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List of countries by system of government

This is a list of the states categorized by system of government.

List of Countries

Name Constitutional form Head of state Basis of executive legitimacy
23x15px Afghanistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Albania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Algeria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Andorra Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Angola Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Antigua and Barbuda Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Argentina Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Armenia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Australia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Austria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Azerbaijan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px The Bahamas Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Bahrain Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px Bangladesh Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Barbados Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Belarus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Belgium Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Belize Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Benin Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Bhutan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px Bolivia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Botswana Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Brazil Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Brunei Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
23x15px Bulgaria Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Burkina Faso Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Burundi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Cambodia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Cameroon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Canada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Cape Verde Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Central African Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Chad Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Chile Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px China Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
23x15px Colombia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Comoros Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Congo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Congo, Democratic Republic of the Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Costa Rica Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Côte d'Ivoire Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Croatia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Cuba Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
23x15px Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Czech Republic Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Denmark Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Djibouti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Dominica Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Dominican Republic Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px East Timor Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Ecuador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Egypt Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px El Salvador Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Equatorial Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Eritrea Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
23x15px Estonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Ethiopia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Fiji Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Finland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px France Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Gabon Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px The Gambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Georgia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Germany Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Ghana Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Greece Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Grenada Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Guatemala Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Guinea Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Guinea-Bissau Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Guyana Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Haiti Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Honduras Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Hungary Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Iceland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data India Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Indonesia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
Template:Country data Iran Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
Template:Country data Iraq Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Ireland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Israel Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Italy Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Jamaica Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Japan Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Jordan Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Template:Country data Kazakhstan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
Template:Country data Kenya Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
Template:Country data Kiribati Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data North Korea
Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data South Korea
Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Kosovo Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
Template:Country data Kuwait Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Laos Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
23x15px Latvia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Lebanon Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Lesotho Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Liberia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Libya Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Liechtenstein Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px Lithuania Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Luxembourg Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Macedonia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Madagascar Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Malawi Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Malaysia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Maldives Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Mali Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Malta Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Marshall Islands Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Mauritania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Mauritius Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Mexico Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Federated States of Micronesia Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Moldova Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Monaco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px Mongolia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Montenegro Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Morocco Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px Mozambique Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Myanmar Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Namibia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Nauru Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Netherlands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px New Zealand Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Nicaragua Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Niger Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Nigeria Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Northern Cyprus Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Norway Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Oman Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
23x15px Pakistan Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Palau Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Palestine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Panama Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Papua New Guinea Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Paraguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Peru Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Philippines Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Poland Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Portugal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Qatar Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
23x15px Romania Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Russia Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Rwanda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Saint Lucia Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Samoa Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px San Marino Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px São Tomé and Príncipe Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Saudi Arabia Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
23x15px Senegal Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Serbia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Seychelles Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Sierra Leone Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Singapore Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Slovakia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Slovenia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Solomon Islands Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Somalia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px South Africa Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px South Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Spain Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Sri Lanka Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Sudan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Suriname Republic Executive Presidency and ministry are subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Swaziland Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
23x15px Sweden Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x16px  Switzerland Directorial Republic Executive (Council) Council is independent of legislature after election
23x15px Syria Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Taiwan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Tajikistan Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Tanzania Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Thailand n/a n/a No constitutionally-defined basis to current regime
23x15px Togo Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Tonga Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px Trinidad and Tobago Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Tunisia Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Turkey Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Turkmenistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Tuvalu Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px Uganda Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Ukraine Republic Executive Presidency independent of legislature; ministry subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px United Arab Emirates Constitutional monarchy Executive Monarch personally exercises power in concert with other institutions
23x15px United Kingdom Constitutional monarchy Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x15px United States Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Uruguay Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Uzbekistan Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Vanuatu Republic Ceremonial Ministry is subject to parliamentary confidence
23x16px  Vatican City Absolute monarchy Executive All authority vested in absolute monarch
23x15px Venezuela Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Vietnam Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
23x15px Western Sahara Republic Ceremonial Power constitutionally linked to a single political movement
23x15px Yemen Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Zambia Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature
23x15px Zimbabwe Republic Executive Presidency is independent of legislature

Note that Pakistan, Iran, Afghanistan and Mauritania are Islamic Republics.

Map

Legend

Note that this chart aims to represent de jure systems of government, not the de facto degree of democracy. Several states constitutionally deemed to be multiparty republics may also be broadly described as authoritarian states.

Systems of Governance

Presidential/Separated republics

These are systems in which a president is the active head of the executive branch of government and is elected and remains in office independently of the legislature. The following list includes democratic and non-democratic states:

Full presidential systems

In full presidential systems, the president is both head of state and head of government. There is generally no prime minister, although if one exists he or she serves purely at the pleasure of the president.

Presidential systems
Presidential systems with a prime minister

Semi-presidential systems

In semi-presidential systems, there is usually both a president and a prime minister. In such systems, the president has genuine executive authority, unlike in a parliamentary republic, but some of the role of a head of government is exercised by the prime minister.

Parliamentary republics

A parliamentary republic is a system in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. The president's degree of executive power may range from being reasonably significant (e.g. Pakistan) to little (e.g. India) or none at all (e.g. Ireland). Where the president holds little executive power, his or her function is primarily that of a symbolic figurehead.

Mixed republican systems

A combined head of state and government is elected by the legislature, however they are not subject to parliamentary confidence during their term (although their cabinet is).

Directorial systems

The directorial system contains elements of the presidential and the parliamental system. In a directorial republic a council jointly exercises both presidential and governmental powers (the council is the collective head of state). The council is elected by the parliament, but it is not subject to political confidence during its term which has a fixed duration.

Constitutional monarchies

These are systems in which the head of state is a constitutional monarch; the existence of their office and their ability to exercise their authority is established and restrained or held back by constitutional law.

Constitutional with ceremonial monarchs

Systems in which a prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government. In some cases the prime minister is also leader of the legislature, in other cases the executive branch is clearly separated from legislature although the entire cabinet or individual ministers must step down in the case of a vote of no confidence.[8][9][dubious ] The head of state is a constitutional monarch who normally only exercises his or her powers with the consent of the government, the people or their representatives.

Constitutional monarchies with active monarchs

The prime minister is the nation's active executive but the monarch still has considerable political powers that can be used at their own discretion.

Absolute monarchies

Specifically, monarchies in which the monarch's exercise of power is unconstrained by any substantive constitutional law.

Theocracies

Main article: Theocracy

States based on a state religion where the head of state is selected by some form of religious hierarchy.

Single Party States

States in which political power is by law concentrated within a single political party whose operations are largely fused with the government hierarchy (as opposed to states where the law establishes a multi-party system but this fusion is not achieved anyway through electoral fraud or simple inertia). However, some do have elected governments.

Military junta states

The nation's military control the organs of government and all high-ranking political executives are also members of the military hierarchy.

Transitional

States which have a system of government which is in transition or turmoil and are classified with the current direction of change.

Systems of Internal Governance

Federal

Main article: Federal state

States in which the federal government shares power with semi-independent regional governments. The central government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the regional governments; prime examples are Switzerland and the United States.

Unitary states

Main article: Unitary state

Regionalised unitary

Main article: Regional state

States in which the central government has delegated some of its powers to regional authorities.

Confederation

Main article: Confederation

European Union

The exact political character of the European Union is widely debated, some arguing that it is sui generis (unique), but others arguing that it has features of a federation or a confederation. It has elements of intergovernmentalism, with the European Council acting as its collective "president", and also elements of supranationalism, with the European Commission acting as its executive and bureaucracy.[15] But it is not easily placed in any of the above categories.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ While the office of prime minister exists, the president is both the head of state and government.
  2. ^ a b c Octávio Amorim Neto; Marina Costa Lobo (2010). "Between Constitutional Diffusion and Local Politics: Semi-Presidentialism in Portuguese-Speaking Countries". Social Science Research Network. Retrieved June 6, 2014. 
  3. ^ In Bangladesh, a caretaker government during parliamentary elections. The Caretaker government is headed by a Chief Adviser and a group of neutral, non-partisan advisers chosen from the civil society. During this time, the president has jurisdiction over the defence and foreign affairs ministries.
  4. ^ Collective presidency consisting of three members; one for each major ethnic group.
  5. ^ Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it's now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University, who in his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008), quotes Jaakko Nousiainen in "From semi-presidentialism to parliamentary government" in Scandinavian Political Studies 24 (2) p95-109 as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the President has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and substantially has not the power to disband the parliament under its own desire. Finland is actually represented by its Prime Minister, and not by its President, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union.
  6. ^ a b c Combines aspects of a presidential system with aspects of a parliamentary system. The president is elected by parliament and holds a parliamentary seat, much like a prime minister, but is immune from a vote of no confidence, unlike a prime minister.
  7. ^ The President of Switzerland serves in a primus inter pares capacity amongst the Swiss Federal Council, the seven-member executive council which constitutes both the presidency and the government.
  8. ^ Norwegian Parliament web page
  9. ^ CIA factbook on Norway
  10. ^ Bishop of Urgell and President of France serve as ex-officio co-princes who are have their interests known through a representative.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p One of sixteen constitutional monarchies which recognize Elizabeth II as head of state, who presides over an independent government. She is titled separately in each country (e.g. Queen of Australia), and notionally appoints a Governor-General to each country other than the United Kingdom to act as her representative. The prime minister is the active head of the executive branch of government and also leader of the legislature. These countries may be known as "Commonwealth realms"
  12. ^ The UAE's constitution establishes the state as a federation of emirates, with the federal president drawn from hereditary emirs, but each emirate in turn functions as an absolute monarchy
  13. ^ a b The Vatican is an elective absolute monarchy and a Roman Catholic theocracy; its monarch, the Pope, is the head of the global Roman Catholic Church. His power within the Vatican City State is unlimited by any constitution, but all persons resident within the Vatican have consented to obey the Pope, either by virtue of being ordained Catholic clergy or members of the Swiss Guard.
  14. ^ Iran combines the forms of a presidential republic, with a president elected by universal suffrage; and a theocracy, with a Supreme Leader who is ultimately responsible for state policy, chosen by the elected Assembly of Experts. Candidates for both the Assembly of Experts and the presidency are vetted by the appointed Guardian Council.
  15. ^ For more detailed discussion, see John McCormick, European Union Politics (Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), Chapters 1 and 2.

External links