhouette series, which was never raced. The car would then be sold and reside in the Matsuda Collection before then being sold to the renowned collector of Stratos', Christian Hrabalek, a car designer and the founder of Fenomenon Ltd, who has the largest Lancia Stratos Collection in the world, 11 unique Lancia Stratos cars, including the fluorescent red 1971 factory prototype and the 1977 Safari Rally car.[11] His interest in the car led to the development of the Fenomenon Stratos in 2005. The Stratos also gained limited success in 24 Hours of Le Mans, with a car, driven by Christine Dacremont and Lella Lombardi, finishing 20th in 1976.

File:AndyBentzaStratos1983.jpg
1983 Andy Bentza and his RX Lancia Stratos HF, the only 3.0 L Stratos

Another unique Group 5 car is the Lancia Stratos HF of Austrian Rallycross driver Andy Bentza. The car was first driven by his Memphis team mate Franz Wurz, father of Formula One pilot Alexander Wurz. In 1976 Wurz claimed the first ever European Rallycross title recognised by the FIA with the car, by then still featuring a 2.4 litre engine with 12 valve head. For the ERC series of 1977 Wurz was entrusted with an experimental 24 valve engine by Mike Parkes, equipped with a special crankshaft to bring the engine capacity up to just under 3000 cc. For 1978 Bentza took the Stratos over from Wurz, sold his own 2.4 L 12V Stratos to compatriot Reneé Vontsina, and won the GT Division title of the ERC. The one and only 3.0 litre Stratos was raced by Bentza till the end of 1983. After keeping the car for another 30 years the car has recently been sold to a new Austrian owner.

Concept cars

Stratos Zero

File:Museo Bertone - Lancia Stratos Zero.jpg
1970 Lancia Stratos Zero concept car

The Lancia Stratos 0 (or Zero) preceded the Lancia Stratos HF prototype by 12 months and was first shown to the public at the Turin Motor Show in 1970. The futuristic bodywork was designed by Marcello Gandini, head designer at Bertone, and featured a 1.6 L Lancia Fulvia V4 engine.[12] The Lancia Stratos HF Zero stayed for a long time in Bertone's museum, and in 2011 was sold out during an auction in Italy for €761.600[13] It was recently on display in the exhibit "Sculpture in Motion: Masterpieces of Italian Design" at the Petersen Automotive Museum in Los Angeles. It is currently on loan from the XJ Wang Collection at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta, GA at the Dream Cars exhibit unit September 2014.

The body was wedge-shaped, finished in distinctive orange and was an unusually short (Script error: No such module "convert".) length and only Script error: No such module "convert". tall, and shared little with the production version. The Zero appeared in Michael Jackson's 1988 film, Moonwalker.[14]

Lancia Sibilo

Main article: Lancia Sibilo

In 1978, Bertone created and designed a concept car based on the Stratos called the Sibilo.

File:Fenomenon Stratos.jpg
Fenomenon Stratos

Fenomenon Stratos (2005)

At the Geneva Auto Show of 2005, a British design firm known as Fenomenon, who had rights to the name,[15] exhibited a retromodern concept version of the Stratos, designed by Christian Hrabalec[16] and following its exhibition at the Frankfurt show, developed by Prodrive. The concept was based around a mid-mounted Script error: No such module "convert". V8.[17]

New Stratos (2010)

New Stratos
Overview
Manufacturer Pininfarina
Production 2010, 1 unit
Designer Pininfarina
Body and chassis
Class Sports cars
Layout Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Related Ferrari F430
Powertrain
Engine 4.3 L Ferrari F136 V8
Dimensions
Wheelbase Script error: No such module "convert".
Length Script error: No such module "convert".
Width Script error: No such module "convert".
Height Script error: No such module "convert".
Curb weight Script error: No such module "convert".

Following the stalled Fenomenon project, one interested backer funded a one-off model. Commissioned by Michael Stoschek (a keen rally driver and chairman of Brose Group) and his son, Maximilian, the New Stratos was announced in 2010 based on the overall design and concept of the original seventies Stratos and was designed and developed by Pininfarina.[18]

The car made use of a Ferrari F430 Scuderia as a donor car, using the chassis (shortened by Script error: No such module "convert". resulting in a wheelbase of Script error: No such module "convert".) and much of the mechanical elements including the 4.3 L V8 engine (4308 cm33), tuned up to Script error: No such module "convert". at 8200 rpm[19] and torque of Script error: No such module "convert". at 3750 rpm.

The New Stratos weighs Script error: No such module "convert". and is claimed to accelerate to 100 km/h in 3.3 seconds and on to a top speed close to Script error: No such module "convert"..[20] While shorter than its donor car, the New Stratos is a little larger than the original Stratos, with a length of Script error: No such module "convert"., Script error: No such module "convert". wide and Script error: No such module "convert". tall.

There were reports that given sufficient interest a small production run of up to 25 cars could be possible.[21] However, Ferrari did not consent to this plan. The company even forbade its suppliers to support the project.[22]

Replicas

Over the years the Lancia Stratos has inspired several companies to build replicas or kit cars. In the February 1989 edition, the British Car magazine tested a Stratos clone called HF2000 by a company called Transformer.[23][24]
Since 2007 Hawk Cars Ltd offer their HF2000/HF3000 series with a choice of Alfa Romeo, Lancia or Ferrari engines, including the original 2.4 litre V6 Dino engine. In a 2009 episode a Hawk HF3000 was featured on British car TV-show Top Gear.
Other companies are Lister Bell Automotive, whose Stratos replicas are called STR, and Napiersport Ltd. a.k.a. SuperStratos, who call their model the Corse.[25] Both are also offered with a choice of (Italian) V6 or V8 engines. Sales or production numbers of the replicas are not reported.

The Transformers Autobot Wheeljack (Generation 1) transformed from a robot into the 1976 Lancia Stratos Turbo Group 5 with Alitalia livery.

A Hawk HF3000 in 2008.
The Lister Bell STR at the Stoneleigh National Kit Car Show (2011).
A NapierSport Corse in rally trim (2010).

WRC Victories table

No. Event Season Driver Co-driver
1 23x15px 16º Rallye Sanremo 1974 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Mario Mannucci
2 23x15px 3rd Rally Rideau Lakes 1974 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Mario Mannucci
3 23x15px 18ème Tour de Corse 1974 23x15px Jean-Claude Andruet 23x15px Michèle Petit
4 23x15px 43ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1975 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Mario Mannucci
5 23x15px 25th International Swedish Rally 1975 23x15px Björn Waldegård 23x15px Hans Thorszelius
6 23x15px 17º Rallye Sanremo 1975 23x15px Björn Waldegård 23x15px Hans Thorszelius
7 23x15px 19ème Tour de Corse 1975 23x15px Bernard Darniche 23x15px Alain Mahé
8 23x15px 44ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1976 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Silvio Maiga
9 23x15px 9º Rallye de Portugal Vinho do Porto 1976 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Silvio Maiga
10 23x15px 18º Rallye Sanremo 1976 23x15px Björn Waldegård 23x15px Hans Thorszelius
11 23x15px 20ème Tour de Corse 1976 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Silvio Maiga
12 23x15px 45ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1977 23x15px Sandro Munari 23x15px Silvio Maiga
13 23x15px 20º Rallye Sanremo 1978 23x15px Markku Alén 23x15px Ilkka Kivimäki
14 23x15px 26º RACE Rallye de España 1978 23x15px Tony Carello 23x15px
15 23x15px 47ème Rallye Automobile de Monte-Carlo 1979 23x15px Bernard Darniche 23x15px Alain Mahé
16 23x15px 21º Rallye Sanremo 1979 23x15px Antonio "Tony" Fassina 23x15px Mauro Mannini
17 23x15px 23ème Tour de Corse 1979 23x15px Bernard Darniche 23x15px Alain Mahé
18 23x15px 25ème Tour de Corse 1981 23x15px Bernard Darniche 23x15px Alain Mahé

External links

References

  1. ^ "Designer". ajovalo.net. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  2. ^ Derrick, Martin; Clay, Simon (2013). Million Dollar Classics: The World's Most Expensive Cars. Chartwell Books. ISBN 978 0 7858 3051 1. 
  3. ^ a b Lancia Stratos HF Group 4 and Stradale Specification
  4. ^ a b c d e "Technical specifications of 1974 Lancia Stratos". carfolio.com. Retrieved 14 February 2008. 
  5. ^ a b "Lancia/Models/Lancia Stratos". carsfromitaly.net. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2007. 
  6. ^ a b "1975 Lancia Stratos". sportscarmarket.com. Retrieved 24 June 2007. [dead link]
  7. ^ Thorson, Thor (February 2013). "1974 Lancia Stratos Groupe 4". Sports Car Market 25 (2): 54–55. 
  8. ^ "Appendix "J" to the International Sporting Code 1976" (PDF). FIA. 1976. Art. 251, 252. Retrieved 15 December 2014. 
  9. ^ Evo 153, February 2011
  10. ^ "6 h Zeltweg results". wsrp.ic.cz. Retrieved 24 June 2007. [dead link]
  11. ^ "Beyond the Stratos-phere". topgear.com. Retrieved 24 June 2007. [dead link]
  12. ^ "Bertone official website - historical collection". bertone.it. Retrieved 29 November 2011. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Lot 113 - 1970 Lancia Stratos HF Zero". rmauctions.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  14. ^ "The Producers gratefully acknowledge the cooperation of Carrozzeria Bertone S.P.A. of Torino, Italy for the use of the beautiful STRATOS 0 used in this film.". From credits of DVD 'Moonwalker' published in 2005, Warner Brothers.
  15. ^ Hull, Nick (1 March 2005). "First Sight - Fenomenon Stratos". cardesignnews.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  16. ^ "Automobile.com". automobile.com. Retrieved 22 February 2011. [dead link]
  17. ^ "Prodrive takes on Stratos". evo.co.uk. 5 October 2005. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  18. ^ Bremner, Richard (26 August 2010). "New Lancia Stratos - latest pics". autocar.co.uk. Retrieved 28 May 2011. 
  19. ^ Barker, John (29 November 2010). "New Lancia Stratos supercar review". evo.co.uk. Retrieved 22 February 2011. 
  20. ^ Barlow, Jason (30 November 2010). "Exclusive first drive in new Stratos supercar". topgear.com. Retrieved 29 May 2011. 
  21. ^ Madden, Luke (16 August 2010). "Lancia Stratos officially revealed". Auto Express. Retrieved 19 May 2011. 
  22. ^ Spinks, Jez (14 July 2011). "Ferrari blocks iconic sports car". drive.com.au. Retrieved 15 July 2011. 
  23. ^ Brightwell CR6 Stinger Countach - Transformer HF2000 Stratos & GP Spyder Kit Car Group Road Test 1989 (4; archived)
  24. ^ Brightwell CR6 Stinger Countach - Transformer HF2000 Stratos & GP Spyder Kit Car Group Road Test 1989 (5; archived)
  25. ^ Lancia Stratos replica by Napiersport Ltd. - Replicars