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List of Nobel laureates in Physics

File:Nobel medal.png
Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physics presented to Edward Victor Appleton in 1947

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysik) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in physics.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members elected by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.[2] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[3] Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award prize that has varied throughout the years.[4]

Statistics

The first Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1901 to Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, of Germany, who received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2007. John Bardeen is the only laureate to win the prize twice—in 1956 and 1972. Maria Skłodowska-Curie also won two Nobel Prizes, for physics in 1903 and chemistry in 1911. William Lawrence Bragg was, until October 2014, the youngest ever Nobel laureate; he won the prize in 1915 at the age of 25.[5] Two women have won the prize: Curie and Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1963), which is the least of any of the original five Nobel Prizes.[6] As of 2014, the prize has been awarded to 198 individuals. There have been six years in which the Nobel Prize in Physics was not awarded (1916, 1931, 1934, 1940–1942).

Laureates

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1901 75px Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen Germany "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"[7]
1902 75px Hendrik Lorentz Netherlands "in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"[8]
75px Pieter Zeeman Netherlands
1903 75px Antoine Henri Becquerel France "for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"[9]
75px Pierre Curie France "for their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"[9]
75px Maria Skłodowska-Curie Poland
France
1904 75px Lord Rayleigh United Kingdom "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[10]
1905 75px Philipp Eduard Anton von Lenard Austria-Hungary
Germany
"for his work on cathode rays"[11]
1906 75px Joseph John Thomson United Kingdom "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[12]
1907 75px Albert Abraham Michelson United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[13]
1908 75px Gabriel Lippmann France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[14]
1909 75px Guglielmo Marconi Italy "for their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[15]
75px Karl Ferdinand Braun Germany
1910 75px Johannes Diderik van der Waals Netherlands "for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"[16]
1911 75px Wilhelm Wien Germany "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"[17]
1912 75px Nils Gustaf Dalén Sweden "for his invention of automatic valves designed to be used in combination with gas accumulators in lighthouses and buoys"[18]
1913 75px Heike Kamerlingh-Onnes Netherlands "for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"[19]
1914 75px Max von Laue Germany "For his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[20] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1915 75px William Henry Bragg United Kingdom "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays",[21] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography
75px William Lawrence Bragg Australia

United Kingdom

1916 Not awarded World War I
1917 75px Charles Glover Barkla United Kingdom "For his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[22] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1918 75px Max Planck Germany "for the services he rendered to the advancement of physics by his discovery of energy quanta"[23]
1919 75px Johannes Stark Germany "for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"[24]
1920 75px Charles Édouard Guillaume Switzerland "for the service he has rendered to precision measurements in physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel-steel alloys"[25]
1921 75px Albert Einstein Germany
Switzerland
"for his services to theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[26]
1922 75px Niels Bohr Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[27]
1923 75px Robert Andrews Millikan United States "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[28]
1924 75px Manne Siegbahn Sweden "for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"[29]
1925 75px James Franck Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[30]
75px Gustav Hertz Germany
1926 75px Jean Baptiste Perrin France "for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"[31]
1927 75px Arthur Holly Compton United States "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[32]
75px Charles Thomson Rees Wilson United Kingdom "for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"[32]
1928 75px Owen Willans Richardson United Kingdom "for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"[33]
1929 75px Louis Victor Pierre Raymond, 7th Duc de Broglie France "for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"[34]
1930 75px Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman India "for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"[35]
1931 Not awarded
1932 75px Werner Heisenberg Germany "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[36]
1933 75px Erwin Schrödinger Austria "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"[37]
75px Paul Dirac United Kingdom
1934 Not awarded
1935 75px James Chadwick United Kingdom "for the discovery of the neutron"[38]
1936 75px Victor Francis Hess Austria "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[39]
75px Carl David Anderson United States "for his discovery of the positron"[39]
1937 75px Clinton Joseph Davisson United States "for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"[40]
75px George Paget Thomson United Kingdom
1938 75px Enrico Fermi Italy "for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"[41]
1939 75px Ernest Lawrence United States "for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"[42]
1940 Not awarded World War II
1941 Not awarded World War II
1942 Not awarded World War II
1943 75px Otto Stern United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[43]
1944 75px Isidor Isaac Rabi United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[44]
1945 75px Wolfgang Pauli Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[45]
1946 75px Percy Williams Bridgman United States "for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made there within the field of high pressure physics"[46]
1947 75px Edward Victor Appleton United Kingdom "for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"[47]
1948 75px Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett United Kingdom "for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"[48]
1949 75px Hideki Yukawa Japan "for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"[49]
1950 75px Cecil Frank Powell United Kingdom "for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"[50]
1951 75px John Douglas Cockcroft United Kingdom "for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[51]
75px Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton Ireland
1952 75px Felix Bloch Switzerland
United States
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[52]
75px Edward Mills Purcell United States
1953 75px Frits Zernike Netherlands "for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"[53]
1954 75px Max Born Germany
United Kingdom
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[54]
75px Walther Bothe West Germany "for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"[54]
1955 75px Willis Eugene Lamb United States "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"[55]
75px Polykarp Kusch United States "for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"[55]
1956 75px John Bardeen United States "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"[56]
75px Walter Houser Brattain United States
75px William Bradford Shockley United States
1957 75px Tsung-Dao Lee China
United States
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"[57]
75px Chen Ning Yang China
United States
1958 75px Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[58]
75px Ilya Frank Soviet Union
75px Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm Soviet Union
1959 75px Owen Chamberlain United States "for their discovery of the antiproton"[59]
75px Emilio Gino Segrè Italy
United States
1960 75px Donald Arthur Glaser United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[60]
1961 75px Robert Hofstadter United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[61]
75px Rudolf Ludwig Mössbauer West Germany "for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"[61]
1962 75px Lev Davidovich Landau Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[62]
1963 75px Eugene Paul Wigner Hungary
United States
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[63]
75px Maria Goeppert-Mayer United States "for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"[63]
75px J. Hans D. Jensen West Germany
1964 75px Nicolay Gennadiyevich Basov Soviet Union "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[64]
75px Alexander Prokhorov Soviet Union
75px Charles Hard Townes United States
1965 75px Richard Phillips Feynman United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics (QED), with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[65]
75px Julian Schwinger United States
75px Sin-Itiro Tomonaga Japan
1966 75px Alfred Kastler France "for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"[66]
1967 75px Hans Albrecht Bethe United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[67]
1968 75px Luis Walter Alvarez United States "for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"[68]
1969 75px Murray Gell-Mann United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[69]
1970 75px Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén Sweden "for fundamental work and discoveries in magneto-hydrodynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"[70]
75px Louis Néel France "for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"[70]
1971 Dennis Gabor Hungary – United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[71]
1972 75px John Bardeen United States "for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[72]
75px Leon Neil Cooper United States
75px John Robert Schrieffer United States
1973 Leo Esaki Japan "for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"[73]
75px Ivar Giaever United States
Norway
Brian David Josephson United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[73]
1974 Martin Ryle United Kingdom "for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[74]
Antony Hewish United Kingdom
1975 75px Aage Bohr Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[75]
75px Ben Roy Mottelson Denmark
75px Leo James Rainwater United States
1976 75px Burton Richter United States "for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[76]
75px Samuel Chao Chung Ting United States
1977 75px Philip Warren Anderson United States "for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"[77]
75px Nevill Francis Mott United Kingdom
75px John Hasbrouck Van Vleck United States
1978 75px Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa Soviet Union "for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"[78]
75px Arno Allan Penzias United States "for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[78]
75px Robert Woodrow Wilson United States
1979 75px Sheldon Lee Glashow United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[79]
75px Abdus Salam Pakistan
75px Steven Weinberg United States
1980 75px James Watson Cronin United States "for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"[80]
75px Val Logsdon Fitch United States
1981 75px Nicolaas Bloembergen United States "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[81]
75px Arthur Leonard Schawlow United States
75px Kai Manne Börje Siegbahn Sweden "for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"[81]
1982 Kenneth G. Wilson United States "for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"[82]
1983 Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar United States
India
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"[83]
William Alfred Fowler United States "for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"[83]
1984 75px Carlo Rubbia Italy "for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"[84]
Simon van der Meer Netherlands
1985 75px Klaus von Klitzing West Germany "for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"[85]
1986 Ernst Ruska West Germany "for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"[86]
75px Gerd Binnig West Germany "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"[86]
75px Heinrich Rohrer Switzerland
1987 75px Johannes Georg Bednorz West Germany "for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[87]
75px Karl Alexander Müller Switzerland
1988 75px Leon Max Lederman United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[88]
Melvin Schwartz United States
75px Jack Steinberger United States
1989 Norman Foster Ramsey United States "for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"[89]
Hans Georg Dehmelt United States "for the development of the ion trap technique"[89]
Wolfgang Paul West Germany
1990 Jerome I. Friedman United States "for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[90]
75px Henry Way Kendall United States
Richard E. Taylor Canada
1991 75px Pierre-Gilles de Gennes France "for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"[91]
1992 75px Georges Charpak France/Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[92]
1993 Russell Alan Hulse United States "for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"[93]
75px Joseph Hooton Taylor, Jr. United States
1994 75px Bertram Brockhouse Canada "for the development of neutron spectroscopy" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[94]
Clifford Glenwood Shull United States "for the development of the neutron diffraction technique" and "for pioneering contributions to the development of neutron scattering techniques for studies of condensed matter"[94]
1995 75px Martin Lewis Perl United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[95]
75px Frederick Reines United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[95]
1996 75px David Morris Lee United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[96]
75px Douglas D. Osheroff United States
75px Robert Coleman Richardson United States
1997 75px Steven Chu United States "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[97]
75px Claude Cohen-Tannoudji France
75px William Daniel Phillips United States
1998 75px Robert B. Laughlin United States "for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"[98]
75px Horst Ludwig Störmer Germany
Daniel Chee Tsui United States
1999 75px Gerard 't Hooft Netherlands "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"[99]
75px Martinus J. G. Veltman Netherlands
2000 75px Zhores Ivanovich Alferov Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[100]
Herbert Kroemer Germany
Jack St. Clair Kilby United States "for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"[100]
2001 75px Eric Allin Cornell United States "for the achievement of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"[101]
75px Carl Edwin Wieman United States
75px Wolfgang Ketterle Germany
2002 75px Raymond Davis, Jr. United States "for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"[102]
Masatoshi Koshiba Japan
75px Riccardo Giacconi Italy
United States
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"[102]
2003 75px Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov Russia "for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[103]
75px Vitaly Lazarevich Ginzburg Russia
75px Anthony James Leggett United Kingdom
United States
2004 75px David J. Gross United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[104]
Hugh David Politzer United States
75px Frank Wilczek United States
2005 75px Roy J. Glauber United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[105]
75px John L. Hall United States "for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"[105]
75px Theodor W. Hänsch Germany
2006 75px John C. Mather United States "for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"[106]
75px George F. Smoot United States
2007 75px Albert Fert France "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[107]
75px Peter Grünberg Germany
2008 75px Makoto Kobayashi Japan "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"[108]
75px Toshihide Maskawa Japan
75px Yoichiro Nambu Japan
United States
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"[108]
2009 75px Charles K. Kao Hong Kong
United Kingdom
United States
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"[109]
75px Willard S. Boyle Canada
United States
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor"[109]
75px George E. Smith United States
2010 75px Andre Geim Russia
Netherlands
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"[110]
75px Konstantin Novoselov Russia
United Kingdom
2011 75px Saul Perlmutter United States "for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"[111]
75px Brian P. Schmidt Australia
United States
75px Adam G. Riess United States
2012 75px Serge Haroche France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems."[112]
75px David J. Wineland United States
2013 75px François Englert Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[113]
75px Peter Higgs United Kingdom
2014 Isamu Akasaki Japan "for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"[114]
Hiroshi Amano Japan
Shuji Nakamura Japan
United States

See also

References

General
</dl>
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  104. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  105. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  106. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  107. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  108. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09. 
  109. ^ a b "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  110. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2010-10-05. 
  111. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2011-10-04. 
  112. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 9 October 2012. 
  113. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013 Press Release" (PDF). Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2013-10-08. 
  114. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2014-10-07. 
Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physics for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

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