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List of United States Senators from Massachusetts

This is a chronological listing of the United States Senators from Massachusetts. United States Senators are popularly elected, for a six-year term, beginning January 3. Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1. Before 1914, they were chosen by the Massachusetts General Court, and before 1935, their terms began March 4. The current Senators are Democrats Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey.

Mid-term vacancy appointment processes

Through the 20th century, mid-term vacancies were filled with the governor's appointee, with the appointment expiring at the next biennial state election. In 2004, the Democratic-controlled state legislature changed the vacancy-filling process, mandating that a special election occur, which removed the Governor's appointment power. This statute was enacted over the veto by the Governor, Mitt Romney. The leadership of the Massachusetts legislature at the time was concerned that the Republican governor Mitt Romney would appoint a Republican if Democratic Senator John Kerry were elected President of the United States in the 2004 election.[1][2][3][4] Generally, the law requires a special election within 145 to 160 days from the date of the filing of a Senate resignation. The law contemplates resignations that become effective some period of time after the filing of the resignation, so long as the election occurs after effective date of the resignation.[5]

While terminally ill with brain cancer, Ted Kennedy requested that the Massachusetts legislature change the law to allow an interim appointment. Kennedy died shortly thereafter, and the legislature quickly passed a bill providing for an interim appointment.[6] On September 24, 2009, Governor Patrick signed the bill and appointed Paul G. Kirk, who had previously served as one of Kennedy's congressional aides and as chairman of the Democratic National Committee.

List of Senators

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Class 1

Class 1 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for only one Congress in the first elections of 1788/1789, and the seat was contested again for the 2nd, 5th, and every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. The seat in recent years has been contested in 2000, 2006, and 2012, with a special election in 2010. The next election will be in 2018.

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. Senators belong to the electoral cycle that were elected for the first two United States Congresses in the first election of 1788/1789, and the seat was next contested again for the 3rd, 6th, and every three Congresses (six years) thereafter. The seat in recent years has been contested in 2002, 2008, and 2014, with a special election taking place in 2013. The next election will be in 2020.

# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
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Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
1 100px
Tristram Dalton
Pro-
Administration
March 4, 1789 –
March 3, 1791
Elected in 1789.

Lost re-election.
1 1st Congress 1 Elected in 1789. March 4, 1789 –
June 1, 1796
Pro-
Administration
100px
Caleb Strong
1
2 100px
George Cabot
Pro-
Administration
March 4, 1791 –
June 9, 1796
Elected in 1790.

Resigned.
2 2nd Congress
3rd Congress 2 Re-elected in 1793.

Resigned.
Federalist 4th Congress Federalist
Vacant June 9, 1796 –
June 11, 1796
Vacant Vacant June 1, 1796 –
June 11, 1796
Vacant
3 100px
Benjamin Goodhue
Federalist June 11, 1796 –
November 8, 1800
Elected to finish Cabot's term. Elected to finish Strong's term.

Retired to run for the U.S. House of Representatives.
June 11, 1796 –
March 3, 1799
Federalist 100px
Theodore Sedgwick
2
Also elected to full term in 1796.

Resigned.
3 5th Congress
6th Congress 3 Elected in 1799.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of War.
March 4, 1799 –
May 30, 1800
Federalist 100px
Samuel Dexter
3
Vacant May 31, 1800 –
June 5, 1800
Vacant
Elected to finish Dexter's term.

Resigned.
June 6, 1800 –
March 2, 1803
Federalist 100px
Dwight Foster
4
Vacant November 8, 1800 –
November 14, 1800
Vacant
4 100px
Jonathan Mason
Federalist November 14, 1800 –
March 3, 1803
Elected to finish Goodhue's term.
7th Congress
Vacant March 2, 1803 –
March 4, 1803
Vacant
5 100px
John Quincy Adams
Federalist March 4, 1803 –
June 8, 1808
Elected in 1802.

Resigned, having broken with the Federalist Party and lost re-election to the next term.
4 8th Congress Elected to finish Foster's term. March 4, 1803 –
March 3, 1811
Federalist 100px
Timothy Pickering
5
9th Congress 4 Re-elected in 1804.

Lost re-election.
10th Congress
6 100px
James Lloyd
Federalist June 9, 1808 –
May 1, 1813
Elected to finish Adams's term, having already been elected to the next term.
Elected to full term in 1808.

Resigned.
5 11th Congress
12th Congress 5 The State Senate deadlocked in the 1810 election. March 4, 1811 –
June 28, 1811
Vacant
Elected after the spring 1811 state elections gave Democratic-Republicans control of the body. June 29, 1811 –
March 3, 1817
Democratic-
Republican
100px
Joseph Bradley Varnum
6
13th Congress
Vacant May 1, 1813 –
May 5, 1813
Vacant
7 100px
Christopher Gore
Federalist May 5, 1813 –
May 30, 1816
Appointed to finish Lloyd's term.
Elected to full term in 1815.

Resigned, unhappy with the politics of Washington and suffering from poor health.
6 14th Congress
Vacant May 31, 1816 –
June 11, 1816
Vacant
8 Eli P. Ashmun Federalist June 12, 1816 –
May 10, 1818
Elected to finish Gore's term.

Resigned.
15th Congress 6 Elected in 1817.

Resigned.
March 4, 1817 –
May 30, 1822
Federalist 100px
Harrison Gray Otis
7
Vacant May 11, 1818 –
June 4, 1818
Vacant
9 100px
Prentiss Mellen
Federalist June 5, 1818 –
May 15, 1820
Elected to finish Ashmun's term.

Resigned to become Chief Justice of Maine.
16th Congress
Vacant May 16, 1820 –
June 12, 1820
Vacant
10 100px
Elijah H. Mills
Federalist June 12, 1820 –
March 3, 1827
Elected to finish Mellen's term.
Re-elected in 1820.

Lost re-election in 1826.
7 17th Congress
Vacant May 30, 1822 –
June 5, 1822
Vacant
Elected to finish Otis's term. June 5, 1822 –
May 23, 1826
Federalist 100px
James Lloyd
8
Adams-Clay
Federalist
18th Congress 7 Re-elected in 1822.

Resigned.
Adams-Clay
Federalist
Anti-
Jacksonian
19th Congress Anti-
Jacksonian
Vacant May 23, 1826 –
May 31, 1826
Vacant
Elected to finish Lloyd's term. May 31, 1826 –
March 3, 1835
Anti-
Jacksonian
100px
Nathaniel Silsbee
9
Vacant March 4, 1827 –
June 8, 1827
Vacant 8 20th Congress Adams
11 100px
Daniel Webster
Adams June 8, 1827 –
February 22, 1841
Elected late in 1827.
21st Congress 8 Re-elected in 1828.

Retired.
Anti-
Jacksonian
Anti-
Jacksonian
22nd Congress
Re-elected in 1833. 9 23rd Congress
24th Congress 9 Elected in 1835.

Resigned to become Governor of Massachusetts.
March 4, 1835 –
January 5, 1841
Anti-
Jacksonian
100px
John Davis
10
Whig 25th Congress Whig
Re-elected in 1839.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
10 26th Congress
Vacant January 5, 1841 –
January 13, 1841
Vacant
Appointed to finish Davis's term. January 13, 1841 –
March 16, 1845
Whig 100px
Isaac C. Bates
11
12 100px
Rufus Choate
Whig February 23, 1841 –
March 3, 1845
Elected to finish Webster's term.

Retired.
27th Congress 10 Elected to full term in 1841.

Died.
28th Congress
13 100px
Daniel Webster
Whig March 4, 1845 –
July 22, 1850
Elected in 1845.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State again.
11 29th Congress
Vacant March 16, 1845 –
March 24, 1845
Vacant
Elected to finish Bates's term. March 24, 1845 –
March 3, 1853
Whig 100px
John Davis
12
30th Congress 11 Re-elected in 1847.

Retired.
31st Congress
Vacant July 23, 1850 –
July 30, 1850
Vacant
14 100px
Robert Charles Winthrop
Whig July 30, 1850 –
February 1, 1851
Appointed to continue Webster's term.

Lost election to finish Webster's term.
15 100px
Robert Rantoul, Jr.
Democratic February 1, 1851 –
March 3, 1851
Elected to finish Webster's term.

Retired.
Vacant March 4, 1851 –
April 24, 1851
In 1851, Democrats gained control of the Massachusetts General Court in coalition with the Free Soilers. However, the legislature deadlocked on who should succeed Daniel Webster. Democrats refused to vote for Charles Sumner (the Free Soilers' choice). Sumner was eventually elected late. 12 32nd Congress
16 100px
Charles Sumner
Free Soil April 24, 1851 –
March 11, 1874
33rd Congress 12 Elected in 1853.

Resigned.
March 4, 1853 –
June 1, 1854
Whig 100px
Edward Everett
13
Vacant June 1, 1854 –
June 3, 1854
Vacant
Appointed to continue Everett's term.

Successor was elected.
June 3, 1854 –
January 31, 1855
Whig 100px
Julius Rockwell
14
Elected to finish Everett's term. January 31, 1855 –
March 3, 1873
Free Soil 100px
Henry Wilson
15
Opposition 34th Congress Know-nothing
Opposition
Republican Re-elected in 1857. 13 35th Congress Republican
36th Congress 13 Re-elected in 1859.
37th Congress
Re-elected in 1863. 14 38th Congress
39th Congress 14 Re-elected in 1865.
40th Congress
Re-elected in 1869.

Died.
15 41st Congress
42nd Congress 15 Re-elected in 1871.

Resigned to become U.S. Vice President.
43rd Congress Vacant March 3, 1873 –
March 17, 1873
Vacant
Elected to finish Wilson's term. March 17, 1873 –
March 3, 1877
Republican 100px
George S. Boutwell
16
Vacant March 12, 1874 –
April 16, 1874
Vacant
17 100px
William B. Washburn
Republican April 17, 1874 –
March 3, 1875
Elected to finish Sumner's term.

Retired.
18 100px
Henry L. Dawes
Republican March 4, 1875 –
March 3, 1893
Elected in 1875. 16 44th Congress
45th Congress 16 Elected in 1877. March 4, 1877 –
September 30, 1904
Republican 100px
George Frisbie Hoar
17
46th Congress
Re-elected in 1881. 17 47th Congress
48th Congress 17 Re-elected in 1883.
49th Congress
Re-elected in 1887.

Retired.
18 50th Congress
51st Congress 18 Re-elected in 1889.
52nd Congress
19 100px
Henry Cabot Lodge
Republican March 4, 1893 –
November 9, 1924
Elected in 1893. 19 53rd Congress
54th Congress 19 Re-elected in 1895.
55th Congress
Re-elected in 1898. 20 56th Congress
57th Congress 20 Re-elected in 1901.

Died.
58th Congress
Vacant September 30, 1904 –
October 12, 1904
Vacant
Appointed to continue Hoar's term.

Elected to finish Hoar's term.
October 12, 1904 –
March 3, 1913
Republican 100px
Winthrop M. Crane
18
Re-elected in 1904. 21 59th Congress
60th Congress 21 Re-elected in 1907.

Retired.
61st Congress
Re-elected in 1910. 22 62nd Congress
63rd Congress 22 Elected in 1912.

Lost re-election.
March 4, 1913 –
March 3, 1919
Republican 100px
John W. Weeks
19
64th Congress
Re-elected in 1916. 23 65th Congress
66th Congress 23 Elected in 1918.

Lost re-election.
March 4, 1919 –
March 3, 1925
Democratic 100px
David I. Walsh
20
67th Congress
Re-elected in 1922.

Died.
24 68th Congress
Vacant November 9, 1924 –
November 13, 1924
Vacant
20 100px
William M. Butler
Republican November 13, 1924 –
December 6, 1926
Appointed to continue Lodge's term.

Lost election to finish Lodge's term.
69th Congress 24 Elected in 1924.

Retired.
March 4, 1925 –
March 3, 1931
Republican 100px
Frederick H. Gillett
21
21 100px
David I. Walsh
Democratic December 6, 1926 –
January 3, 1947
Elected to finish Lodge's term.
70th Congress
Re-elected in 1928. 25 71st Congress
72nd Congress 25 Elected in 1930.

Retired.
March 4, 1931 –
January 3, 1937
Democratic 100px
Marcus A. Coolidge
22
73rd Congress
Re-elected in 1934. 26 74th Congress
75th Congress 26 Elected in 1936. January 3, 1937 –
February 3, 1944
Republican 100px
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
23
76th Congress
Re-elected in 1940.

Lost re-election.
27 77th Congress
78th Congress 27 Re-elected in 1942.

Resigned to return to active duty in the U.S. Army.
Vacant February 4, 1944 –
February 7, 1944
Vacant
Appointed to continue Lodge's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term and resigned early.
February 8, 1944 –
December 19, 1944
Republican 100px
Sinclair Weeks
24
Vacant December 19, 1944 –
January 3, 1945
Vacant
79th Congress Elected to finish Lodge's term. January 3, 1945 –
January 3, 1967
Republican 100px
Leverett Saltonstall
25
22 100px
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Republican January 3, 1947 –
January 3, 1953
Elected in 1946.

Lost re-election.
28 80th Congress
81st Congress 28 Re-elected in 1948.
82nd Congress
23 100px
John F. Kennedy
Democratic January 3, 1953 –
December 22, 1960
Elected in 1952. 29 83rd Congress
84th Congress 29 Re-elected in 1954.
85th Congress
Re-elected in 1958.

Resigned to become U.S. President.
30 86th Congress
Vacant December 22, 1960 –
December 27, 1960
Vacant
24 100px
Benjamin Smith
Democratic December 27, 1960 –
November 7, 1962
Appointed to continue John Kennedy's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term.
87th Congress 30 Re-elected in 1960.

Retired.
25 100px.

100px
Ted Kennedy.
Democratic November 7, 1962 –
August 25, 2009
Elected to finish his brother's term.
88th Congress
Re-elected in 1964. 31 89th Congress
90th Congress 31 Elected in 1966. January 3, 1967 –
January 3, 1979
Republican 100px
Edward Brooke
26
91st Congress
Re-elected in 1970. 32 92nd Congress
93rd Congress 32 Re-elected in 1972.

Lost re-election.
94th Congress
Re-elected in 1976. 33 95th Congress
96th Congress 33 Elected in 1978.

Retired, then resigned early to give successor preferential seniority.
January 3, 1979 –
January 2, 1985
Democratic 100px
Paul Tsongas
27
97th Congress
Re-elected in 1982. 34 98th Congress
Appointed early to finish Tsongas's term, having already been elected to the next term. January 2, 1985 –
February 1, 2013
Democratic 100px
John Kerry
28
99th Congress 34 Elected in 1984.
100th Congress
Re-elected in 1988. 35 101st Congress
102nd Congress 35 Re-elected in 1990.
103rd Congress
Re-elected in 1994. 36 104th Congress
105th Congress 36 Re-elected in 1996.
106th Congress
Re-elected in 2000. 37 107th Congress
108th Congress 37 Re-elected in 2002.
109th Congress
Re-elected in 2006.

Died.
38 110th Congress
111th Congress 38 Re-elected in 2008.

Resigned to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Vacant August 25, 2009 –
September 24, 2009
Vacant
26 100px
Paul G. Kirk
Democratic September 24, 2009 –
February 4, 2010
Appointed to continue Ted Kennedy's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term.[7]
27 100px
Scott Brown
Republican February 4, 2010 –
January 3, 2013
Elected to finish Ted Kennedy's term.

Lost re-election.
112th Congress
28 100px
Elizabeth Warren
Democratic January 3, 2013 –
Present
Elected in 2012. 39 113th Congress
Appointed to continue Kerry's term.

Did not run for election to finish the term.[8]
February 1, 2013 –
July 16, 2013
Democratic 100px
Mo Cowan
29
Elected to finish Kerry's term. July 16, 2013 –
Present
Democratic 100px
Ed Markey
30
114th Congress 39 Re-elected in 2014.
115th Congress
To be determined in the 2018 election. 40 116th Congress
117th Congress 40 To be determined in the 2020 election.
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T
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Class 1 Class 2

Living former U.S. Senators from Massachusetts

As of April 2015, there are four former U.S. Senators from Massachusetts who are currently living at this time, two from Class 1 and two from Class 2.

Senator Term of office Class Date of birth (and age)
John Kerry 1985–2013 2 (1943-12-11) December 11, 1943 (age 72)
Paul G. Kirk 2009–2010 1 (1938-01-18) January 18, 1938 (age 78)
Scott Brown 2010–2013 1 (1959-09-12) September 12, 1959 (age 56)
Mo Cowan 2013 2 (1969-04-04) April 4, 1969 (age 46)

References

  1. Belluck, Pam (June 25, 2004). "Massachusetts Politicians Fight Over a Kerry Victory". New York times. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  2. Zezima, Katie (July 2, 2004). "National Briefing: Massachusetts: Senate Approves Interim-Appointment Bill". New York Times. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  3. Greenberger, Scott S. (July 31, 2004). "Romney veto overridden: Governor can no longer fill vacancies in the US Senate". Boston Globe. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  4. Anderson, Rob (July 16, 2004). "Devil in the Details: After Kerry, The Deluge". The American Prospect. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  5. "Chapter 236 of the Acts of 2004". Acts of 2004 (Session Laws). The General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. July 30, 2004. Retrieved May 21, 2008. 
  6. Viser, Matt (September 23, 2009). "Legislature gives final approval to bill to fill Kennedy seat". The Boston Globe. Retrieved September 23, 2009. 
  7. "Paul Kirk officially appointed state’s interim senator". September 25, 2009. Retrieved September 25, 2009. 
  8. Battenfeld, Joe; Chabot, Hillary; Cassidy, Chris (January 30, 2013). "Gov names adviser Mo Cowan to interim Senate post". Boston Herald. Retrieved January 30, 2013.