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List of French monarchs

Monarchy of France
100px
Details
Style See article
First monarch Clovis I
(as King)
Last monarch Napoleon III
(as Emperor)
Formation 486
Abolition 4 September 1870
Residence Tuileries Palace (last)
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Disputed:
Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Henri d'Orléans
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The monarchs of France ruled from the establishment of Francia in 486 to 1870. The first race, or dynasty of kings,[1][2] was the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled until 751,[3] followed by the second race, the Carolingian dynasty, until 987 (with some interruptions). The third race, the Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until the end of the monarchy).

With the House of Bonaparte and the Bourbon Restoration, additional "Kings of the French" and "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th century France, between 1814 and 1870.

This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings.

In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60 and 1369–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact

  1. REDIRECT Template:Spaced ndash under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

    The title "King of the Franks" (Latin: Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550. It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century.[n 1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France.[5]

    In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804–14 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852–70, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French".[6][7]

    Merovingian dynasty (486–751)[8]

    The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century CE. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty was founded by Childeric I (c. 457

    1. REDIRECT Template:Spaced ndash 481 CE), the son of Merovech, leader of the Salian Franks, but it was his famous son Clovis I (481–511 CE) who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.[9]
      Portrait Name King From King Until Death Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Clovis I
      (Clovis Ier)
      481 511 Likely died of natural causes aged 46. Buried at Abbey of St Genevieve until 18th century. Remains relocated to Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Childeric I King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Childebert I
      (Childebert Ier)
      511 13 December 558 Died aged 64. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Clovis I King of Paris
      (Roi de Paris)
      100px Chlothar I the Old
      (Clotaire Ier le Vieux)
      13 December 558 29 November 561 Died aged 64. Buried at Abbey of St. Medard, Soissons.  • Son of Clovis I
       • Younger brother of Childebert I
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Charibert I
      (Caribert Ier)
      29 November 561 567 Died aged 50. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chlothar I King of Paris
      (Roi de Paris)
      100px Chilperic I
      (Chilpéric Ier)
      567 584 Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chlothar I
       • Younger brother of Charibert I
      King of Paris
      (Roi de Paris)

      King of Neustria
      (Roi de Neustrie)
      100px Chlothar II the Great, the Young
      (Clotaire II le Grand, le Jeune)
      584 18 October 629 Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Chilperic I King of Neustria
      (Roi de Neustrie)

      King of Paris
      (Roi de Paris)
      (595–629)

      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      (613–629)
      100px Dagobert I
      (Dagobert Ier)
      18 October 629 19 January 639 Died aged 36. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Chlothar II King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Clovis II the Lazy
      (Clovis II le Fainéant)
      19 January 639 31 October 657 Died aged 20. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Dagobert I King of Neustria and Burgundy
      (Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
      100px Chlothar III
      (Clotaire III)
      31 October 657 673 Died aged 21. Buried at Basilica of St Denis.  • Son of Clovis II King of Neustria and Burgundy
      (Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      (657–663)
      100px Childeric II
      (Childéric II)
      673 675 Died aged 22. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés.  • Son of Clovis II
       • Younger brother of Chlothar III
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Theuderic III
      (Thierry III)
      675 691 Died aged 37.  • Son of Clovis II
       • Younger brother of Childeric II
      King of Neustria
      (Roi de Neustrie)

      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      (687–691)
      100px Clovis IV
      (Clovis IV)
      691 695 Died aged 13.  • Son of Theuderic III King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Childebert III the Just
      (Childebert III le Juste)
      695 23 April 711 Died aged 41. Buried at Church of St Stephen at Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne.  • Son of Theuderic III
       • Younger brother of Clovis IV
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Dagobert III 23 April 711 715 Died aged 14.  • Son of Childebert III King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Chilperic II
      (Chilpéric II)
      715 13 February 721 Died aged 49. Buried at Noyon.  • Probably son of Childeric II King of Neustria and Burgundy
      (Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      (719–721)
      100px Theuderic IV 721 737 Died aged 25.  • Son of Dagobert III King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childerich and acceded to the throne.

      Portrait Name King From King Until Death Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Childeric III
      (Childéric III)
      743 November 751 Died aged 37.  • Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IV King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Carolingian dynasty (751–888) [8]

      The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the late 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the throne. By 751, the Merovingian dynasty, which until then had ruled the Germanic Franks by right, was deprived of this right with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and a Carolingian, Pepin the Short, was crowned King of the Franks.[10]

      Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Pepin the Younger, the Short
      (Pépin le Bref)
      751 24 September 768  • Son of Charles Martel King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Carloman I 24 September 768 4 December 771  • Son of Pepin the Short King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Charlemagne (Charles I, the Great) 24 September 768 28 January 814  • Son of Pepin the Short King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Emperor of the Romans
      (Imperator Romanorum)
      (800–814)
      100px Louis I the Pious, the Debonaire
      (Louis Ier le Pieux, le Débonnaire)
      28 January 814 20 June 840  • Son of Charlemagne King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Emperor of the Romans
      (Imperator Romanorum)
      100px Charles II the Bald
      (Charles II le Chauve)
      20 June 840 6 October 877  • Son of Louis I King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Emperor of the Romans
      (Imperator Romanorum)
      (875–877)
      100px Louis II the Stammerer
      (Louis II le Bègue)
      6 October 877 10 April 879  • Son of Charles II King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Louis III 10 April 879 5 August 882  • Son of Louis II King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Carloman II 5 August 882 6 December 884  • Son of Louis II King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Charles III the Fat
      (Charles le Gros)
      20 May 885 13 January 888  • Son of Louis the German
       • Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
       • Grandson of Louis I the Pious
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Emperor of the Romans
      (Imperator Romanorum)
      (881–887)

      Robertian dynasty (888–898) [8]

      Main article: Robertian dynasty

      The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens.[11]

      Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Odo of Paris
      (Eudes de Paris)
      29 February 888 1 January 898  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
       • Elected king against young Charles III.
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Carolingian dynasty (893–922) [8]

      Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898.[12]

      Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Charles III the Simple
      (Charles III le Simple)
      28 January 898 30 June 922  • Posthumous son of Louis II
       • Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Robertian dynasty (922–923) [8]

      Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Robert I
      (Robert Ier)
      30 June 922 15 June 923  • Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
       • Younger brother of Odo
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Bosonid dynasty (923–936)

      Main article: Bosonid dynasty

      The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder, their member, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

      Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Rudolph
      (Raoul de France)
      13 July 923 14 January 936  • Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
       • Son-in-law of Robert I
      King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Carolingian dynasty (936–987) [8]

      Portrait Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Louis IV of Outremer
      (Louis IV d'Outremer)
      19 June 936 10 September 954  • Son of Charles III King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Lothair
      (Lothaire de France)
      12 November 954 2 March 986  • Son of Louis IV King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Louis V the Lazy
      (Louis V le Fainéant)
      8 June 986 22 May 987  • Son of Lothair King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)

      Capetian dynasty (987–1792)

      Main article: Capetian dynasty

      After the death of Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

      Not listed above are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-Kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

      Henry VI of England, son of Catherine of Valois, became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420 however this was disputed and he is not always regarded as a legitimate king of France.

      From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

      House of Capet (987–1328) [8]

      Main article: House of Capet
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px Hugh Capet
      (Hugues Capet)
      3 July 987 24 October 996  • Grandson of Robert I King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Robert II the Pious, the Wise
      (Robert II le Pieux, le Sage)
      24 October 996 20 July 1031  • Son of Hugh Capet King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Henry I
      (Henri Ier)
      20 July 1031 4 August 1060  • Son of Robert II King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Philip I the Amorous
      (Philippe Ier l' Amoureux)
      4 August 1060 29 July 1108  • Son of Henry I King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px Louis VI the Fat
      (Louis VI le Gros)
      29 July 1108 1 August 1137  • Son of Philip I King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px 100px Louis VII the Young
      (Louis VII le Jeune)
      1 August 1137 18 September 1180  • Son of Louis VI King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      100px 100px Philip II Augustus
      (Philippe II Auguste)
      18 September 1180 14 July 1223  • Son of Louis VII King of the Franks
      (Roi des Francs)
      first monarch to use the title of King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Louis VIII the Lion
      (Louis VIII le Lion)
      14 July 1223 8 November 1226  • Son of Philip II Augustus King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Louis IX the Saint
      (Saint Louis)
      8 November 1226 25 August 1270  • Son of Louis VIII King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Philip III the Bold
      (Philippe III le Hardi)
      25 August 1270 5 October 1285  • Son of Louis IX King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King
      (Philippe IV le Bel)
      5 October 1285 29 November 1314  • Son of Philip III King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Louis X the Quarreller
      (Louis X le Hutin)
      29 November 1314 5 June 1316  • Son of Philip IV King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px John I the Posthumous
      (Jean Ier le Posthume)
      15 November 1316 20 November 1316  • Son of Louis X King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Philip V the Tall
      (Philippe V le Long)
      20 November 1316 3 January 1322  • Son of Philip IV
       • Younger brother of Louis X
      King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Charles IV the Fair
      (Charles IV le Bel)
      3 January 1322 1 February 1328  • Son of Philip IV
       • Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V
      King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)

      House of Valois (1328–1589) [13]

      Main article: House of Valois
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Philip VI of Valois, the Fortunate
      (Philippe VI de Valois, le Fortuné)
      1 April 1328 22 August 1350  • Grandson of Philip III of France King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px John II the Good
      (Jean II le Bon)
      22 August 1350 8 April 1364  • Son of Philip VI King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px100px Charles V the Wise
      (Charles V le Sage)
      8 April 1364 16 September 1380  • Son of John II King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad
      (Charles VI le Bienaimé, le Fol)
      16 September 1380 21 October 1422  • Son of Charles V King of France
      (Roi de France)

      House of Lancaster (1422–1453) (disputed)

      Main article: House of Lancaster
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Claim Title
      100px 100px Henry VI of England
      (Henri VI d'Angleterre)
      21 October 1422 19 October 1453  • By right of his father Henry V of England by the Treaty of Troyes become heir and regent to the French throne King of France
      (Roi de France)

      House of Valois (1328–1589) [13]

      Main article: House of Valois
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served
      (Charles VII le Victorieux, le Bien-Servi)
      21 October 1422 22 July 1461  • Son of Charles VI King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Louis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider
      (Louis XI le Prudent, le Rusé, l'Universelle Aragne)
      22 July 1461 30 August 1483  • Son of Charles VII King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Charles VIII the Affable
      (Charles VIII l'Affable)
      30 August 1483 7 April 1498  • Son of Louis XI King of France
      (Roi de France)

      Orléans branch (1498–1515) [8]

      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Louis XII Father of the People
      (Louis XII le Père du Peuple)
      7 April 1498 1 January 1515  • Great-grandson of Charles V
       • Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
       • By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
      King of France
      (Roi de France)

      Orléans–Angoulême Branch (1515–1589) [8]

      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
      (François Ier le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres)
      1 January 1515 31 March 1547  • Great-great-grandson of Charles V
       • First cousin once removed, and by
      first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
      King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Henry II
      (Henri II)
      31 March 1547 10 July 1559  • Son of Francis I/Maternal grandson of Louis XII King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Francis II
      (François II)
      10 July 1559 5 December 1560  • Son of Henry II King of France
      (Roi de France)

      King of Scots
      (1558–1560)
      100px 100px Charles IX 5 December 1560 30 May 1574  • Son of Henry II King of France
      (Roi de France)
      100px 100px Henry III
      (Henri III)
      30 May 1574 2 August 1589  • Son of Henry II King of France
      (Roi de France)

      King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
      (1573–1575)

      House of Bourbon (1589–1792)

      Main article: House of Bourbon
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Henry IV, Good King Henry, the Green Gallant
      (Henri IV, le Bon Roi Henri, le Vert-Galant)
      2 August 1589 14 May 1610  • Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
       • By first marriage son in law of Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
      King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Louis XIII the Just
      (Louis XIII le Juste)
      14 May 1610 14 May 1643  • Son of Henry IV King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Louis XIV the Great, the Sun King
      (Louis XIV le Grand, le Roi Soleil)
      14 May 1643 1 September 1715  • Son of Louis XIII King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Louis XV the Beloved
      (Louis XV le Bien-Aimé)
      1 September 1715 10 May 1774  • Great-grandson of Louis XIV King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Louis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty
      (Louis XVI le Restaurateur de la Liberté Française)
      10 May 1774 21 September 1792  • Grandson of Louis XV King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      (1774–1791)

      King of the French
      (Roi des Français)
      (1791–1792)
      100px 100px Louis XVII (Claimant)</small> 21 January 1793 8 June 1795  • Son of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)

      First Republic (1792–1804)

      Main article: French First Republic

      The First French Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, when its First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.[8]

      House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814) [8]

      Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Napoleon I, the Great
      (Napoléon Ier, le Grand)
      18 May 1804 11 April 1814 - Emperor of the French
      (Empereur des Français)

      Capetian Dynasty (1814–1815)

      House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815) [8]

      Main article: Bourbon Restoration
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Louis XVIII 11 April 1814 20 March 1815  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)

      House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815) [8]

      Main article: Hundred Days
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Napoleon I
      (Napoléon Ier)
      20 March 1815 22 June 1815 - Emperor of the French
      (Empereur des Français)
      100px 100px Napoleon II
      (Napoléon II)
      [n 2]
      22 June 1815 7 July 1815  • Son of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
      (Empereur des Français)

      Capetian Dynasty (1815–1848)[8]

      House of Bourbon (1815–1830)

      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Louis XVIII 7 July 1815 16 September 1824  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)
      100px 100px Charles X 16 September 1824 2 August 1830  • Grandson of Louis XV  • Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII King of France and of Navarre
      (Roi de France et de Navarre)

      Louis XIX was technically king for 20 minutes on August 2, 1830, and his nephew Henri V for ten days after that.

      House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)

      Main articles: House of Orléans and July Monarchy
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name King From King Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King
      (Louis Philippe, le Roi Citoyen)
      9 August 1830 24 February 1848  • Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
       • Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
      King of the French
      (Roi des Français)

      Second Republic (1848–1852)

      The Second French Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French.[8]

      House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870) [8]

      Main article: Second French Empire
      Portrait Coat of Arms Name Emperor From Emperor Until Relationship with Predecessor(s) Title
      100px 100px Napoleon III
      (Napoléon III)
      2 December 1852 4 September 1870  • Nephew of Napoleon I Emperor of the French
      (Empereur des Français)

      Later pretenders

      Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

      See also

      Notes

      1. ^ 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [4]
      2. ^ From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July

      References

      1. ^ Sullivan, William. Historical causes and effects, from the fall of the Roman empire, 476, to the reformation, 1517. p. 213
      2. ^ Grimshaw, William. The history of France from the foundation of the monarchy to the death of Louis XVI. p. 11
      3. ^ Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), p. 145.
      4. ^ Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480–1560. Warfare in History Series 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN 9781843834052. Retrieved 2012-11-27. 
      5. ^ Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN 9789053567678. 
      6. ^ Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p. 1. 
      7. ^ Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359. 
      8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Hansen, M.H., ed. (1967). Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. NY, USA: Sterling Publising Co., Inc. pp. 103–107. 
      9. ^ Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 137. 
      10. ^ Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341. 
      11. ^ Gwatking, H. M.; J. P. et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press. 
      12. ^ Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024 III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315. 
      13. ^ a b Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328–1422. NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii. ISBN 1852854200. 


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