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List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names

The following is a partial list of adjectival forms of place names in English and their demonymic equivalents, which denote the people or the inhabitants of these places.

Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by replacing the "-o" with "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.

Adjectives ending -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g., the adjective Czech does not qualify).

Where an adjective is a link, the link is to the language or dialect of the same name. (Reference: Ethnologue, Languages of the World)

Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)



Entries in italics are continental regions.

Name Adjective Demonym</tr> Africa African Africans</tr> Afro-Eurasia Afro-Eurasian Afro-Eurasians</tr> Antarctica Antarctic Antarctican</tr> Americas Americana Americansa</tr> Asia Asian Asians</tr> Middle East Middle Eastern Middle Easterners</tr> Australasia Australasian Australasians</tr> Australia Australianb Australiansb</tr> Eurasia Eurasian Eurasians</tr> Europe European Europeans</tr> North America North American North Americans</tr> Central America Central American Central Americans</tr> Oceania Oceanian Oceanians</tr> South America South American South Americans</tr>

aUsually used to identify specifically the United States of America or its people.
bUsually used to identify specifically the Commonwealth of Australia or its people.

Subcontinental regions

Countries and nations

States, Provinces, Regions and Territories

Australian states and territories

State/territory Adjective Demonym
Australian Capital Territory Canberran Canberrans  
New South Wales New South Welsh New South Welshmen "Waratahs", "Cockroaches", "Blues"
Northern Territory Northern Territory Territorians "Top Enders"
Queensland Queensland Queenslanders "Banana Benders", "Cane Toads", "Maroons"
South Australia South Australian South Australians "Crow Eaters"
Tasmania Tasmanian Tasmanians "Apple Eaters", "Taswegians", "Tazzies"
Victoria Victorian Victorians "Vics", "Mexicans"
Western Australia Western Australian Western Australians "Sandgropers", "Westralians"

Canadian provinces and territories

Province Adjective Demonym</tr> colloquial</tr>
Alberta Albertan Albertans</tr> British Columbia British Columbian  ("B.C.") British Columbians "B.C.ers"</tr> Manitoba Manitoban Manitobans</tr> New Brunswick New Brunswick New Brunswickers</tr> Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundland and Labrador Newfoundlanders, Labradorians "Newfies"</tr> Northwest Territories Northwest Territorian   ("N.W.T.") Northwest Territorians "N.W.T.ers"</tr> Nunavut Nunavut Nunavummiut (sing. Nunavummiuq)</tr> Nova Scotia Nova Scotian Nova Scotians "Bluenosers"</tr> Ontario Ontario Ontarians</tr> Prince Edward Island Prince Edward Island, P.E.I., Island Islanders</tr> Quebec Quebec
French: Québécois (masc.), Québécoise (fem.)
Quebeckers, Quebecers
French: Québécois</tr>
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Saskatchewanians "Flat-Landers"</tr> Yukon Yukon Yukoners "Sourdoughs"</tr>

Indian states and territories

State or territory Adjective Demonym</tr> colloquial</tr>
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Andaman,[1] Andamanese[1]
Nicobar, Nicobarese[1]
Nicobarese </tr>
Andhra Pradesh Andhrudu Andhraits Teluguwadu </tr> Arunachal Pradesh Arunachali Arunachalis </tr> Assam Assamese[1] Assamese</tr> Bihar Bihari[1] Biharis</tr> Chandigarh Chandigarhi Chandigarhis _</tr> Chhattisgarh Chhattisgarhi Chhattisgarhis </tr> Dadra and Nagar Haveli _ _</tr> Daman and Diu Damanese
Diuese </tr>
Delhi Delhiite, Delhian Delhiites, Delhians </tr> Goa Goan,[1] Goenkar, Goanese[1] Goans, Goenkars, Goanese </tr> Gujarat Gujarati[1] Gujaratis</tr> Haryana Haryanvi Haryanvis _</tr> Himachal Pradesh Himachali Himachalis </tr> Jammu and Kashmir Jammu
_</tr> Jharkhand Jharkhandi Jharkhandis </tr> Karnataka Karnatakan, Canarese[1] (Kanarese)[1] Karnatakans, Canarese Cf. Carnatic </tr> Kerala Keralite Keralites Malayalis </tr> Lakshadweep (Laccadives) Laccadivian Laccadivians </tr> Madhya Pradesh Madhya Pradeshi Madhya Pradeshis </tr> Maharashtra Maharashtrian[1] Maharashtrians Marathi </tr> Manipur Manipuri[1] Manipuris </tr> Meghalaya Meghalayan Meghalayans </tr> Mizoram Mizo[1] Mizos </tr> Nagaland Naga,[1] Nagalandese Nagas</tr> Odisha Oriya[1] (Odia) [of the people]
Odishan (Orissan) [of the state]
Odissi (Orissi)[1]
Oriyas (Odias)
Odishans (Orissans)
_</tr> Puducherry (formerly Pondicherry) Pondicherrian Pondicherrians _</tr> Punjab Punjabi[1] Punjabis </tr> Rajasthan Rajasthani[1] Rajasthanis </tr> Sikkim Sikkimese[1] Sikkimese </tr> Tamil Nadu Tamil,[1] Tamilian Tamils </tr> Tripura Tripuri, Tripuran Tripuris, Tripurans _</tr> Uttar Pradesh Uttar Pradeshi Uttar Pradeshis _</tr> Uttarakhand Uttarakhandi Uttarakhandis _</tr> West Bengal (West) Bengali,[1] (West) Bengalese,[1] Bangla[1] (West) Bengalis _</tr>

Malaysian states and territories

State / Territory Adjective Demonym</tr> colloquial</tr>
Johor Johorean Johoreans Southerners</tr> Kedah Kedahan Kedahans</tr> Kelantan Kelantanese Kelantanese East Coasters</tr> Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpurian Kuala Lumpurians Federal Territorians, KL-ites</tr> Labuan Labuanese Labuanese Federal Territorians</tr> Malacca Malaccan Malaccans</tr> Negeri Sembilan Negeri Sembilanese Negeri Sembilanese Negrians</tr> Pahang Pahangite Pahangites</tr> Penang Penangite Penangites Penang Islanders</tr> Perak Perakian Perakians</tr> Perlis Perlisian Perlisians</tr> Putrajaya Putrajayan Putrajayans Federal Territorians</tr> Sabah Sabahan Sabahans Borneoans</tr> Sarawak Sarawakian Sarawakians Borneoans</tr> Selangor Selangorean Selangoreans</tr> Terengganu Terengganuan Terengganuans East Coasters</tr> Peninsular (West) Malaysia Peninsular, West Malaysian Peninsularians, West Malaysians </tr> East Malaysia East Malaysian East Malaysians Borneoans</tr>

Mexican states

Federal entity Adjective Demonym </tr> colloquial
Aguascalientes Hidrocalido/-a </tr> Baja California Lower Californian Bajacaliforniano/-a </tr> Baja California Sur South Lower Californian Sudcaliforniano/-a </tr> Campeche Campechan Campechano/-a </tr> Chiapas Chiapan Chiapaneco/-a </tr> Chihuahua Chihuahuan Chihuahuense </tr> Colima Colimense </tr> Coahuila Coahuilan Coahuilense </tr> Distrito Federal Defeño/-a "Chilango"</tr> Durango Durangoan Duranguense </tr> Guerrero Guerreran Guerrerense </tr> Guanajuato Guanajuatense </tr> Hidalgo Hidalguense </tr> Jalisco Jaliscan Jalisciense </tr> Michoacán Michoacano/-a </tr> Morelos Morelense </tr> Mexico Mexican Mexiquense </tr> Nayarit Nayarita </tr> Nuevo León Neoleones </tr> Oaxaca Oaxacan Oaxaqueño/-a </tr> Puebla Pueblan/Poblano Poblano/-a </tr> Quintana Roo Quintanaroan Quintanarroense </tr> Querétaro Queretan Queretano/-a </tr> Sinaloa Sinaloan Sinaloense </tr> San Luis Potosí Potosino/-a </tr> Sonora Sonoran Sonorense </tr> Tabasco Tabasqueño/-a </tr> Tlaxcala Tlaxcalteca </tr> Tamaulipas Tamaulipan Tamaulipeco/-a </tr> Veracruz Veracruzano/-a </tr> Yucatán Yucateco/-a </tr> Zacatecas Zacatecan Zacatecano/-a </tr>
  1. Capitalino is often used to refer to people from Mexico City; however, capitalino can be used to refer to people from any state capital. "Defeño" and "Chilango" are listed by the Royal Spanish Academy

New Zealand regions

Region/Island Adjective Demonym</tr> colloquial
Auckland Region Auckland Aucklanders "Jafas"</tr> Bay of Plenty Region Bay of Plenty Bay of Plentiers "BOPians"</tr> Canterbury Region Canterbury Cantabrians "Cantabs"</tr> Gisborne Region East Coast, Gisborne East Coasters, Gisbornians</tr> Hawke's Bay Region Hawke's Bay Hawke's Bayers</tr> Manawatu-Wanganui Region Manawatu, Wanganui Manawatuans, Wanganuians</tr> Marlborough Region Marlborough Marlburians</tr> Nelson Region Nelsonian Nelsonians</tr> Northland Region Northland Northlanders</tr> Otago Region Otago Otagoites</tr> Southland Region Southland Southlanders</tr> Taranaki Region Taranaki Taranakians</tr> Tasman Region Tasman Tasmanites</tr> Waikato region Waikato Waikatoans "Mooloos"</tr> Wellington Region Wellington, Wellingtonian Wellingtonians</tr> West Coast Region West Coast West Coasters</tr> North Island North Island North Islanders</tr> South Island South Island / Mainland South Islanders "Mainlanders"</tr> Stewart Island Stewart Island Stewart Islanders</tr>

Philippine provinces

U.S. states

Regions in Greco-Roman antiquity

Regions tracing their origins (or otherwise referenced) in Greco-Roman antiquity [in cases where ancient regions are extant, this table is limited to cases where the present-day regional names retain their original/ancient form].

(References: Herodotus' "Histories"; Thucydides' "Peloponnesian War"; Pausanias' "Description of Greece"; Lemprière's Bibliotheca Classica; Leverett's 1838 edition of the "Lexicon of the Latin Language"; Freeman's "The History of Sicily..."; et al.)

Name Adjective Demonym</tr> colloquial
Acarnania Acarnanian Acarnanians</tr> Achaea Achaean Achaeans</tr> Aegina Aeginetan Aeginetans</tr> Aethaea Aethaean Aethaeans</tr> Aetolia Aetolian Aetolians</tr> Andalusia Andalusian Andalusians</tr> Apulia Apulian Apulians</tr> Aquitania Aquitanian Aquitanians</tr> Arcadia Arcadian Arcadians</tr> Argos Argive Argives</tr> Arretium Arretine Arretines</tr> Athens Athenian Athenians</tr> Bactria, Bactriana Bactrian Bactrians</tr> Bavaria Bavarian Bavarians</tr> Boeotia Boeotian, Beotian Boeotians, Beotians</tr> Boiohaemum Boius Boii</tr> Bosporus, Bosphorus Bosporan, Bosphoran Bosporans, Bosphorans</tr> Bruttium (Bruttus ?), Bruttian Brutti, Bruttians</tr> Byzantium Byzantine Byzantines</tr> Calabria Calabrian Calabrians</tr> Campania Campanian Campanians</tr> Cantabria Cantabrian Cantabrians</tr> Caria Carian Carians</tr> Carthage Carthaginian Carthaginians</tr> Carystus Carystian Carystians</tr> Catalonia Catalan, Catalonian Catalans, Catalonians</tr> Cephalonia Cephalonian Cephalonians</tr> Chalcis Chalcidian Chalcidians</tr> Chios Chian Chians</tr> Colchis Colchian Colchians</tr> Colossae Colossian Colossians</tr> Consentia Consentian Consentians</tr> Corcyra Corcyrean Corcyreans</tr> Corsica Corsican Corsicans</tr> Crete Cretan Cretans</tr> Croton Crotonian Crotonians</tr> Cyclades Cycladian Cycladians</tr> Cyprus Cypriot, Cypriote Cypriots, Cypriotes </tr> Cyrenaica Cyrenaic Cyrenaics</tr> Cyrene Cyrenian Cyrenians</tr> Dacia Dacian Dacians</tr> Dalmatia Dalmatian Dalmatians</tr> Delos Delian Delians</tr> Dodecanese Dodecanesian Dodecanesians</tr> Edonia Edonian Edonians</tr> Egesta Egestan Egestans</tr> Eleusina or Eleusis Eleusian, Eleusinian Eleusians, Eleusinians</tr> Elis or Eleia Elian Elians</tr> Ephesus Ephesian Ephesians</tr> Epidamnus or Epidamnos Epidamnian Epidamnians</tr> Epidaurus Epidaurian Epidaurians</tr> Epirus Epirote Epirotes</tr> Eretria Eretrian Eretrians</tr> Etruria Etruscan Etruscans</tr> Euboea Euboean Euboeans</tr> Galatia Galatian Galatians</tr> Gallaecia Gallaecus Gallaeci</tr> Gallia or Gaul Gaulish Gauls</tr> Germania Germanian, Germanus Germanians, Germani</tr> Iberia Iberian Iberians</tr> Illyria Illyrian Illyrians</tr> Ionia Ionian Ionians</tr> Kalymnos Kalymnian Kalymnians</tr> Kaulonia Kaulonian Kaulonians</tr> Knossos Knossian Knossians</tr> Lakedaimon/ia or Lakedaemon/ia Lakedaimonian or Lakedaemonian Lakedaimonians or Lakedaemonians</tr> Larissa Larissan Larissans</tr> Latium Latin Latins</tr> Leontini, Leontium Leontinian Leontinians</tr> Lesbos Lesbian Lesbians</tr> Locris Locrian Locrians</tr> Lucania Lucanian Lucanians</tr> Lydia Lydian Lydians</tr> Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians</tr> Maeonia Maeonian Maeonians</tr> Mantineia Mantinean Mantineans</tr> Marathon Marathonian Marathonians</tr> Media Median Medes, Medians</tr> Megara Megaran Megarans</tr> Melite Melitian Melitians</tr> Melos Melian Melians</tr> Mesopotamia Mesopotamian Mesopotamians</tr> Messenia Messenian Messenians</tr> Miletus Milesian Milesians</tr> Mithymna or Methymna Methymnian Methymnians</tr> Moravia Moravian Moravians</tr> Mycenae Mycenaean Mycenaeans</tr> Mytilene Mytilenean Mytileneans</tr> Naupactus or Nafpaktos Naupactian Naupactians</tr> Naxos Naxian Naxians</tr> Nisyros Nisyrian Nisyrians</tr> Oea Oean Oeans</tr> Olympia Olympian Olympians</tr> Oiniades, Oiniadai Oiniadan Oiniadans</tr> Orkney Islands Orcadian Orcadians</tr> Paeonia or Paionia Paeonian Paeonians</tr> Pamphylia Pamphylian Pamphylians</tr> Paros Parian Parians</tr> Patmos Patmian Patmians</tr> Peloponnese Peloponnesian Peloponnesians</tr> Pergamum Pergamian Pergamians</tr> Persia Persian Persians</tr> Philippi Philippian Philippians</tr> Phlius Phliasian Phliasians</tr> Phocis Phocian Phocians</tr> Phoenicia Phoenician Phoenicians</tr> Phrygia Phrygian Phrygians</tr> Pisidia Pisidian Pisidians</tr> Pontus Pontian Pontians</tr> Pylos Pylosian Pylosians</tr> Rhegion Rhegian, Rhegine Rhegians, Rhegines</tr> Rhodes Rhodian Rhodians</tr> Rhithymna, Rhithymnia, Rithymna Rhithymnian Rhithymnians</tr> Rome Roman Romans</tr> Sabinium Sabine Sabines</tr> Salamis Salaminian Salaminians</tr> Samnium Samnite Samnites</tr> Samos Samian Samians</tr> Sardinia Sardinian, Sardi Sardinians, Sardi</tr> Sardis Sardianus, Sardian Sardiani, Sardians</tr> Sarmatia Sarmatian, Sarmata, or Sauromata Sarmatians, Sarmatae, or Sauromatae</tr> Scythia Scytha, Scythian Scythae, Scythians</tr> Serrae, Serrhae Serrean Serreans</tr> Sicily Sicilian Sicilians</tr> Sicyon Sicyonese Sicyonese</tr> Sidon, or Saïda Sidonian Sidonians</tr> Silesia Silesian Silesians</tr> Skopelos Skopelitan Skopelitans</tr> Sparta Spartan Spartans</tr> Suebia Suebius Suebi</tr> Symi Symian Symians</tr> Syracuse Syracusan Syracusans</tr> Taras, Tarentum Tarentine, Tarentumian Tarentines, Tarentumians</tr> Tegea Tegean Tegeans</tr> Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians</tr> Tenedos Tenedian Tenedians</tr> Thasos Thasian Thasians</tr> Thebes Theban Thebans</tr> Thespis Thespian Thespians</tr> Thessaly Thessalian Thessalians</tr> Thrace Thracian Thracians</tr> Thria Thriasian Thriasians</tr> Thuria Thuriat Thuriats</tr> Thurii Thurian Thurians</tr> Trichonos Trichonian Trichonians</tr> Troezen Troezenian Troezenians</tr> Troy Trojan Trojans</tr> Umbria Umbrian Umbrians</tr> Xanthi Xanthian Xanthians</tr> Zakynthos Zakyntian Zakyntians</tr>

Other former nations and regions

Ancient civilizations, former colonies, renamed countries and regions, annexations, secessions, etc. (other than Greco-Roman, which see above).

Fictional regions

Name Adjective Demonym
Atlantis Atlantean, Atlantine Atlanteans, Atlantans</tr> Aloria Alorn Alorns</tr> Attilan Inhumans</tr> Blefuscu Blefuscudian Blefuscudians</tr> Brobdingnag Brobdingnagian Brobdingnagians</tr> Laputa Laputan Laputans</tr> Lilliput Lilliputian Lilliputians</tr> Cardassia Prime Cardassian Cardassians</tr> Bajor Bajoran Bajorans, Bajora</tr> Ferenginar Ferengi Ferengi</tr> Gallifrey Gallifreyan Gallifreyans</tr> Genosha Genoshan Genoshans</tr> Latveria Latverian Latverians</tr> Luggnagg Struldbrugs</tr> Narnia Narnian Narnian</tr> Oz Ozian Ozian</tr> Qo'noS Klingon Klingons</tr> Remus Reman Remans</tr> Rohan Rohirric Rohirrim</tr> Romulus Romulan Romulans</tr> Skaro Skaroene, Skarosian Skarosians</tr> Sontar Sontaran Sontarans</tr> Utopia Utopian Utopians</tr> Wakanda Wakandan Wakandans </tr> Vulcan Vulcan, Vulcanian Vulcans</tr>


See also


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989.

External links