1976 (as militia)|
1990 (as party)
|Headquarters||Maarab, Keserwan District, Lebanon|
|National affiliation||March 14 Alliance|
|International affiliation||International Democrat Union|
|Colours||Red, white, green|
|Parliament of Lebanon|
|Cabinet of Lebanon|
Politics of Lebanon|
|December 22, 1980||The Battle of Zahleh (Arabic: معركة زحلة) took place during the Lebanese Civil War, between December 1980 and June 1981. During the seven-month period, the city of Zahle (Arabic: زحلة) endured a handful of political and military setbacks. The opposing key players were on the one side, the LF (Lebanese Forces) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية) aided by Zahlawi townspeople, and on the other side, the Syrian Army Forces also known as ADF Arab Deterrent Force (Arabic: قوات الردع العربية), aided by some PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) factions|
|September 3, 1983||The Mountain War (Arabic: حرب الجبل| Harb al-Jabal) or War of the Mountain, also known as 'Guerre de la Montagne' in French, was a subconflict between the 1982–83 phase of the Lebanese Civil War and the 1984–89 phase of the Lebanese Civil War, which occurred at the mountainous Chouf District located south-east of the Lebanese Capital Beirut.|
|January 1986||Geagea-Hobeika Conflict The Geagea–Hobeika Conflict took place in January 1986 when relations between the two dominant figures of the Lebanese Forces (LF) broke down. Elie Hobeika was president of the Lebanese Forces, and Samir Geagea was chief of staff. The conflict resulted in 800 to 1000 casualties.|
|13 October 1990||The October 13 Massacre took place on 13 October 1990, during the final period of the Lebanese Civil War, when hundreds of Lebanese soldiers were executed after they surrendered to Syrian forces.|
Lebanese Forces Party (1990-present)
The Second Republic (1990–2005)
After Aoun surrendered on 13 October 1990 to the rival Syrian-backed President Hrawi, Geagea was offered ministerial posts in the new government. He refused several times, because he was opposed to Syrian interference in Lebanese affairs, and his relationship with the new government deteriorated. On March 23, 1994, the Lebanese government headed by Rafic Hariri ordered the dissolution of the LF. On April 21, 1994, Geagea was arrested on charges of setting a bomb in the church in Zouk, of instigating acts of violence, and of committing assassinations during the Lebanese Civil War. Although he was acquitted of the first charge, Geagea was subsequently arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment on several different counts, including the assassination of former Prime Minister Rashid Karami in 1987. He was incarcerated in solitary confinement, with his access to the outside world severely restricted. Amnesty International criticized the conduct of the trials and demanded Geagea's release, and Geagea's supporters argued that the Syrian-controlled Lebanese government had used the alleged crimes as a pretext for jailing Geagea and banning an anti-Syrian party. Many members of the Lebanese Forces were arrested and brutally tortured in the period of 1993–1994. At least one died in Syrian custody and many others were severely injured.
In 1998, a group of ex-military persons in the LF, was alleged to have conducted military operation against the Syrian military intelligence in Lebanon. The group was mainly formed of elites LF called SADEM, In June 19, 1998, a failed operation revealed the identity of some persons of this group, one of which was a Lebanese Army Captain, Camille Yared. Some other names published in the newspapers then were:
1- Nehme Ziede (SADEM unit, deceased on 19 June 1998)
2- Georges Dib (SADEM unit, deceased on 19 June 1998)
3- Fadi Chahoud (SADEM unit, deceased on August 2000)
4- Naamtallah Moussallem (SADEM unit, managed to escape Lebanon, condemned to death, allegedly one of the resistance network organizers )
5- Abdo Sawaya (SADEM unit, managed to escape Lebanon, condemned to death, allegedly one of the resistance network organizers )
After the Cedar Revolution
The LF was an active participant in the Cedar Revolution of 2005, when popular protests and international pressure following the assassination of former Prime Minister Rafik al-Hariri combined to force Syria out of Lebanon. In the subsequent parliamentary election held in May and June, the Lebanese Forces formed part of the Rafik Hariri Martyr List, which also included the Future Movement, Popular Socialist Party, the reformed Phalange party, and other anti-Syrian political groups, as well as a brief tactical alliance with Amal and Hezbollah. The tactical alliance with Hizbollah and Amal would soon end; these majority parties and movements would subsequently form the anti-Syrian March 14 Alliance, which stood opposed to the March 8 Coalition backed by Hizbullah, Amal and the Free Patriotic Movement led by General Michel Aoun who had returned to Lebanon. The Lebanese Forces were able to win 6 out of the 8 MPs that were nominated throughout the various regions of the country. Nevertheless, the elections proved to be very significant because for the first time, supporters of the party were freely able to participate in the election process.
Following the party's new political gains, Samir Geagea was freed on 18 July 2005, after parliament decided to amend all the charges he formerly faced. Since Geagea's release from prison, the Lebanese Forces have been rebuilding much of their former image. Some of these works include reorganizing its members and their families, reopening political facilities, and reestablishing their main presence among the Christians of Lebanon. In addition to rebuilding their image, the Lebanese Forces have also been attempting to reclaim former privately funded facilities, which were seized by the Syrian backed government. Currently, the Lebanese Forces have also been striving to reclaim their rights to the Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation, which was initiated by the party in the mid-1980s. After filing suit against LBC Group General Manager Pierre Daher in 2007, the Lebanese Forces won the case and were granted control of the corporation in late 2010.
Since the emancipation of the party's main leader, Samir Geagea, the party has gained new popularity among the Christian population throughout all of Lebanon. In addition, the Lebanese Forces have also been able to attain a great deal of popularity amongst the younger generation, as evidenced by the annual student elections in Lebanese colleges. The Lebanese Forces, along with their other March 14 allies, made additional gains in the elections geared towards the professional bodies of engineers, doctors, lawyers, and even teachers.
Present political representation
The Lebanese Forces held 8 out of the 128 seats of the Lebanese Parliament after the general elections of 2009, and were represented in the Siniora government, formed in July 2005, by the minister of tourism Joseph Sarkis, and then in the second Siniora government, formed in July 2008, by the minister of justice Ibrahim Najjar and the minister of environment Antoine Karam. They are a Christian party within the March 14 Bloc, an anti-Syrian movement.
The Lebanese Forces and its main political representatives strive to re-establish the many Christian rights, which were significantly lessened during Syria's occupation of Lebanon, specifically from 1990 to 2005. Some of the Lebanese Force's other main objectives include formulating a just electoral law, which would enable the Christian population to be represented fairly in local and parliamentary elections. The party has also stressed the idea of reaffirming the powers formerly endowed to the Lebanese president before being lessened in the Taef Agreement.
Equipement and units as militia
|This section may need to be rewritten entirely to comply with Wikipedia's quality standards. (March 2015)|
Many are those who thinks that the navy's artillery in the Lebanese Forces is nothing but fishing boats with machine guns or torpedoes boats from the World War II they got as a gift from here and there. Many are those who ignore the fact that the navy in the Lebanese Forces is the most powerful in Lebanon protecting the Lebanese seafront.
heading to Lebanon are terrified by our boats, and few are the ships that dare to enter illegal shipments. And a few are those who knows that in the navy's possession radars that scan the beach 24/7 specially to face any northern <<sisterly>> potential hole coming from the sea. For all of that this amphibian investigation : 9:300 AM "Al-Massira" visiting the navy's barrack. Absolute silence except for the Dvora torpedoes boats' roaring, and the shy waves that dared to sneak into the barrack's basin. The reception began with a briefing explaining the necessity of a daily maintenance of the boats, after the daily work out. While waiting the arrival of the commander in chief, our curiosity pushed us into and exploration tour on board on one of these boats.
The boats quality, considered the fastest of their size, are not what some might think of the World war II leftovers, and they aren't confiscated boats or some armed fishing or rubber boats, cause the navy is something else, for that matter the visit was necessary. The Lebanese Forces purchased the navy's boats and the staff became trained in order to handle larger boats, and the training includes the marine's navigation in regional and international waters and the maritime law.
Their language and expressions are scientific, and mostly foreign. The ship is the home of the sailors they take care of it, paint it from time to time in order to keep it clean and conserve its weapons. What came into our attention, the difficulty do discriminate between the captain and the staff or between a leader and a sailor. Everyone's equal except on the ship where the captain is the <<absolute master>>. No mistakes are allowed at sea as far as the commander, comrade Afif Khoury, is concerned. For the infantry it is possible to retreat or take cover but for the sailor the boat is the only way for victory or death two principles well known by the marine, followed by an absolute obedience for the captain on board.
The bell rings once and the privates rush to their position to face danger, it is a way of communication, every alarm has a specific meaning. The quickness in dealing with the situation does not give them much time to contact the headquarters and ask for orders. Every target in the sea is an enemy until proven otherwise. No delays in abolishing the target for they have a blind self-confidence, especially when they confirm that they are the strongest artillery in Lebanon, considering the training, the experience and equipments.
Their most powerful enemy is their first and last friend: The sea. Nature, inspiration and beauty for a lot of people, becomes a real enemy that be dealt with, or else it swallows them. All the staff are well informed with all it mechanism, the training of the marines includes all the equipments and in case of emergency any private can replace any position knowing that every equipment has its own specialist.
10:00 AM maintenance completed and the commander in chief finished its routine and now ready to receive Al-Massira. The commander's glass room is like a permanent waiting room for any emergency military library is the only decoration in his office where you could find in addition to military books, a religious section, the Christian history... - The age of the navy is the same as the age of the resistance, it started with humble fishing boats but soon the need to develop and build it on military organized foundations emerged, in the war of the <<100 days>> in 1978, the Navy was the only contact between surrounded Achrafieh and the rest of the regions. The first boat the Lebanese Forces got was called "Al-Amal" which caused arguments, so later on, was called "L'espoir" (hope in French) and helped moving combatants and ammo and equipments in those dark days. In 1979, the navy got its second boat, made in Britain, named Tracker. The navy kept operating with two boats and some small and rubber boats until 1981 when the Lebanese Forces purchased a number of "Dvora" boats, representing the spine of the navy. And they bought small and rubber boats, and today we are waiting for a new reinforcement and renewal of the weaponry.
The Lebanese Forces’ early armoured corps in 1977 inherited a motley collection of captured light tanks, tank destroyers, APCs, and some models of locally tailored armoured cars from the old Kataeb Regulatory Forces or handed over by the other, recently incorporated Christian factions. Thanks to the steady influx of Israeli aid, it grew from a small battalion to a powerful armoured corps by June 1982, capable of aligning some forty M50 Super Sherman medium tanks, twenty-two Ti-67 TIRAN (Israeli-modified T-54s) MBTs, M3/M9 Zahlam half-tracks, M113 and BTR-152 APCs. Following the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) withdrawal from west Beirut in October 1982, the LF salvaged one UR-416 armoured car left behind by the departing PLO forces, which was later captured by the Popular Nasserite Organization (PNO) militia during the battle for the Sidon bridgehead in 1985. The collapse of the Lebanese Army again in February 1984 allowed the LF to make up for their own losses incurred in the 1983-84 Mountain War by seizing seven M48A5 MBTs, five AMX-13 light tanks, and twelve Panhard AML-90 armoured cars. Later in the war, sixty-four T-55 and T-62 tanks, along with eighteen BTR-60PB (8x8) APCs were received from Iraq via Jordan. The LF also fielded three Soviet-built ZSU-23-4 ‘Shilka’ Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Guns (SPAAG) captured from the PLO in West Beirut early in 1982, which they employed in their battles for control of east Beirut at the last phase of the war in 1988-90.
The Lebanese Forces Weapons
When the civil war started, the Lebanese Forces received large amounts of weapons from Israel and purchased more from eastern Europe. Near the end of the war, the Lebanese Forces shifted from eastern European to western (NATO) weapons. In addition to all this, a very large amount of weapons was received from Iraq in 1988. Other equipment was "obtained" from the Lebanese army or bought on the black market.
Most militia-members had Israeli uniforms. Distinctive uniforms were used for special and elite units.
Transport and liaison vehicles
Besides tracked and wheeled AFVs, the LF also relied on a wide range of softskin, all-terrain military and ‘militarized’ civilian 'technicals' for both troop and supply transport. Like many other Lebanese militias, the LF continued to field a sizable force of gun-trucks fitted with Heavy Machine-guns, recoilless rifles, Anti-Aircraft autocannons, anti-tank rockets and light MBRLs. The light vehicles employed in this role included Soviet UAZ-469, US M151A1C ‘Mutt’, US M38A1 MD and South Korean KIA KM-41 jeeps, to Land Rover Series II-III, Toyota Land Cruiser (J40), Dodge Power Wagon W200 pick-ups, Israeli-produced AIL M325 Command Cars (‘Nun-Nun’) and Mercedes-Benz Unimog 416 light trucks. For logistical operations, heavier transportation trucks were used, mostly commandeered civilian Isuzu H-Series, GMC Topkick and Chevrolet Kodiak Heavy Duty Trucks, along with US M35 2½-ton (6x6) military trucks.
The LF also fielded an impressive artillery corps. Starting with some British 25 pounders seized from the Government Forces, they received French BF-50 (M-50) 155mm Howitzers from the Israelis, along with Soviet ZiS-3 76.2mm anti-tank guns and M-30 122mm (M-1938) Howitzers provided by Syria, followed in the 1980s by Type 59 130mm (a Chinese-made gun derivered from the Soviet M-46), BS-3 100mm (M-1944), D-30 122mm and D-20 152mm Howitzers of Soviet origin supplied by Israel, Jordan and Iraq. A number of FH-70 155mm Howitzers were also seized from the Lebanese Army in February 1984. The two latter Countries also provided to the LF substantial quantities of Multi-Barrel Rocket Launchers (MBRLs), notably the BM-21 “Grad” 122mm, and BM-24 240mm systems mounted on Russian Zil-151/157 and Ural-375D (6x6) military trucks; such MBRLs could also be found installed on the back of Mercedes-Benz Unimog 416 (4x4) light trucks. The LF also employed Chinese versions (Types 63 and 81) of the towed BM-12 107mm and BM-14 140mm MBRLs captured from the PLO in 1982 (with some being re-installed on the rear tray of Israeli-made ‘Nun-Nun’ Command cars) as well as the Iraqi-supplied Romanian APR-40/Yugoslav RO-40 128mm system mounted on DAC-665T (6x6) trucks. Man-portable, shoulder-launched Soviet SA-7 ‘Grail’ AA missiles were equally employed by the LF, possibly obtained from Iraq. These same countries also gave the LF limited quantities of heavy mortars, such as the Israeli-made Soltam M-65 120mm and M-66 160mm heavy mortars mounted on ex-IDF half-tracks, and even received from Iraq in 1988 three Soviet 2S4 240mm towed breech-loading heavy mortars.
Lebanese forces,The units badges
Each unit had a different badge and each one had a logo or a slogan and sometimes both, most of the badges had animals as a symbol, the reason is pretty much obvious for example (eagle = sky = planes).
the idea of having animals as a symbol was discovered by the first human beings back when they idolized animals and nature, the idea itself was developed and today most of the world's armies has those badges for example the U.S army chose cartoon characters for their badges since they are far away from the wars and battlefields, below you will find pictures of badges that the Lebanese Forces soldiers used to have on their uniform.
Apart from its ground forces, the LF maintained a naval branch employed as a shock force for military operations equipped with over a dozen sea crafts of various types. The inventory comprized two British-made Fairey Marine Tracker MkII Class patrol boats previously seized from the Lebanese Navy in January 1980, five Israeli-made Dabur-1 Class patrol boats acquired via the Mossad that same year and eight French-made Zodiac rubber inflatable boats, plus an unspecified number of converted civilian fishing crafts armed with Heavy machine-guns and RPG-7s.
LF Marines - an Israeli trained naval infantry unit trained in seaborne infiltration, naval infantry operations, and reconnaissance. The Marines also operated over a dozen small watercraft. Wore light blue berets
Force Sadem - a company sized commando unit known for their ruthlessness and ability. Wore a red beret.
101st Parachute Company - a parachute trained assault infantry unit.
al-Maghaweer or Commandos - several units of assault infantry existed.
Lebanese Forces ideology
- Lebanese nationalism: Ensuring a sovereign, free, and secure Lebanon for all its citizens equally and Halting support to any ideology or movement that works directly or indirectly to joining Lebanon to another country
- Christian democracy is political ideology based on Christian humanism and Catholic social teachings. While generally socially conservative, Christian democrats inch toward an economic model of social markets or social democracy
- Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government. Generally, an overarching national government governs issues that affect the entire country, and smaller subdivisions govern issues of local concern. Both the national government and the smaller political subdivisions have the power to make laws and both have a certain level of autonomy from each other. The United States has a federal system of governance consisting of the national or federal government, and the government of the individual states
The Lebanese Forces peaked in its organization and modernization. After the signing of the "TAEF Accord" on October 24, 1989 with international and regional blessings, it transformed its military resistance into a political resistance. Hence, the "Lebanese Forces Party", with its 30,000 members not counting their families, was formed on September 10, 1992 based on three undisputed principles:
1- Safeguarding Lebanon’s independence, sovereignty and distinct identity within its internationally recognized borders.
2- Founding the Lebanese Government on the basic principles of human rights.
3- Establishing a democratic system whereas freedom and Human Rights of every citizen are protected and guaranteed.
-The Cedar It represents eternity. It also represents the past with its roots, the present with its branches and the future with its top. struggle is represented by the Cedar.
-Red Circle The circle means perfectionism and sacrifice.
Lebanese Forces Cross Inspired from the eastern crosses and symbolizes 3 things:
1- The Cross of the savior Jesus Christ In red, the sign of martyrdom and glory.
2- The bearing cross of the Lebanese Christians The sign of their suffering throughout history.
3- The Diagonal cut at the base of the cross It symbolizes the strength of the Lebanese Christians’ will and their determination to keep the cross planted in this region of the world.
Date of its release: This cross was launched by the Department of Faith in the Lebanese Forces. It was launched on "Resistant Prayer day" at the St-Charbel Church, Annaya, Lebanon on April 19, 1984.
Lebanese Forces Delta
There are many different meanings for the Delta and here are some that we managed to find: 1] The delta (triangle) of resistance refers to the 3 areas; Ain el Roumeneh, Furn el Chebek and Ta7weeta. Because the war started in these 3 areas and all the Christian militias had soldiers located there, the three areas formed a triangle of resistance. Since all these Christian militias became Lebanese Forces, the delta (triangle) became there logo. 2] The delta represents the cedars, while the circle represents the circle of resistance 3] The delta means "in the name of the father, son and holy spirit"
- Georges Adwan – Elected in 2005, re-elected in 2009.
- Elie Kayrouz – Elected in 2005, re-elected in 2009.
- Antoine Zahra – Elected in 2005, re-elected in 2009.
- Fady Karam – Elected in 2012, (won the by-elections in Koura after the death of MP Farid Habib)
- Sethrida Geagea (wife of Samir Geagea) – Elected in 2005, re-elected in 2009.
- Toni Abi Khater – Elected in 2009.
- Joseph Maalouf – Elected in 2009.
- Chant Jinjenian – Elected in 2009.
- Political parties in Lebanon
- Samir Geagea
- Bashir Gemayel
- Lebanese Civil War
- Lebanese Forces – Executive Command
- Lebanese Front
- Lebanese National Movement
- Lebanese Youth Movement
- Cedar Revolution
- Kataeb Party
- Kataeb Regulatory Forces
- Tyous Team of Commandos
- Ehden massacre
- Sabra and Shatila Massacre
- Guardians of the Cedars
- Marada Brigade
- Mountain War
- Young Men (Lebanon)
- Moustafa El-Assad, Blue Steel 2: M-3 Halftracks in South Lebanon, Blue Steel books, Sidon 2006.
- Moustafa El-Assad, Blue Steel III: M-113 Carriers in South Lebanon, Blue Steel books, Sidon 2007.
- Moustafa El-Assad, Blue Steel IV: M-50 Shermans and M-50 APCs in South Lebanon, Blue Steel books, Sidon 2007.
- Moustafa El-Assad, Civil Wars Volume 1: The Gun Trucks, Blue Steel books, Sidon 2008. ISBN 978-9953012568
- Samer Kassis, 30 Years of Military Vehicles in Lebanon, Beirut: Elite Group, 2003. ISBN 9953-0-0705-5
- Samer Kassis, Véhicules Militaires au Liban/Military Vehicles in Lebanon 1975-1981, L’Echo des Cedres, Beirut 2011. ISBN 978-1-934293-06-5
- Samuel M. Katz and Ron Volstad, Battleground Lebanon, Concord Publications, Hong Kong 1990. ISBN 962-361-003-3
- Steven J. Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2): The wars of 1973 to the present, Concord Publications, Hong Kong 1998. ISBN 962-361-613-9
- Steven J. Zaloga, ZSU-23-4 Shilka & Soviet Air Defense Gun Vehicles, Concord Publications, Hong Kong 1993. ISBN 962-361-039-4
- Antoine Abraham, The Lebanon war, Greenwood Publishing Group 1996. ISBN 0275953890, 9780275953898.
- Claire Hoy and Victor Ostrovsky, By Way of Deception: The Making and Unmaking of a Mossad Officer, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1990. ISBN 0-9717595-0-2
- Denise Ammoun, Histoire du Liban contemporain: Tome 2 1943-1990, Fayard, Paris 2005. ISBN 978-2213615219 (in French)
- Edgar O'Ballance, Civil War in Lebanon, 1975-92, Palgrave Macmillan, 1998. ISBN 978-0312215934
- Fawwaz Traboulsi, Identités et solidarités croisées dans les conflits du Liban contemporain; Chapitre 12: L'économie politique des milices: le phénomène mafieux, Thèse de Doctorat d'Histoire – 1993, Université de Paris VIII, 2007. (in French)
- Hazem Saghieh, Ta’rib al-Kata’eb al-Lubnaniyya: al-Hizb, al-sulta, al-khawf, Beirut: Dar al-Jadid, 1991. (in Arabic).
- Jonathan Randall, Going All the Way: Christian Warlords, Israeli Adventurers and the War in Lebanon, Vintage Books, New York 1984 (revised edition).
- Robert Fisk, Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War, London: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0192801309 (3rd ed. 2001).
- Samir Kassir, La Guerre du Liban: De la dissension nationale au conflit régional, Éditions Karthala/CERMOC, Paris 1994. (in French)
- Samuel M. Katz, Lee E. Russel, and Ron Volstad, Armies in Lebanon 1982-84, Men-at-Arms series 165, Osprey Publishing, London 1985. ISBN 0-85045-602-9
- Samuel M. Katz and Ron Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2, Men-at-arms series 194, Osprey Publishing, London 1988. ISBN 0-85045-800-5
- Matthew S. Gordon, The Gemayels (World Leaders Past & Present), Chelsea House Publishers, 1988. ISBN 1-55546-834-9
- "1978: Israeli troops leave southern Lebanon". BBC. 13 June 1978. Retrieved 17 January 2008.
- Harris (p. 162) notes "the massacre of 1,500 Palestinians, Shi'is, and others in Karantina and Maslakh, and the revenge killings of hundreds of Christians in Damur"
- "Historical Fact: The Massacre and Destruction of Damour". Lebanese Forces. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- "Tel El Zaatar 1976 'Tal el zaatar' ' Tel al zaatar '". Liberty05.com. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- "LEBANON: Beirut's Agony Under the Guns of March". Time. April 5, 1976.
- [dead link]
- "Safra massacre". En.academic.ru. 1980-07-07. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- "Historical Fact: The Battle of Zahle - 1981". Lebanese Forces. Retrieved 2012-05-28.
- "LEBANON: Beirut's Agony Under the Guns of March". Time. 5 April 1976.
- Safra massacre. En.academic.ru (7 July 1980). Retrieved on 18 July 2012.
- قصة الموارنة في الحرب - جوزيف أبو خليل
- Kahan, Yitzhak, Barak, Aharon, Efrat, Yona (1983) The Commission of Inquiry into events at the refugee camps in Beirut 1983 FINAL REPORT (Authorized translation) p.108 has "This report was signed on 7 February 1982." p7
- تاريخ في رجل ---> من قتل بشير - إنقلاب بشيري أم إنقلاب إسرائيلي
- President Reagan and the World by Eric J. Schmertz, Natalie Datlof, Alexej Ugrinsky, Hofstra University
- Special to the New York Times (1982-09-04). "Begin Said to Meet in Secret With Beirut's President-Elect". The New York Times. "Begin Said to Meet in Secret With Beirut's President-Elect"
- أسرار الحرب في لبنان
- "Phalangists Identify Bomber Of Gemayel As Lebanese Leftist". The New York Times. October 3, 1982. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
- Samir Geagea
- Michael Johnson, All honorable men: the social origins of war in Lebanon (I. B. Tauris, November 23, 2002), p.148, ISBN 1-86064-715-4
- Lebanon Detains Christian in Church Blast. New York Times, March 24, 1994. Retrieved on 2008-02-13.
- UN Commission on Human Rights – Torture – Special Rapporteur's Report. United Nations Economic and Social Council, 12 January 1995. Retrieved on 6 March 2008.
- SADEM UNIT, Lebanese Forces Video on YouTube
- Daily Star, Lebanese Newspaper July 03, 1998 12:00 AM By Joshua Craze
- SADEM UNIT, Lebanese Forces Video on YouTube
- TIME Magazine, September 1, 1980.
- TIME Magazine, September 13, 1976.
- Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2003), p. 56.
- Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (1998), pp. 63-64.
- Zaloga, Tank battles of the Mid-East Wars (2) (1998), p. 66.
- Hoy and Ostrovsky, By Way of Deception: The Making and Unmaking of a Mossad Officer (1990), p. 304.
- Katz and Volstad, Arab Armies of the Middle East Wars 2 (1988), p. 47, Plate H4.
- Arab armies of the Middle East Wars (2), Osprey Men-at-Arms 194 by Samuel Katz 1988 ISBN 0-85045-800-5
- Lebanese Forces
- Lebanese Forces
- Bachir Gemayel Squad Website
- Lebanese Forces vehicles in the Lebanese civil war