Princess Caroline of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg (18 August 1714 – 14 June 1741) was the consort of Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon.
Born at Rotenburg an der Fulda in Hesse, Germany, she was the daughter of Ernest Leopold, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg, head of the Roman Catholic branch of the House of Hesse, by his wife Countess Eleonore of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort. She was one of 10 children.
On 24 July 1728 she married Louis Henri, Duke of Bourbon at Sarry in France. Louis Henri was a French prince of the Blood Royal and head of the House of Condé, a branch of the House of Bourbon. Maternally, he was a grandson of Louis XIV of France through his mother, one of the king's legitimated daughters. By the time of his second marriage to Caroline, Louis Henri had lost the sight of one eye and the attractive slenderness his height bestowed upon him in youth. After marriage she was known at the French court as Madame la Duchesse.
The previous Princess of Condé had been Marie Anne de Bourbon and had died eight years before the marriage between Caroline and Louis Henri. Caroline was alleged to have been pretty and to have been included on a list of possible wives for Louis XV of France, but had been removed on account of her bad temper. When her husband was banished to his estates in 1725, Madame la Duchesse was obliged to withdraw with him to the Château de Chantilly until Monsieur le Duc was pardoned and the couple were allowed to resume attendance at the royal court again in 1730, where they lived quietly at the Hôtel de Condé. The couple had one child eight years into their marriage:
Her husband died at the Château de Chantilly on 27 January 1740, in the same year the future Marquis de Sade was born at the Hôtel de Condé; his mother was Caroline's lady in waiting. Caroline died in Paris in June 1741 and was buried at the Carmel du faubourg Saint-Jacques in Paris.
In 1767 her niece, Princess Maria Luisa of Savoy, would come to France to marry the young Louis Alexandre de Bourbon. She would become the great friend of Marie Antoinette as the princesse de Lamballe and be murdered by a revolutionary mob in Paris during the September Massacres of 1792.
In 1745 another of her nieces, Princess Viktoria of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg, would marry Charles, Prince of Soubise, head of the junior branch of the House of Rohan and father of Charlotte de Rohan, who would also marry a Prince of Condé.
| Ancestors of Landgravine Caroline of Hesse-Rotenburg
|16. Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel|
|8. Ernest, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg|
|17. Countess Juliana of Nassau-Dillenburg|
|4. William, Landgrave of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg|
|18. Philipp Reinhard I, Count of Solms-Hohensolms|
|9. Marie Eleonore of Solms-Hohensolms|
|19. Countess Elisabeth of Wied|
|2. Ernest Leopold, Landgrave of Hesse-Rotenburg|
|20. Johann Dietrich, Count of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort|
|10. Ferdinand Karl, Count of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort|
|21. Josina de La Mark|
|5. Maria Anna of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort|
|22. Egon, Count of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg|
|11. Countess Anna Maria of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg|
|23. Princess Anna Maria of Hohenzollern-Hechingen|
|1. Caroline of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg|
|24. Johann Dietrich, Count of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (=20)|
|12. Ferdinand Karl, Count of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (=10)|
|25. Josina de La Mark (=21)|
|6. Maximilian Karl, Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort|
|26. Egon, Count of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg (=22)|
|13. Countess Anna Maria of Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg (=11)|
|27. Princess Anna Maria of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (=23)|
|3. Countess Eleonore of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort|
|28. Jakob Khuen von Belasi, Count zu Lichtenberg|
|14. Mathias Khuen von Belasi, Count zu Lichtenberg und Gandegg|
|29. Siguna Margaretha von Annenberg|
|7. Countess Polyxena Khuen von Belasi zu Lichtenberg|
|30. Ferdinand Balthasar, Count of Meggau|
|15. Countess Anna Susanna von Meggau zu Kreutzen|
|31. Countess Esther von Sulz|
Titles, styles, honours and arms
Titles and styles
- 18 August 1714 - 24 July 1728 Princess Caroline of Hesse-Rheinfels-Rotenburg
- 24 July 1728 - 27 January 1740 Her Serene Highness the Princess of Condé
- 27 January 1740 - 14 June 1741 Her Serene Highness the Dowager Princess of Condé
- Huberty, Michel; Giraud, F. Alain; Magdelaine, F. & B (1976), L'Allemagne Dynastique (Tome I Hesse-Reuss-Saxe), Le Perreux: A. Giraud, ISBN 2-901138-01-2
- Mouffle d'Angerville, The Private Life of Louis XV. "Annotated and amplified by quotations from original and unpublished documents by Albert Mirac." Translated from the French by H.S. Mingard. 1924, New York; Boni and Liveright. D'Angerville's original title: Vie privée de Louis XV, ou principaux évènements, particularités et anecdotes de son règne. 4 vols. crown 8vo., published in London in 1781. Meyrac says he "extracted these piquant pages" from the original.
- Landgravine Eleonore
- Maria Eleonore, Countess Palatine of Sulzbach
- Elisabeth, Princess of Nassau-Hadamar
- Landgravine Sophie
- Landgravine Maria Amelie Wilhelmine
- Joaneta, Abbess of Essen
- Ernestina, Countess of La Cerda de Villa Longa
- Clotilde, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg
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