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List of United States Senators from Maryland

This is a List of United States Senators from Maryland. Maryland ratified the Constitution on April 28, 1788, becoming the seventh state to do so.[1] To provide for continuity of government, the framers divided Senators into staggered classes that serve six-year terms, and Maryland's Senators are in the first and third classes.[2] Before the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1913, which allowed for direct election of Senators, Maryland's Senators were chosen by the Maryland General Assembly. Until the assembly appointed George L. Wellington of Cumberland in 1897, Senators in class 3 were chosen from the Eastern Shore while Senators in class 1 were chosen from the remainder of the state.

Class 1

Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for one session of the U.S. Congress in the first election of 1789 and whose seats in recent years are contested in 1994, 2000, 2006, and 2012.

# Senator Party Years Congress Term Electoral history
1 75px Charles Carroll Pro-
Administration
March 4, 1789 –
November 30, 1792
1 1 Elected in 1789.
2 2 Re-elected in 1791.

Resigned to remain in the Maryland Senate.
Vacant November 30, 1792 –
January 10, 1793
2 75px Richard Potts Pro-
Administration
January 10, 1793 –
October 24, 1796
2
(Continued)
Elected to finish Carroll's term.

Resigned.
3
4
Vacant October 24, 1796 –
November 30, 1796
3 75px John Eager Howard Federalist November 30, 1796 –
March 3, 1803
4
(Continued)
Elected to finish Potts's term.
5 3 Re-elected in 1796.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
6
7
4 75px Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1815
8 4 Elected in 1803.
9
10
11 5 Re-elected in 1809.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
12
13
Vacant March 4, 1815 –
February 4, 1816
14 6 Legislature failed to elect
5 75px Robert Goodloe Harper Federalist February 5, 1816 –
December 6, 1816
Elected late in 1816.

Resigned.
Vacant December 6, 1816 –
December 20, 1816
6 75px Alexander Contee Hanson Federalist December 20, 1816 –
April 23, 1819
14
(Continued)
Elected to finish Harper's term.

Died.
15
16
Vacant April 23, 1819 –
December 21, 1819
7 75px William Pinkney Democratic-Republican December 21, 1819 –
February 25, 1822
16
(Continued)
Elected to finish Hanson's term.
17 7 Re-elected in 1821.

Died.
Vacant February 25, 1822 –
December 17, 1822
8 75px Samuel Smith Democratic-Republican December 17, 1822 –
March 3, 1833
17
(Continued)
Elected to finish Pinkney's term.
Crawford
Republican
18
Jacksonian 19
20 8 Re-elected in 1827.
21
22
9 75px Joseph Kent Anti-
Jacksonian
March 4, 1833 –
November 24, 1837
23 9 Elected in 1833.

Died.
24
Whig 25
Vacant November 24, 1837 –
January 4, 1838
10 William Duhurst Merrick Whig January 4, 1838 –
March 3, 1845
25
(Continued)
Elected to finish Kent's term.
26 10 Re-elected in 1839.
27
28
11 75px Reverdy Johnson Whig March 4, 1845 –
March 7, 1849
29 11 Elected in 1845.

Resigned to become U.S. Attorney General.
30
31
Vacant March 7, 1849 –
December 6, 1849
12 75px David Stewart Whig December 6, 1849 –
January 12, 1850
Appointed to continue Johnson's term.

Retired when successor elected.
13 75px Thomas Pratt Whig January 12, 1850 –
March 3, 1857
Elected to finish Johnson's term.
32 12 Re-elected in 1851.
33
34
14 75px Anthony Kennedy American March 4, 1857 –
March 3, 1863
35 13 Elected in 1857.
36
37
15 75px Reverdy Johnson Unionist/
Democratic
March 4, 1863 –
July 10, 1868
38 14 Elected in 1863.

Resigned to become Ambassador to England.
39
40
Vacant July 10, 1868 –
July 13, 1868
16 75px William Pinkney Whyte Democratic July 13, 1868 –
March 3, 1869
40
(Continued)
Appointed to finish Johnson's term.

Retired.
17 75px William Thomas Hamilton Democratic March 4, 1869 –
March 3, 1875
41 15 Elected in 1869.

Retired to run for Governor.
42
43
18 75px William Pinkney Whyte Democratic March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1881
44 16 Elected in 1875.

Lost re-election.
45
46
19 75px Arthur Pue Gorman Democratic March 4, 1881 –
March 3, 1899
47 17 Elected in 1881.
48
49
50 18 Re-elected in 1887.
51
52
53 19 Elected in 1893.

Lost re-election.
54
55
20 75px Louis E. McComas Republican March 4, 1899 –
March 3, 1905
56 20 Elected in 1899.

Retired to become judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals.
57
58
21 75px Isidor Rayner Democratic March 4, 1905 –
November 25, 1912
59 21 Elected in 1905.
60
61
62 22 Re-elected in 1911.

Died.
Vacant November 25, 1912 –
November 29, 1912
22 75px William P. Jackson Republican November 29, 1912 –
January 28, 1914
62
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Rayner's term.

Retired when successor elected.
63
23 75px Blair Lee Democratic January 28, 1914 –
March 3, 1917
Elected to finish Rayner's term.

Lost re-election.
64
24 75px Joseph I. France Republican March 4, 1917 –
March 3, 1923
65 23 Elected in 1916.

Lost re-election.
66
67
25 75px William Cabell Bruce Democratic March 4, 1923 –
March 3, 1929
68 24 Elected in 1922.

Lost re-election.
69
70
26 75px Phillips Lee Goldsborough Republican March 4, 1929 –
January 3, 1935
71 25 Elected in 1928.

Retired to run for Governor.
72
73
27 75px George L. P. Radcliffe Democratic January 3, 1935 –
January 3, 1947
74 26 Elected in 1934.
75
76
77 27 Re-elected in 1940.

Lost renomination.
78
79
28 75px Herbert O'Conor Democratic January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
80 28 Elected in 1946.

Retired.
81
82
29 75px James Glenn Beall Republican January 3, 1953 –
January 3, 1965
83 29 Elected in 1952.
84
85
86 30 Re-elected in 1958.

Lost re-election.
87
88
30 75px Joseph Tydings Democratic January 3, 1965 –
January 3, 1971
89 31 Elected in 1964.

Lost re-election.
90
91
31 75px John Glenn Beall Republican January 3, 1971 –
January 3, 1977
92 32 Elected in 1970.

Lost re-election.
93
94
32 75px Paul Sarbanes Democratic January 3, 1977 –
January 3, 2007
95 33 Elected in 1976.
96
97
98 34 Re-elected in 1982.
99
100
101 35 Re-elected in 1988.
102
103
104 36 Re-elected in 1994.
105
106
107 37 Re-elected in 2000.

Retired.
108
109
33 75px Benjamin L. Cardin Democratic January 3, 2007 –
Present
110 38 Elected in 2006.
111
112
113 39 Re-elected in 2012.
114
115

Class 3

Class 3 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for three sessions of the U.S. Congress in the first election of 1789 and whose seats in recent years are contested in 1998, 2004, 2010, and 2016.

# Senator Party Years Congress Term Electoral history
1 John Henry Pro-
Administration
March 4, 1789 –
December 10, 1797
1 1 Elected in 1789.
2
3
4 2 Re-elected in 1795.

Resigned to become Governor of Maryland.
5
2 James Lloyd Federalist December 11, 1797 –
December 1, 1800
Elected to finish Henry's term.

Resigned.
6
Vacant December 1, 1800 –
December 12, 1800
3 75px William Hindman Federalist December 12, 1800 –
November 19, 1801
6
(Continued)
Elected to finish Lloyd's term.
7 3 Appointed to fill the vacancy after the Legislature failed to elect.

Retired when successor elected.
4 75px Robert Wright Democratic-Republican November 19, 1801 –
November 12, 1806
Elected to finish term.

Resigned to become Governor of Maryland.
8
9
Vacant November 12, 1806 –
November 25, 1806
5 75px Philip Reed Democratic-Republican November 25, 1806 –
March 3, 1813
9
(Continued)
Elected to finish Wright's term.
10 4 Re-elected in 1806.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
11
12
Vacant March 3, 1813 –
May 21, 1813
Legislature failed to elect
6 Robert Henry Goldsborough Federalist May 21, 1813 –
March 3, 1819
13 5 Elected in 1813 to finish term.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!] .
14
15
7 75px Edward Lloyd Democratic-Republican March 4, 1819 –
January 14, 1826
16 6 Elected in 1819.
17
Crawford Republican 18
Jacksonian 19 7 Re-elected in 1825.

Resigned.
Vacant January 14, 1826 –
January 24, 1826
8 75px Ezekiel F. Chambers National Republican January 24, 1826 –
December 20, 1834
19
(Continued)
Elected to finish Lloyd's term.
20
21
22 8 Re-elected in 1831.

Resigned to become judge of the Maryland Court of Appeals.
23
Vacant December 20, 1834 –
January 13, 1835
9 Robert Henry Goldsborough Anti-
Jacksonian
January 13, 1835 –
October 5, 1836
23
(Continued)
Elected to finish Chambers's term.

Died.
24
Vacant October 5, 1836 –
December 31, 1836
10 John S. Spence Anti-
Jacksonian
December 31, 1836 –
October 24, 1840
24
(Continued)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Whig 25 9 Re-elected in 1837.

Died.
26
Vacant October 24, 1840 –
January 5, 1841
11 75px John Leeds Kerr Whig January 5, 1841 –
March 3, 1843
26
(Continued)
Elected to finish Spence's term.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
27
12 75px James Pearce Whig March 4, 1843 –
December 20, 1862
28 10 Elected in 1843.
29
30
31 11 Re-elected in 1849.
32
33
34 12 Re-elected in 1855.
Democratic 35
36
37 13 Re-elected in 1861.

Died.
Vacant December 20, 1862 –
December 29, 1862
13 75px Thomas Holliday Hicks Unionist December 29, 1862 –
February 14, 1865
37
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Pearce's term.

Elected to finish Pearce's term.

Died.
38
Vacant February 14, 1865 –
March 9, 1865
38
39
14 75px John Creswell Unionist March 9, 1865 –
March 3, 1867
39
(Continued)
Elected to finish Hicks's term.
Vacant March 4, 1867 –
March 7, 1868
40 14 Senator-elect Philip F. Thomas failed to qualify
15 75px George Vickers Democratic March 7, 1868 –
March 3, 1873
40
(Continued)
Elected to finish Thomas's term.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
41
42
16 75px George R. Dennis Democratic March 4, 1873 –
March 3, 1879
43 15 Elected in 1873.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
44
45
17 75px James Black Groome Democratic March 4, 1879 –
March 3, 1885
46 16 Elected in 1879.

[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
47
48
18 75px Ephraim Wilson Democratic March 4, 1885 –
February 24, 1891
49 17 Elected in 1884.

Died.
50
51
Vacant February 24, 1891 –
November 19, 1891
51
(Continued)
52 18
19 75px Charles Hopper Gibson Democratic November 19, 1891 –
March 3, 1897
52
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Wilson's term.

Elected to finish Wilson's term.
53
54
20 75px George L. Wellington Republican March 4, 1897 –
March 3, 1903
55 19 Elected in 1896.

Retired.
56
57
21 75px Arthur Pue Gorman Democratic March 4, 1903 –
June 4, 1906
58 20 Elected in 1902.

Died.
59
Vacant June 4, 1906 –
June 8, 1906
22 75px William Pinkney Whyte Democratic June 8, 1906 –
March 17, 1908
59
(Continued)
Appointed to continue Gorman's term.

Elected to finish Gorman's term.

Died.
60
Vacant March 17, 1908 –
March 25, 1908
23 75px John Walter Smith Democratic March 25, 1908 –
March 3, 1921
60
(Continued)
Elected to finish Whyte's term.
61 21 Re-elected in 1909.
62
63
64 22 Re-elected in 1914.

Lost re-election.
65
66
24 75px Ovington Weller Republican March 4, 1921 –
March 3, 1927
67 23 Elected in 1920.

Lost re-election.
68
69
25 75px Millard E. Tydings Democratic March 4, 1927 –
January 3, 1951
70 24 Elected in 1926.
71
72
73 25 Re-elected in 1932.
74
75
76 26 Re-elected in 1938.
77
78
79 27 Re-elected in 1944.

Lost re-election.
80
81
26 75px John Marshall Butler Republican January 3, 1951 –
January 2, 1963
82 28 Elected in 1950.
83
84
85 29 Re-elected in 1956.

Retired.
86
87
27 75px Daniel B. Brewster Democratic January 3, 1963 –
January 3, 1969
88 30 Elected in 1962.

Lost re-election.
89
90
28 75px Charles Mathias Republican January 3, 1969 –
January 3, 1987
91 31 Elected in 1968.
92
93
94 32 Re-elected in 1974.
95
96
97 33 Re-elected in 1980.

Retired.
98
99
29 75px Barbara Mikulski Democratic January 3, 1987 –
Present
100 34 Elected in 1986.
101
102
103 35 Re-elected in 1992.
104
105
106 36 Re-elected in 1998.
107
108
109 37 Re-elected in 2004.
110
111
112 38 Re-elected in 2010.

Will retire in 2017.[citation needed]
113
114

Living former U.S. Senators from Maryland

As of April 2015, there are two former U.S. Senators from the U.S. State of Maryland who are currently living at this time, two from Class 1.

Senator Term of office Class Date of birth (and age)
Joseph Tydings 1965–1971 1 (1928-05-04) May 4, 1928 (age 87)
Paul Sarbanes 1977–2007 1 (1933-02-03) February 3, 1933 (age 83)

Notes

  1. "Maryland Historical Chronology, 1700-1799". Maryland State Archives. Retrieved June 27, 2007. 
  2. "The Senate and the United States Constitution". United States senate Historical Office. Retrieved June 27, 2007. 

See also