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List of Linux adopters

Main article: Linux adoption
Linux adoption
The French Parliament moved to Ubuntu on desktop PCs in 2007.

Linux adopters are organizations and individuals who have moved from other operating systems to Linux.


As local governments come under pressure from institutions such as the World Trade Organization and the International Intellectual Property Alliance, some have turned to Linux and other Free Software as an affordable, legal alternative to both pirated software and expensive proprietary computer products from Microsoft, Apple and other commercial companies. The spread of Linux affords some leverage for these countries when companies from the developed world bid for government contracts (since a low-cost option exists), while furnishing an alternative path to development for countries like India and Pakistan that have many citizens skilled in computer applications but cannot afford technological investment at "First World" prices. The cost factor is not the only one being considered though - many governmental institutions (in public and military sectors) from North America and European Union make the transition to Linux due to its superior stability and openness of the source code which in its turn leverages information security.[1][2][3][4][5][6]




  • The People's Republic of China exclusively uses Linux as the operating system for its Loongson processor family, with the aim of technology independence.[8]
  • Kylin, used by People's Liberation Army in People Republic of China. The first version used FreeBSD, but since release 3.0, it employs Linux.[9][10]
  • State owned Industrial and Commercial Bank of China (ICBC) is installing Linux in all of its 20,000 retail branches as the basis for its web server and a new terminal platform. (2005)[11]
  • The Government of Pakistan established a Technology Resource Mobilization Unit in 2002 to enable groups of professionals to exchange views and coordinate activities in their sectors and to educate users about free software alternatives. Linux is an option for poor countries which have little revenue for public investment; Pakistan is using open source software in public schools and colleges, and hopes to run all government services on Linux eventually.

Middle East

  • In 2003, the Turkish government decided to create its own Linux distribution, Pardus, developed by UEKAE (National Research Institute of Electronics and Cryptology). The first version, Pardus 1.0, was officially announced in 27 December 2005.[12]



  • The Government of Kerala, India, announced its official support for free/open-source software in its State IT Policy of 2001,[15] which was formulated after the first-ever free software conference in India, "Freedom First!", held in July 2001 in Trivandrum, the capital of Kerala, where Richard Stallman inaugurated the Free Software Foundation of India.[16] Since then, Kerala's IT Policy has been significantly influenced by FOSS, with several major initiatives such as IT@School Project, possibly the largest single-purpose deployment of Linux in the world, and leading to the formation of the International Centre for Free and Open Source Software (ICFOSS) in 2009.
  • In March 2014, with the end of support for Windows XP, the Government of Tamil Nadu has advised all its departments to install BOSS Linux (Bharat Operating System Solutions).[17]






  • Brazil uses PC Conectado, a program utilizing Linux.
  • In 2004, Venezuela's government approved the 3390 decree,[36] to give preference to using free software in public administration. One result of this policy is the development of Canaima, a Debian-based Linux distribution.



  • Austria's city of Vienna has chosen to start migrating its desktop PCs to Debian-based Wienux.[37] However, the idea was largely abandoned, because the necessary software was incompatible with Linux.[38]

Czech Republic



  • The City government of Munich, Germany, chose in 2003, to start to migrate its 14,000 desktops to Debian-based LiMux.[47] Even though more than 80% of workstations used OpenOffice and 100% used Firefox/Thunderbird five years later (November 2008),[48] an adoption rate of Linux itself of only 20.0% (June 2010) was achieved.[49][50] The effort was later reorganized, focusing on smaller deployments and winning over staff to the value of the program. By the end of 2011 the program had exceeded its goal and changed over 9000 desktops to Linux.[51] The city of Munich reported at the end of 2012 that the migration to Linux was highly successful and has already saved the city over €11 million (US$14 million).[52] Recently it has been announced by the Deputy Mayor Josef Schmid, the city is putting together an independent expert group to look at moving back to Microsoft due to issues in LiMux, the primary issues have been of compatibility; users in the rest of Germany that use other (Microsoft) software have had trouble with the files generated by Munich's open source applications. The second is price, with Schmid saying that the city now has the impression that "Linux is very expensive" due to custom programming, The independent group will advise the best course of action, and if that group recommends using Microsoft software, Deputy Mayor Josef Schmid of the CSU party says that a switch back isn't impossible. The city council said they already saved more than 10 million dollars, and there is not major issue with the switch to Linux[53] Some observers, such as Silviu Stahie of Softpedia have indicated that the attempted rejection of Linux has been influenced by Microsoft and its supporters Mayor, and that this is predominately a political issue and not a technical one. Microsoft's German headquarters has been committed to move to Munich as part of this issue.[54]
  • The Federal Employment Office of Germany (Bundesagentur für Arbeit) has migrated 13,000 public workstations from Windows NT to OpenSuse.[55]


  • Iceland has announced in March 2012, that it wishes to migrate to open source software in public institutions. Schools have already migrated from Windows to Ubuntu Linux.[56]


the Netherlands

  • The Dutch Police Internet Research and Investigation Network (iRN) has only used free and open source software based on open standards, publicly developed with the source code available on the Internet for audit, since 2003. They use 2200 Ubuntu workstations.[58]






Linux is often used in technical disciplines at universities and research centres. This is due to several factors, including that Linux is available free of charge and includes a large body of free/open source software. To some extent, technical competence of computer science and software engineering academics is also a contributor, as is stability, maintainability, and upgradability. IBM ran an advertising campaign entitled "Linux is Education" featuring a young boy who was supposed to be "Linux".[63]

Examples of large scale adoption of Linux in education include the following:

  • The OLPC XO-1 (previously called the MIT $100 laptop and The Children's Machine), is an inexpensive laptop running Linux, which will be distributed to millions of children as part of the One Laptop Per Child project, especially in developing countries.







  • All primary and secondary public schools in the Swiss Canton of Geneva, have switched to using Ubuntu for the PCs used by teachers and students in 2013-14. The switch has been completed by all of the 170 primary public schools and over 2,000 computers. The migration of the canton's 20 secondary schools is planned for the school year 2014-15[70][71]


  • Brazil has 35 million students in over 50,000 schools using 523,400 computer stations all running Linux.[72]
  • 22,000 students in the US state of Indiana had access to Linux Workstations at their high schools in 2006.[73]
  • In 2009, Venezuela's Ministry of Education began a project called Canaima-educativo, to provide all students in public schools with "Canaimita" laptop computers with the Canaima Debian-based Linux distribution pre-installed, as well as with open source educational content.[74]



  • The Chinese government is buying 1.5 million Linux Loongson PCs as part of its plans to support its domestic industry. In addition the province of Jiangsu will install as many as 150,000 Linux PCs, using Loongson processors, in rural schools starting in 2009.[75]



  • The Indian government's tablet computer initiative for student use employs Linux as the operating system as part of its drive to produce a tablet PC for under 1,500 rupees (US$35).[77]
  • The Indian state of Tamil Nadu plans to distribute 100,000 Linux laptops to its students.[78]
  • Government officials of Kerala, India announced they will use only free software, running on the Linux platform, for computer education, starting with the 2,650 government and government-aided high schools.[79]
  • The Indian state of Tamil Nadu has issued a directive to local government departments asking them to switch over to open source software, in the wake of Microsoft's decision to end support for Windows XP on April 2014.[80][81]

The Philippines

  • The Philippines has deployed 13,000 desktops running on Fedora, the first 10,000 were delivered in December 2007 by Advanced Solutions Inc. Another 10,000 desktops of Edubuntu and Kubuntu are planned.[82]


  • Russia announced in October 2007, that all its school computers will run on Linux.[83] This is to avoid cost of licensing currently unlicensed software.


  • Sony's PlayStation 3 came with a hard disk (20 GB, 60 GB or 80 GB) and was specially designed to allow easy installation of Linux on the system.[84] However, Linux was prevented from accessing certain functions of the PlayStation such as 3D graphics.[citation needed] Sony also released a Linux kit for its PlayStation 2 console (see Linux for PlayStation 2). PlayStation hardware running Linux has been occasionally used in small scale distributed computing experiments, due to the ease of installation and the relatively low price of a PS3 compared to other hardware choices offering similar performance. As of April 1, 2010, Sony disabled the ability to install Linux "due to security concerns" starting with firmware version 3.21.[85]
  • In 2008, many netbook models were shipped with Linux installed, usually with a lightweight distribution, such as Xandros or Linpus, to reduce resource consumption on their limited resources.[86]
  • Through 2007 and 2008, Linux distributions with an emphasis on ease of use such as Ubuntu became increasingly popular as home desktop operating systems, with some OEMs, such as Dell, offering models with Ubuntu or other Linux distributions on desktop systems.[87]
  • In 2011, Google introduced its Chromebooks, web thin clients based on Linux and supplying just a web browser, file manager and media player. They also have the ability to remote desktop into other computers via the free Chrome Remote Desktop extension. In 2012 the first Chromebox, a desktop equivalent of the Chromebook, was introduced. By 2013 Chromebooks had captured 20-25% of the US market for sub-$300 laptops.[88]
  • Android, created by Google in 2007, is the smartphone & tablet operating system which, as of late 2013, runs on 80% of smartphones[89] and 60% of tablets, worldwide;[90] it is pre-installed on devices by brand hardware manufacturers.
  • In 2013, Valve Corporation publicly released ports of Steam and the Source engine to Linux,[91] allowing many popular titles by Valve such as Team Fortress 2 and Half-Life 2 to be played on Linux. Later that same year, Valve announced their upcoming Steam Machine consoles,[92] which would by default run SteamOS, an operating system based on the Linux kernel.[93]
  • In March 2014, Ubuntu claimed 22,000,000 users.[94]

Businesses and non-profits

File:Redhat EL 5 default desktop.png
Ernie Ball moved its entire business to Red Hat Linux in 2000, following a licencing dispute with Microsoft.

Linux is used extensively on servers in businesses, and has been for a long time. Linux is also used in some corporate environments as the desktop platform for their employees, with commercially available solutions including Red Hat Enterprise Linux, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and Ubuntu.

  • Burlington Coat Factory has used Linux exclusively since 1999.[95]
  • Ernie Ball, known for its famous Super Slinky guitar strings, has used Linux as its desktop operating system since 2000.[96]
  • Novell is undergoing a migration from Windows to Linux. Of its 5500 employees, 50% were successfully migrated as of April 2006. This was expected to rise to 80% by November.[97]
  • Wotif, the Australian hotel booking website, migrated from Windows to Linux servers to keep up with the growth of its business.[98]
  • Union Bank of California announced in January 2007 that it would standardize its IT infrastructure on Red Hat Enterprise Linux in order to lower costs.[99]
  • Peugeot, the European car maker, announced plans to deploy up to 20,000 copies of Novell's Linux desktop, SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop, and 2,500 copies of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, in 2007.[100]
  • Mindbridge, a software company, announced in September 2007 that it had migrated a large number of Windows servers onto a smaller number of Linux servers and a few BSD servers. It claims to have saved "bunches of money."[101]
  • Virgin America, the low cost U.S. airline, uses Linux to power its in-flight entertainment system, RED.[102]
  •, the US based mail-order retailer, uses Linux "in nearly every corner of its business".[103]
  • Google uses a version of Ubuntu internally nicknamed Goobuntu.[104][105][106][107]
  • IBM does extensive development work for Linux and also uses it on desktops and servers internally.[108] The company also created a TV advertising campaign: IBM supports Linux 100%.[109]
  • Wikipedia moved to running its servers on Ubuntu in late 2008, after having previously used a combination of Red Hat and Fedora.[110]
  • DreamWorks Animation adopted the use of Linux since 2001, and uses more than 1,000 Linux desktops and more than 3,000 Linux servers.[111][112][113]
  • The Chicago Mercantile Exchange employs an all-Linux computing infrastructure and has used it to process over a quadrillion dollars worth of financial transactions[114][115]
  • The Chi-X pan-European equity exchange runs its MarketPrizm trading platform software on Linux.[115]
  • The London Stock Exchange uses the Linux based MillenniumIT Millennium Exchange software for its trading platform and predicts that moving to Linux from Windows will give it an annual cost savings of at least £10 million ($14.7 million) from 2011–12.[116][117]
  • The New York Stock Exchange uses Linux to run its trading applications.[115]
  • Mobexpert Group, the leading furniture manufacturer and retailer in Romania, extensively uses GNU/Linux, LibreOffice and other Free Software in its data communications and processing systems, including some desktops.[118]
  • American electronic music composer Kim Cascone migrated from Apple Mac to Ubuntu for his music studio, performance use and administration in 2009.[119]
  • Laughing Boy Records under the direction of owner Geoff Beasley switched from doing audio recording on Windows to Linux in 2004 as a result of Windows spyware problems.[120]
  • Nav Canada's new Internet Flight Planning System for roll-out in 2011, is written in Python and runs on Red Hat Linux.[121]
  • Electrolux Frigidaire Infinity i-kitchen is a "smart appliance" refrigerator that uses a Linux operating system, running on an embedded 400 MHz Freescale i.MX25 processor with 128 MB of RAM and a 480×800 touch panel.[122]
  • DukeJets LLC (USA) and Duke Jets Ltd. (Canada), air charter brokerage companies, switched from Windows to Ubuntu Linux in 2012.[123]
  • Banco do Brasil of Brazil, the biggest bank in that country, has moved nearly all desktops to Linux, except some corporate ones and a few that are need to operate some specific hardware. They began migration of their servers to Linux in 2002. Branch servers and ATMs all run Linux. The distribution of choice is OpenSuse 11.2.[124][125]
  • KLM, the Royal Aviation Company of the Netherlands, uses Linux on the OSS-based version of its KLM WebFarm.[126]
  • Ocado, the online supermarket, uses Linux in its data centres.[127]
  • Kazi Farms Group, a large poultry and food company in Bangladesh, migrated 650 computers to Linux.[128]
  • Zando Computer, an IT consulting company located in Bucharest, Romania uses GNU/Linux for its business needs (server and desktop). The company recommends to its clients and actively deploys GNU/Linux, LibreOffice (OpenDocument format solutions) and other categories of Free Software.[129]
  • Nvidia, at the 2015 Consumer Electronics Show, company CEO Jen-Hsun Huang made his extensive presentations using Ubuntu Linux.[39]

Scientific institutions

File:Roadrunner supercomputer HiRes.jpg
The IBM Roadrunner, the world's third fastest supercomputer operated by the US National Nuclear Security Administration, uses Red Hat Enterprise Linux and Fedora as its operating systems.


  • British actor Stephen Fry, in August 2012 stated that he uses Linux. "Do I use Linux on any of my devices? Yes – I use Ubuntu these-days; it seems the friendliest."[144]
  • In 2008, Jamie Hyneman, co-host of the American television series Mythbusters, advocated Linux-based operating systems as a solution to software bloat.[145]
  • Science fiction writer Cory Doctorow uses Ubuntu.[146]

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