The Qur'an is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God and the final divine revelation. It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language. Muslims believe that the Qur'an was verbally revealed through the angel Jibrīl (Gabriel) from God to Muhammad over a period of approximately twenty-three years beginning in 610 AD. Furthermore, Muslims believe that the Quran was precisely memorized, recited and exactly written down by Muhammad's companions, the Sahaba. Quran include narration of Islamic Prophet starting from Adam to last Muhammad, and given importance to events related with all and gradual transformation.
- Text of the Quran
The text of the Qur'an consists of 114 chapters of varying lengths, each known as a sura. Each sura is formed from several verses, called ayats.
- Commentaries and exegesis (tafsīr)
Main article: List of tafsir
A body of commentary and explication (tafsīr), aimed at explaining the meanings of the Quranic verses.
- Reasons of revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl)
Asbāb al-nuzūl is a secondary genre of Qur'anic exegesis (tafsir) directed at establishing the context in which specific verses of the Qur'an were revealed.
Sunna denotes the practice of Islamic prophet Muhammad that he taught and practically instituted as a teacher of the sharī‘ah and the best exemplar. The sources of sunna are usually oral traditions found in collections of Hadith and Sīra (prophetic biography). Unlike the Qur'an, Muslims do not agree on the same set of texts or sources of Sunnah, and they emphasize different collections of hadith based on to which Islamic school or branch they belong.
- Hadith (Traditions of the prophet)
Hadīth are sayings, act or tacit approval, validly or invalidly, ascribed to the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
- Prophetic biography (Sīra)
These books are relevant only to Shia Islam, and were written or revealed to members of the family of Muhammad, Ahl al-Bayt.
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