|This article is outdated. (June 2012)|
Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the IARC as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans. The exposure circumstance entails exposures that are carcinogenic to humans.
This category is used when there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans. Exceptionally, an agent (mixture) may be placed in this category when evidence of carcinogenicity in humans is less than sufficient but there is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals and strong evidence in exposed humans that the agent (mixture) acts through a relevant mechanism of carcinogenicity.
Agents and groups of agents
- Aristolochic acids, and plants containing them
- Arsenic and arsenic compounds1
- Beryllium and beryllium compounds2
- Chlornapazine (N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine)
- Chloromethyl methyl ether
- 1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (Busulphan, Myleran)
- Cadmium and cadmium compounds2
- Methyl-CCNU (1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)-1-nitrosourea; Semustine)
- Chromium(VI) compounds2
- Contraceptives, hormonal, combined forms (those containing both estrogen and a progestogen)3
- Contraceptives, oral, sequential forms of hormonal contraception (a period of estrogen-only followed by a period of both estrogen and a progestogen)
- Dyes metabolized to benzidine
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Estrogens, nonsteroidal 1
- Estrogens, steroidal 1
- Estrogen therapy, postmenopausal
- Ethanol in alcoholic beverages 4,
- Ethylene oxide
- Etoposide alone and in combination with cisplatin and bleomycin
- Gallium arsenide
- Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
- Hepatitis B virus (chronic infection with)
- Hepatitis C virus (chronic infection with)
- Herbal remedies containing plant species of the genus Aristolochia
- Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (infection with)
- Human papillomavirus type 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 66
- Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I
- Methoxsalen (8-Methoxypsoralen) plus ultraviolet A radiation
- 4,4'-methylene-bis(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)
- MOPP and other combined chemotherapy including alkylating agents
- Mustard gas (Sulfur mustard)
- Neutron radiation
- Nickel compounds2
- 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)
- N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN)
- Opisthorchis viverrini (infection with)
- Outdoor air pollution
- Particulate matter in outdoor air pollution
- Phosphorus-32, as phosphate
- Plutonium-239 and its decay products (may contain plutonium-240 and other isotopes), as aerosols
- Radioiodines, short-lived isotopes, including iodine-131, from atomic reactor accidents and nuclear weapons detonation (exposure during childhood)
- Radionuclides, α-particle-emitting, internally deposited5
- Radionuclides, β-particle-emitting, internally deposited5
- Radium-224 and its decay products
- Radium-226 and its decay products
- Radium-228 and its decay products
- Radon-222 and its decay products
- Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)
- Silica, crystalline (inhaled in the form of quartz or cristobalite from occupational sources)
- Solar radiation
- Talc containing asbestiform fibres
- Thiotepa (1,1',1"-Phosphinothioylidynetrisaziridine)
- Thorium-232 and its decay products, administered intravenously as a colloidal dispersion of thorium-232 dioxide
- Vinyl chloride
- Ultraviolet Radiation
- X-Radiation and Gamma radiation
- This evaluation applies to the group of compounds as a whole and not necessarily to all individual compounds within the group.
- Evaluated as a group.
- There is also conclusive evidence that these agents have a protective effect against cancers of the ovary and endometrium.
- Ethanol is not carcinogenic, but is metabolised to acetaldehyde, which is carcinogenic.
- Specific radionuclides for which there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity to humans are also listed individually as Group 1 agents.
- There is also conclusive evidence that this agent (tamoxifen) reduces the risk of contralateral breast cancer.
- ^ a b "IARC: IARC STRENGTHENS ITS FINDINGS ON SEVERAL CARCINOGENIC PERSONAL HABITS AND HOUSEHOLD EXPOSURES" (PRESS RELEASE). International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Retrieved August 1, 2014.
November 2, 2009 ‐‐ IARC has updated the cancer assessments of several personal habits and household exposures that cause cancer, including tobacco, areca nut, alcohol, and household coal smoke. The update was conducted with the advice of 30 scientists from 10 countries who met at IARC in October 2009. [...] The Working Group concluded that acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is carcinogenic to humans (Group 1) and confirmed the classification in Group 1 of alcohol consumption and of ethanol in alcoholic beverages.
- ^ "IARC: DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST CARCINOGENIC" (PRESS RELEASE). International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Retrieved June 12, 2012.
June 12, 2012 ‐‐ After a week-long meeting of international experts, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which is part of the World Health Organization (WHO), today classified diesel engine exhaust as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence that exposure is associated with an increased risk for lung cancer