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List of Nobel laureates in Physiology or Medicine

File:NobelPrize.JPG
Front side (obverse) of the Nobel Prize Medal for Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Swedish: Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) is awarded annually by the Swedish Karolinska Institute to scientists and doctors in the various fields of physiology or medicine. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the 1895 will of Alfred Nobel (who died in 1896), awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine.[1] As dictated by Nobel's will, the award is administered by the Nobel Foundation and awarded by a committee that consists of five members and an executive secretary elected by the Karolinska Institute.[2][3] While commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Medicine, Nobel specifically stated that the prize be awarded for "physiology or medicine" in his will. Because of this, the prize can be awarded in a broader range of fields.[3] The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1901 to Emil Adolf von Behring, of Germany. Each recipient receives a medal, a diploma and a monetary award that has varied throughout the years.[4] In 1901, von Behring received 150,782 SEK, which is equal to 7,731,004 SEK in December 2008. In 2013, the prize was awarded to James E. Rothman, Randy W. Schekman and Thomas C. Südhof;[5] they were recognised "after discovering how cells precisely transport material".[6] The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.[7]

Laureates have won the Nobel Prize in a wide range of fields that relate to physiology or medicine. As of 2009, 8 Prizes have been awarded for contributions in the field of signal transduction by G proteins and second messengers, 13 have been awarded for contributions in the field of neurobiology and 13 have been awarded for contributions in Intermediary Metabolism.[3] Gerhard Domagk (1939), a German, was not allowed by his government to accept the prize. He later received a medal and diploma, but not the money.[8] Eleven women have won the prize: Gerty Cori (1947), Rosalyn Yalow (1977), Barbara McClintock (1983), Rita Levi-Montalcini (1986), Gertrude B. Elion (1988), Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard (1995), Linda B. Buck (2004), Françoise Barré-Sinoussi (2008), Elizabeth H. Blackburn (2009), Carol W. Greider (2009), and May-Britt Moser[9] As of 2013, the prize has been awarded to 204 individuals. There have been nine years in which the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was not awarded (1915–1918, 1921, 1925, 1940–1942).

Laureates

1901–1950

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1901 75px Emil Adolf von Behring Germany "for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"[10]
1902 75px Sir Ronald Ross United Kingdom
India
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"[11]
1903 75px Niels Ryberg Finsen Denmark
(Faroe Islands)
"[for] his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"[12]
1904 75px Ivan Petrovich Pavlov Russia "in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"[13]
1905 75px Robert Koch Germany "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"[14]
1906 75px Camillo Golgi Italy "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"[15]
75px Santiago Ramón y Cajal Spain
1907 75px Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran France "in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"[16]
1908 75px Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity"[17]
75px Paul Ehrlich Germany
1909 75px Emil Theodor Kocher Switzerland "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[18]
1910 75px Albrecht Kossel Germany "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"[19]
1911 75px Allvar Gullstrand Sweden "for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"[20]
1912 75px Alexis Carrel France "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[21]
1913 75px Charles Richet France "[for] his work on anaphylaxis"[22]
1914 75px Robert Bárány Austria "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[23]
1915 Not awarded
1916
1917
1918
1919 75px Jules Bordet Belgium "for his discoveries relating to immunity"[24]
1920 75px Schack August Steenberg Krogh Denmark "for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"[25]
1921 Not awarded
1922 75px Archibald Vivian Hill United Kingdom "for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"[26]
75px Otto Fritz Meyerhof Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[26]
1923 75px Sir Frederick Grant Banting Canada "for the discovery of insulin"[27]
75px John James Rickard Macleod Canada
1924 75px Willem Einthoven The Netherlands "for the discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"[28]
1925 Not awarded
1926 75px Johannes Andreas Grib Fibiger Denmark "for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"[29]
1927 75px Julius Wagner-Jauregg Austria "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"[30]
1928 75px Charles Jules Henri Nicolle France "for his work on typhus"[31]
1929 75px Christiaan Eijkman The Netherlands "for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"[32]
75px Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins United Kingdom "for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"[32]
1930 75px Karl Landsteiner Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[33]
1931 75px Otto Heinrich Warburg Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[34]
1932 75px Sir Charles Scott Sherrington United Kingdom "for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"[35]
75px Edgar Douglas Adrian United Kingdom
1933 75px Thomas Hunt Morgan United States "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"[36]
1934 75px George Hoyt Whipple United States "for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"[37]
75px George Richards Minot United States
75px William Parry Murphy United States
1935 75px Hans Spemann Germany "for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"[38]
1936 75px Sir Henry Hallett Dale United Kingdom "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[39]
75px Otto Loewi Austria
1937 75px Albert Szent-Györgyi von Nagyrapolt Hungary "for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"[40]
1938 75px Corneille Jean François Heymans Belgium "for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"[41]
1939 75px Gerhard Domagk Germany "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"[42]
1940 Not awarded
1941
1942
1943 75px Carl Peter Henrik Dam Denmark "for his discovery of vitamin K"[43]
75px Edward Adelbert Doisy United States "for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"[43]
1944 75px Joseph Erlanger United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[44]
75px Herbert Spencer Gasser United States
1945 75px Sir Alexander Fleming United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[45]
75px Sir Ernst Boris Chain United Kingdom
75px Howard Walter Florey Australia
1946 75px Hermann Joseph Muller United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[46]
1947 75px Carl Ferdinand Cori United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[47]
75px Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz United States
75px Bernardo Alberto Houssay Argentina "for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"[47]
1948 75px Paul Hermann Müller Switzerland "for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"[48]
1949 75px Walter Rudolf Hess Switzerland "for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"[49]
75px António Caetano Egas Moniz Portugal "for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy (lobotomy) in certain psychoses"[49]
1950 75px Philip Showalter Hench United States "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[50]
75px Edward Calvin Kendall United States
75px Tadeusz Reichstein Switzerland
Poland

1951–2000

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
1951 75px Max Theiler South Africa "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"[51]
1952 75px Selman Abraham Waksman United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[52]
1953 75px Sir Hans Adolf Krebs United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[53]
75px Fritz Albert Lipmann United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[53]
1954 75px John Franklin Enders United States "for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"[54]
75px Frederick Chapman Robbins United States
75px Thomas Huckle Weller United States
1955 75px Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell Sweden "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"[55]
1956 75px André Frédéric Cournand United States "for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"[56]
75px Werner Forssmann Federal Republic of Germany
75px Dickinson W. Richards United States
1957 75px Daniel Bovet Italy "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"[57]
1958 75px George Wells Beadle United States "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"[58]
75px Edward Lawrie Tatum United States
75px Joshua Lederberg United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[58]
1959 75px Arthur Kornberg United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[59]
75px Severo Ochoa Spain
1960 75px Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Australia "for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"[60]
75px Sir Peter Brian Medawar Brazil
United Kingdom
1961 75px Georg von Békésy United States "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"[61]
1962 75px Francis Harry Compton Crick United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"[62]
75px James Dewey Watson United States
75px Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins New Zealand
United Kingdom
1963 75px Sir John Carew Eccles Australia "for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[63]
75px Sir Alan Lloyd Hodgkin United Kingdom
75px Sir Andrew Fielding Huxley United Kingdom
1964 75px Konrad Bloch United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[64]
75px Feodor Lynen Federal Republic of Germany
1965 75px François Jacob France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[65]
75px André Lwoff France
75px Jacques Monod France
1966 75px Peyton Rous United States "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"[66]
75px Charles Brenton Huggins United States "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"[66]
1967 75px Ragnar Granit Finland/Sweden "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[67]
75px Haldan Keffer Hartline United States
75px George Wald United States
1968 75px Robert W. Holley United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[68]
75px Har Gobind Khorana India
75px Marshall W. Nirenberg United States
1969 75px Max Delbrück United States "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[69]
75px Alfred D. Hershey United States
75px Salvador E. Luria Italy
United States
1970 75px Julius Axelrod United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[70]
75px Ulf von Euler Sweden
Sir Bernard Katz United Kingdom
1971 Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. United States "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"[71]
1972 Gerald M. Edelman United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[72]
Rodney R. Porter United Kingdom
1973 Karl von Frisch Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"[73]
75px Konrad Lorenz Austria
75px Nikolaas Tinbergen United Kingdom
1974 Albert Claude Belgium "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"[74]
Christian de Duve Belgium
George E. Palade Romania
1975 75px David Baltimore United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[75]
75px Renato Dulbecco Italy
United States
Howard Martin Temin United States
1976 75px Baruch S. Blumberg United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[76]
D. Carleton Gajdusek United States
1977 Roger Guillemin United States "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[77]
75px Andrew V. Schally United States
75px Rosalyn Yalow United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[77]
1978 75px Werner Arber Switzerland "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[78]
Daniel Nathans United States
75px Hamilton O. Smith United States
1979 Allan M. Cormack South Africa "for the development of computer assisted tomography"[79]
Sir Godfrey N. Hounsfield United Kingdom
1980 Baruj Benacerraf Venezuela "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[80]
75px Jean Dausset France
George D. Snell United States
1981 Roger W. Sperry United States "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"[81]
David H. Hubel Canada "for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"[81]
75px Torsten N. Wiesel Sweden
1982 75px Sune K. Bergström Sweden "for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"[82]
Bengt I. Samuelsson Sweden
75px Sir John R. Vane United Kingdom
1983 75px Barbara McClintock United States "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"[83]
1984 75px Niels K. Jerne Denmark "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[84]
Georges J.F. Köhler Federal Republic of Germany
75px César Milstein Argentina
United Kingdom
1985 75px Michael S. Brown United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[85]
75px Joseph L. Goldstein United States
1986 75px Stanley Cohen United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[86]
75px Rita Levi-Montalcini Italy
1987 Susumu Tonegawa Japan "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"[87]
1988 75px Sir James W. Black United Kingdom "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[88]
75px Gertrude B. Elion United States
75px George H. Hitchings United States
1989 75px J. Michael Bishop United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[89]
75px Harold E. Varmus United States
1990 Joseph E. Murray United States "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"[90]
E. Donnall Thomas United States
1991 75px Erwin Neher Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"[91]
75px Bert Sakmann Federal Republic of Germany
1992 Edmond H. Fischer Switzerland
United States
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"[92]
Edwin G. Krebs United States
1993 75px Sir Richard J. Roberts United Kingdom "for their discoveries of split genes"[93]
75px Phillip A. Sharp United States
1994 Alfred G. Gilman United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[94]
75px Martin Rodbell United States
1995 Edward B. Lewis United States "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"[95]
75px Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Federal Republic of Germany
75px Eric F. Wieschaus United States
1996 Peter C. Doherty Australia "for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"[96]
75px Rolf M. Zinkernagel Switzerland
1997 75px Stanley B. Prusiner United States "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"[97]
1998 75px Robert F. Furchgott United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[98]
75px Louis J. Ignarro United States
75px Ferid Murad United States
1999 75px Günter Blobel Germany/United States "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"[99]
2000 75px Arvid Carlsson Sweden "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[100]
75px Paul Greengard United States
75px Eric R. Kandel United States

2001–current

Year Laureate[A] Country[B] Rationale[C]
2001 Leland H. Hartwell United States "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"[101]
75px Sir Tim Hunt United Kingdom
75px Sir Paul M. Nurse United Kingdom
2002 Sydney Brenner South Africa "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[102]
H. Robert Horvitz United States
75px Sir John E. Sulston United Kingdom
2003 75px Paul Lauterbur United States "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"[103]
75px Sir Peter Mansfield United Kingdom
2004 75px Richard Axel United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[104]
75px Linda B. Buck United States
2005 75px Barry J. Marshall Australia "for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"[105]
75px J. Robin Warren Australia
2006 75px Andrew Z. Fire United States "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[106]
Craig C. Mello United States
2007 75px Mario R. Capecchi United States "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells."[107]
75px Sir Martin J. Evans United Kingdom
75px Oliver Smithies United States
2008 75px Harald zur Hausen Germany "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"[108]
75px Françoise Barré-Sinoussi France "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"[108]
75px Luc Montagnier France
2009 75px Elizabeth H. Blackburn United States
Australia
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"[109]
75px Carol W. Greider United States
75px Jack W. Szostak United States
2010 Sir Robert G. Edwards United Kingdom "for the development of in vitro fertilization"[110]
2011
75px Bruce A. Beutler United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"[111]
75px Jules A. Hoffmann France
Ralph M. Steinman United States
Canada
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[111]
(awarded posthumously)[112][113]
2012 75px Sir John B. Gurdon United Kingdom "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[114]
Shinya Yamanaka Shinya Yamanaka Japan
2013 James E. Rothman United States "for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[5]
75px Randy W. Schekman United States
Thomas C. Südhof United States
2014 75px John O'Keefe United States
United Kingdom
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"
75px May-Britt Moser Norway
75px Edvard I. Moser Norway

Notes

^ A. The form and spelling of the names in the name column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. Alternative spellings and name forms, where they exist, are given at the articles linked from this column. Where available, an image of each Nobel laureate is provided. For the official pictures provided by the Nobel Foundation, see the pages for each Nobel laureate at nobelprize.org.

^ B. The information in the country column is according to nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. This information may not necessarily reflect the recipient's birthplace or citizenship.

^ C. The citation for each award is quoted (not always in full) from nobelprize.org, the official website of the Nobel Foundation. The links in this column are to articles (or sections of articles) on the history and areas of physiology and medicine for which the awards were presented. The links are intended only as a guide and explanation. For a full account of the work done by each Nobel laureate, please see the biography articles linked from the name column.

References

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External links

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