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Open Access Articles- Top Results for List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

List of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level

This page contains lists of countries ranked by ethnic and cultural diversity level.

Methodology

The lists are commonly used in Economics literature to compare the levels of ethnic, cultural, linguistic and religious fractionalization in different countries.[1][2] Fractionalization measures are computing the probability that two randomly drawn individuals (from a country) are not from the same group (ethnic, religious, or whatever the criterion is). The two lists have been described by Alesina and Ferrara as follows:[1]

"Fearon[3] and Alesina et al.[4] have compiled various measures of ethnic heterogeneity which try to tackle the fact that the difference amongst groups manifests itself in different ways in different places. The two classifications are constructed differently. Alesina et al.[4] do not take a stand on what ethnicity (or language or religion) are more salient than others and adopt the country breakdown suggested by original sources, mainly the Encyclopedia Britannica. Fearon[3] instead is trying to construct the ”right list” of ethnic groups which ”depends on what people in the country identify as the most socially relevant ethnic groupings”. This approach has the advantage of being closer to what the theory would want and the disadvantage of having to make judgement calls (or adopt others’ judgement calls) about what is the ”right list”."

List based on Fearon's analysis

In the Fearon list, cultural fractionalization is approximated by a measure of similarity between languages, varying from 1 = the population speaks two or more unrelated languages to 0 = the entire population speaks the same language.[3] This index of cultural diversity is biased towards linguistic variations as opposed to genetic diversity and other variations.

Ethnic and Cultural diversity (2003)[3]
Ethnic Diversity Rank Country Ethnic Fractionalization Index Cultural Diversity Index
1 23x15px Papua New Guinea 1.000000
2 23x15px Tanzania 0.953000 0.564000
3 23x15px Democratic Republic of Congo 0.933000 0.628000
4 23x15px Uganda 0.930000 0.647000
5 23x15px Liberia 0.899000 0.644000
6 23x15px Cameroon 0.887000 0.733000
7 23x15px Togo 0.883000 0.602000
8 23x15px South Africa 0.880000 0.530000
9 23x15px Congo 0.878000 0.562000
10 23x15px Madagascar 0.861000 0.192000
11 23x15px Gabon 0.857000 0.382000
12 Template:Country data Kenya 0.852000 0.601000
13 23x15px Ghana 0.846000 0.388000
14 23x15px Malawi 0.829000 0.294000
15 23x15px Guinea-Bissau 0.818000 0.568000
16 23x15px Somalia 0.812000 0.290000
17 Template:Country data India 0.811000 0.667000
18 23x15px Nigeria 0.805000 0.660000
19 23x15px Yugoslavia (1943–1992) 0.801000 0.385000
20 23x15px Central African Republic 0.791000 0.511000
21 23x15px Ivory Coast 0.784000 0.557000
22 23x15px Lebanon 0.780000 0.195000
23 23x15px Chad 0.772000 0.727000
24 Template:Country data Indonesia 0.766000 0.522000
25 23x15px Mozambique 0.765000 0.285000
26 23x15px Gambia 0.764000 0.548000
27 23x15px Sierra Leone 0.764000 0.534000
28 23x15px Ethiopia 0.760000 0.562000
29 23x15px Angola 0.756000 0.242000
30 23x15px Mali 0.754000 0.590000
31 23x15px Afghanistan 0.751000 0.679000
32 23x15px Bolivia 0.743000 0.662000
33 23x15px United Arab Emirates 0.737000 0.650000
34 23x15px Senegal 0.727000 0.402000
35 23x15px Zambia 0.726000 0.189000
36 23x15px Namibia 0.724000 0.589000
37 23x15px USSR (1922–1991) 0.711000 0.596000
38 23x15px Sudan (1955–2011) 0.708000 0.698000
39 Template:Country data Kuwait 0.708000 0.540000
40 23x15px Burkina Faso 0.704000 0.354000
41 23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.681000 0.146000
42 Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan 0.679000 0.624000
43 File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 0.677000 0.542000
44 Template:Country data Iran 0.669000 0.542000
45 23x15px Guinea 0.669000 0.490000
46 Template:Country data Kazakhstan 0.664000 0.620000
47 23x15px Colombia 0.656000 0.020000
48 23x15px Ecuador 0.655000 0.480000
49 23x15px Eritrea 0.647000 0.398000
50 23x15px Trinidad and Tobago 0.647000 0.380000
51 23x15px Peru 0.638000 0.506000
52 23x15px Niger 0.637000 0.600000
53 23x15px Mauritius 0.632000 0.448000
54 23x15px Mauritania 0.625000 0.272000
55 23x15px Benin 0.622000 0.400000
56 23x15px Guyana 0.620000 0.460000
57 23x15px Djibouti 0.606000 0.404000
58 23x15px Bhutan 0.605000 0.518000
59 23x15px Malaysia 0.596000 0.564000
60 23x15px Canada 0.596000 0.499000
61 23x15px Latvia 0.585000 0.441000
62 23x15px Syria 0.581000 0.235000
63 23x16px  Switzerland 0.575000 0.418000
64 23x15px Yugoslavia (1918–1943) 0.575000 0.392000
65 23x15px Belgium 0.567000 0.462000
66 23x15px Fiji 0.566000 0.553000
67 23x15px Saudi Arabia 0.553000 0.413000
68 23x15px Bahrain 0.551000 0.460000
69 Template:Country data Iraq 0.549000 0.355000
70 23x15px Brazil 0.549000 0.020000
71 23x15px Mexico 0.542000 0.434000
72 23x15px Macedonia 0.535000 0.432000
73 23x15px Pakistan 0.532000 0.289000
74 Template:Country data Israel 0.526000 0.246000
75 23x15px Burma 0.522000 0.419000
76 23x15px Tajikistan 0.513000 0.492000
77 23x15px Estonia 0.511000 0.492000
78 23x15px Moldova 0.510000 0.401000
79 Template:Country data Jordan 0.509000 0.049000
80 23x15px Panama 0.507000 0.168000
81 23x15px Czechoslovakia (1918–1992) 0.505000 0.290000
82 23x15px Spain 0.502000 0.263000
83 23x15px Chile 0.497000 0.167000
84 23x15px Guatemala 0.493000 0.493000
85 23x15px United States 0.491000 0.271000
86 23x15px Georgia 0.490000 0.404000
87 23x15px Uzbekistan 0.485000 0.442000
88 23x15px Venezuela 0.483000 0.020000
89 23x15px Laos 0.481000 0.020000
90 23x15px Morocco 0.479000 0.360000
91 23x15px Oman 0.439000 0.404000
92 23x15px Thailand 0.431000 0.431000
93 23x15px Sri Lanka 0.428000 0.386000
94 23x15px Ukraine 0.419000 0.258000
95 23x15px Nicaragua 0.402000 0.095000
96 23x15px Turkmenistan 0.392000 0.328000
97 23x15px Singapore 0.388000 0.388000
98 23x15px Dominican Republic 0.387000 0.000000
99 23x15px Croatia 0.375000 0.185000
100 23x15px Belarus 0.372000 0.228000
101 23x15px Zimbabwe 0.366000 0.141000
102 23x15px New Zealand 0.363000 0.363000
103 23x15px Cyprus 0.359000 0.359000
104 23x15px Botswana 0.351000 0.161000
105 23x15px Lithuania 0.338000 0.259000
106 23x15px Russia 0.333000 0.311000
107 23x15px Slovakia 0.332000 0.293000
108 23x15px Burundi 0.328000 0.040000
109 23x15px United Kingdom 0.324000 0.184000
110 23x15px Czech Republic 0.322000 0.064000
111 23x15px Algeria 0.320000 0.237000
112 23x15px Romania 0.300000 0.265000
113 23x15px Turkey 0.299000 0.299000
114 23x15px Bulgaria 0.299000 0.250000
115 23x15px Swaziland 0.280000 0.143000
116 23x15px Taiwan 0.274000 0.169000
117 23x15px France 0.272000 0.251000
118 23x15px Mongolia 0.272000 0.227000
119 23x15px Lesotho 0.255000 0.057000
120 23x15px Argentina 0.255000 0.000000
121 23x15px Costa Rica 0.238000 0.078000
122 23x15px Vietnam 0.233000 0.210000
123 23x15px Slovenia 0.231000 0.170000
124 23x15px Bangladesh 0.223000 0.141000
125 23x15px Uruguay 0.218000 0.000000
126 23x15px Cuba 0.213000 0.020000
127 23x15px El Salvador 0.198000 0.180000
128 23x15px Sweden 0.189000 0.189000
129 23x15px Azerbaijan 0.188000 0.187000
130 23x15px Hungary 0.186000 0.185000
131 23x15px Cambodia 0.186000 0.150000
132 Template:Country data Honduras 0.185000 0.167000
133 23x15px Rwanda 0.180000 0.000000
134 23x15px Ireland 0.171000 0.157000
135 Template:Country data Jamaica 0.166000 0.027000
136 23x15px Egypt 0.164000 0.000000
137 23x15px Philippines 0.161000 0.116000
138 23x15px China 0.154000 0.154000
139 23x15px Libya 0.151000 0.127000
140 23x15px Australia 0.149000 0.147000
141 23x15px Armenia 0.134000 0.124000
142 23x15px Finland 0.132000 0.132000
143 23x15px Paraguay 0.132000 0.039000
144 23x15px Denmark 0.128000 0.128000
145 23x15px Austria 0.126000 0.100000
146 23x15px Norway 0.098000 0.098000
147 23x15px Albania 0.097000 0.082000
148 23x15px Germany 0.095000 0.090000
149 Template:Country data Haiti 0.095000 0.000000
150 23x15px Yemen 0.078000 0.078000
151 23x15px Netherlands 0.077000 0.077000
152 23x15px Greece 0.059000 0.050000
153 23x15px Poland 0.047000 0.041000
154 23x15px Portugal 0.040000 0.040000
155 23x15px Italy 0.040000 0.040000
156 23x15px Tunisia 0.039000 0.033000
157 Template:Country data Japan 0.012000 0.012000
158 Template:Country data South Korea 0.004000 0.004000
159 Template:Country data North Korea 0.002000 0.002000

List based on Alesina et al's analysis

This list is based on the analysis of Alesina and others,[4] they develop fractionalization scores based on ethnicity, religious and linguistic data directly from the Encyclopædia Britannica lists. This list is biased by how the Britannica chooses to list ethnic groups, but it does not make a judgement call on which identities are more salient than others. According to Patsiurko et al.

"One of the most ambitious and widely used of these new [fractionalization] indices was created by Alesina et al. (2003) who developed measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in 190 countries using more current data from the Encyclopaedia Britannica Book of the Year (2001) ... and other sources. But again scholars offered criticisms (e.g. Fearon 2003; Posner 2004). First, there is inconsistency in terms of the years covered. For instance, the Encyclopaedia Britannica provides ethnicity data for only 124 of 190 countries, so Alesina had to resort to other sources for the rest. Hence, his ethnicity data covered years ranging from 1979 to 2001, depending on the country. Second, he offered one-time measures of fractionalization, thereby being unable to say anything about change over time"[2]
Ethnic, Linguistic and Religious Fractionalization[4]
Number Country Ethnic Fractionalization Linguistic Fractionalization Religious Fractionalization
1 23x15px Afghanistan 0.769300 0.614100 0.271700
2 23x15px Albania 0.220400 0.039900 0.471900
3 23x15px Algeria 0.339400 0.442700 0.009100
4 23x15px American Samoa 0.000000 0.173300 0.639500
5 23x15px Andorra 0.713900 0.684800 0.232600
6 23x15px Angola 0.786700 0.787000 0.627600
7 23x15px Antigua and Barbuda 0.164300 0.106300 0.684000
8 23x15px Argentina 0.255000 0.061800 0.223600
9 23x15px Armenia 0.127200 0.129100 0.457600
10 23x15px Aruba 0.000000 0.388900 0.410700
11 23x15px Australia 0.092900 0.334900 0.821100
12 23x15px Austria 0.106800 0.152200 0.414600
13 23x15px Azerbaijan 0.204700 0.205400 0.489900
14 23x15px Bahamas 0.422800 0.185500 0.681500
15 23x15px Bahrain 0.502100 0.434400 0.552800
16 23x15px Bangladesh 0.045400 0.092500 0.209000
17 23x15px Barbados 0.142300 0.092600 0.693400
18 23x15px Belarus 0.322200 0.466600 0.611600
19 23x15px Belgium 0.555400 0.540900 0.212700
20 23x15px Belize 0.701500 0.630300 0.581300
21 23x15px Benin 0.787200 0.790500 0.554400
22 23x15px Bermuda 0.000000 0.000000 0.711200
23 23x15px Bhutan 0.605000 0.605600 0.378700
24 23x15px Bolivia 0.739600 0.224000 0.208500
25 23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.630000 0.675100 0.685100
26 23x15px Botswana 0.410200 0.411000 0.598600
27 23x15px Brazil 0.540800 0.046800 0.605400
28 23x15px Brunei 0.541600 0.343800 0.440400
29 23x15px Bulgaria 0.402100 0.303100 0.596500
30 23x15px Burkina Faso 0.737700 0.722800 0.579800
31 23x15px Burundi 0.295100 0.297700 0.515800
32 23x15px Cambodia 0.210500 0.210400 0.096500
33 23x15px Cameroon 0.863500 0.889800 0.733800
34 23x15px Canada 0.712400 0.577200 0.695800
35 23x15px Cape Verde 0.417400 0.000000 0.076600
36 23x15px Central African Republic 0.829500 0.833400 0.791600
37 23x15px Chad 0.862000 0.863500 0.641100
38 23x15px Chile 0.186100 0.187100 0.384100
39 23x15px China 0.153800 0.132700 0.664300
40 23x15px Colombia 0.601400 0.019300 0.147800
41 23x15px Comoros 0.000000 0.010300 0.013700
42 23x15px Democratic Republic of Congo 0.874700 0.870500 0.702100
43 23x15px Congo 0.874700 0.687100 0.664200
44 23x15px Costa Rica 0.236800 0.048900 0.241000
45 23x15px Ivory Coast 0.820400 0.784200 0.755100
46 23x15px Croatia 0.369000 0.076300 0.444700
47 23x15px Cuba 0.590800 0.000000 0.505900
48 23x15px Cyprus 0.093900 0.396200 0.396200
49 23x15px Czech Republic 0.322200 0.323300 0.659100
50 23x15px Denmark 0.081900 0.104900 0.233300
51 23x15px Djibouti 0.796200 0.655800 0.043500
52 23x15px Dominica 0.200300 0.000000 0.462800
53 23x15px Dominican Republic 0.429400 0.039500 0.311800
54 23x15px East Timor 0.000000 0.526100 0.425400
55 23x15px Ecuador 0.655000 0.130800 0.141700
56 23x15px Egypt 0.183600 0.023700 0.197900
57 23x15px El Salvador 0.197800 0.000000 0.355900
58 23x15px Equatorial Guinea 0.346700 0.322000 0.119500
59 23x15px Eritrea 0.652400 0.653000 0.425300
60 23x15px Estonia 0.506200 0.494400 0.498500
61 23x15px Ethiopia 0.723500 0.807300 0.624900
62 23x15px Faroe Islands 0.000000 0.000000 0.314700
63 23x15px Fiji 0.547900 0.547900 0.568200
64 23x15px Finland 0.131500 0.141200 0.253100
65 23x15px France 0.103200 0.122100 0.402900
66 23x15px French Guiana 0.000000 0.115400 0.495900
67 23x15px French Polynesia 0.000000 0.607800 0.581300
68 23x15px Gabon 0.769000 0.782100 0.667400
69 23x15px Gambia, The 0.786400 0.807600 0.097000
70 23x15px Gaza Strip 0.000000 0.010400 0.034200
71 23x15px Georgia 0.492300 0.474900 0.654300
72 23x15px Germany 0.168200 0.164200 0.657100
73 23x15px Ghana 0.673300 0.673100 0.798700
74 23x15px Greece 0.157600 0.030000 0.153000
75 23x15px Greenland 0.000000 0.218800 0.459200
76 23x15px Grenada 0.266100 0.000000 0.589800
77 23x15px Guadeloupe 0.000000 0.093300 0.306900
78 23x15px Guam 0.000000 0.732000 0.408200
79 23x15px Guatemala 0.512200 0.458600 0.375300
80 23x15px Guinea 0.738900 0.772500 0.264900
81 23x15px Guinea-Bissau 0.808200 0.814100 0.612800
82 23x15px Guyana 0.619500 0.068800 0.787600
83 Template:Country data Haiti 0.095000 0.000000 0.470400
84 Template:Country data Honduras 0.186700 0.055300 0.235700
85 Template:Country data Hong Kong 0.062000 0.212800 0.419100
86 23x15px Hungary 0.152200 0.029700 0.524400
87 Template:Country data Iceland 0.079800 0.082000 0.191300
88 Template:Country data India 0.418200 0.806900 0.326000
89 Template:Country data Indonesia 0.735100 0.768000 0.234000
90 Template:Country data Iran 0.668400 0.746200 0.115200
91 Template:Country data Iraq 0.368900 0.369400 0.484400
92 23x15px Ireland 0.120600 0.031200 0.155000
93 23x15px Isle of Man 0.000000 0.000000 0.472900
94 Template:Country data Israel 0.343600 0.552500 0.346900
95 23x15px Italy 0.114500 0.114700 0.302700
96 Template:Country data Jamaica 0.412900 0.109800 0.616000
97 Template:Country data Japan 0.011900 0.017800 0.540600
98 23x15px Jersey 0.000000 0.000000 0.547900
99 Template:Country data Jordan 0.592600 0.039600 0.065900
100 Template:Country data Kazakhstan 0.617100 0.662100 0.589800
101 Template:Country data Kenya 0.858800 0.886000 0.776500
102 Template:Country data Kiribati 0.051100 0.023700 0.554100
103
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data North Korea
0.039200 0.002800 0.489100
104
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data South Korea
0.002000 0.002100 0.660400
105 Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan 0.675200 0.594900 0.447000
106 Template:Country data Kuwait 0.660400 0.344400 0.674500
107 23x15px Laos 0.513900 0.638200 0.545300
108 23x15px Latvia 0.586700 0.579500 0.555600
109 23x15px Lebanon 0.131400 0.131200 0.788600
110 23x15px Lesotho 0.255000 0.254300 0.721100
111 23x15px Liberia 0.908400 0.903800 0.488300
112 23x15px Libya 0.792000 0.075800 0.057000
113 23x15px Liechtenstein 0.572600 0.224600 0.334300
114 23x15px Lithuania 0.322300 0.321900 0.414100
115 23x15px Luxembourg 0.530200 0.644000 0.091100
116 23x15px Macau 0.000000 0.251900 0.551100
117 23x15px Macedonia 0.502300 0.502100 0.589900
118 23x15px Madagascar 0.879100 0.020400 0.519100
119 23x15px Malawi 0.674400 0.602300 0.819200
120 23x15px Malaysia 0.588000 0.597000 0.665700
121 23x15px Mali 0.690600 0.838800 0.182000
122 23x15px Malta 0.041400 0.090700 0.122300
123 23x15px Marshall Islands 0.060300 0.073400 0.520700
124 23x15px Martinique 0.000000 0.000000 0.233600
125 23x15px Mauritania 0.615000 0.326000 0.014900
126 23x15px Mauritius 0.463400 0.454700 0.638500
127 23x15px Mayotte 0.000000 0.721200 0.062000
128 23x15px Mexico 0.541800 0.151100 0.179600
129 23x15px Micronesia 0.700500 0.748300 0.646900
130 23x15px Moldova 0.553500 0.553300 0.560300
131 23x15px Monaco 0.683800 0.730500 0.304700
132 23x15px Mongolia 0.368200 0.373400 0.079900
133 23x15px Morocco 0.484100 0.468300 0.003500
134 23x15px Mozambique 0.693200 0.812500 0.675900
135 23x15px Burma 0.506200 0.507200 0.197400
136 23x15px Namibia 0.632900 0.700500 0.662600
137 23x15px Nauru 0.583200 0.616100 0.619400
138 File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal 0.663200 0.716700 0.141700
139 23x15px Netherlands Antilles 0.000000 0.250800 0.386600
140 23x15px Netherlands 0.105400 0.514300 0.722200
141 23x15px New Caledonia 0.000000 0.663300 0.546200
142 23x15px New Zealand 0.396900 0.165700 0.811000
143 23x15px Nicaragua 0.484400 0.047300 0.429000
144 23x15px Niger 0.651800 0.651900 0.201300
145 23x15px Nigeria 0.850500 0.831600 0.742100
146 23x15px Northern Mariana Islands 0.000000 0.775400 0.481100
147 23x15px Norway 0.058600 0.067300 0.204800
148 23x15px Oman 0.437300 0.356700 0.432200
149 23x15px Pakistan 0.709800 0.719000 0.384800
150 23x15px Palau 0.431200 0.315700 0.714700
151 23x15px Panama 0.552800 0.387300 0.333800
152 23x15px Papua New Guinea 0.271800 0.352600 0.552300
153 23x15px Paraguay 0.168900 0.597500 0.212300
154 23x15px Peru 0.656600 0.335800 0.198800
155 23x15px Philippines 0.238500 0.836000 0.305600
156 23x15px Poland 0.118300 0.046800 0.171200
157 23x15px Portugal 0.046800 0.019800 0.143800
158 23x15px Puerto Rico 0.000000 0.035200 0.495200
159 23x15px Qatar 0.745600 0.480000 0.095000
160 23x15px Reunion 0.000000 0.157800 0.195200
161 23x15px Romania 0.306900 0.172300 0.237300
162 23x15px Russian Federation 0.245200 0.248500 0.439800
163 23x15px Rwanda 0.323800 0.000000 0.506600
164 23x15px Saint Lucia 0.176900 0.316900 0.332000
165 23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 0.306600 0.017500 0.702800
166 23x15px Western Samoa 0.137600 0.011100 0.787100
167 23x15px San Marino 0.292700 0.000000 0.197500
168 23x15px Sao Tome and Principe 0.000000 0.232200 0.186600
169 23x15px Saudi Arabia 0.180000 0.094900 0.127000
170 23x15px Senegal 0.693900 0.708100 0.149700
171 23x15px Serbia 0.573600 0.000000 0.000000
172 23x15px Seychelles 0.202500 0.160600 0.232300
173 23x15px Sierra Leone 0.819100 0.763400 0.539500
174 23x15px Singapore 0.385700 0.383500 0.656100
175 23x15px Slovak Republic 0.253900 0.255100 0.565500
176 23x15px Slovenia 0.221600 0.220100 0.286800
177 23x15px Solomon Islands 0.111000 0.525400 0.670800
178 23x15px Somalia 0.811700 0.032600 0.002800
179 23x15px South Africa 0.751700 0.865200 0.860300
180 23x15px Spain 0.416500 0.413200 0.451400
181 23x15px Sri Lanka 0.415000 0.464500 0.485300
182 23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis 0.184200 0.000000 0.661400
183 23x15px Sudan 0.714700 0.719000 0.430700
184 23x15px Suriname 0.733200 0.331000 0.791000
185 23x15px Swaziland 0.058200 0.172200 0.444400
186 23x15px Sweden 0.060000 0.196800 0.234200
187 23x16px  Switzerland 0.531400 0.544100 0.608300
188 23x15px Syria 0.539900 0.181700 0.431000
189 23x15px Taiwan 0.274400 0.502800 0.684500
190 23x15px Tajikistan 0.510700 0.547300 0.338600
191 23x15px Tanzania 0.735300 0.898300 0.633400
192 23x15px Thailand 0.633800 0.634400 0.099400
193 23x15px Togo 0.709900 0.898000 0.659600
194 23x15px Tonga 0.086900 0.378200 0.621400
195 23x15px Trinidad and Tobago 0.647500 0.125100 0.793600
196 23x15px Tunisia 0.039400 0.012400 0.010400
197 23x15px Turkey 0.320000 0.221600 0.004900
198 23x15px Turkmenistan 0.391800 0.398400 0.232700
199 23x15px Tuvalu 0.162900 0.137200 0.252400
200 23x15px Uganda 0.930200 0.922700 0.633200
201 23x15px Ukraine 0.473700 0.474100 0.615700
202 23x15px United Arab Emirates 0.625200 0.487400 0.331000
203 23x15px United Kingdom 0.121100 0.053200 0.694400
204 23x15px United States 0.490100 0.564700 0.824100
205 23x15px Uruguay 0.250400 0.081700 0.354800
206 23x15px Uzbekistan 0.412500 0.412000 0.213300
207 23x15px Vanuatu 0.041300 0.579400 0.704400
208 23x15px Venezuela 0.496600 0.068600 0.135000
209 23x15px Vietnam 0.238300 0.237700 0.508000
210 23x15px United States Virgin Islands 0.000000 0.314000 0.635900
211 23x15px West Bank 0.000000 0.143800 0.309500
212 23x15px Yemen 0.000000 0.008000 0.002300
213 23x15px Yugoslavia 0.809200 0.606400 0.553000
214 23x15px Zambia 0.780800 0.873400 0.735900
215 23x15px Zimbabwe 0.387400 0.447200 0.736300

References

  1. ^ a b A. Alesina, E. La Ferrara (2005). "Ethnic Diversity and Economic Performance" (PDF). Journal of Economic Literature: 762–800. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Natalka Patsiurko, John L. Campbell and John A. Hall (2012). "Measuring cultural diversity: ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization in the OECD" (PDF). Ethnic and Racial Studies 35 (2): 195–217. doi:10.1080/01419870.2011.579136. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d James Fearon (2003). "Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867. 
  4. ^ a b c d Alberto Alesina et al. (2003). "Fractionalization" (PDF). Journal of Economic Growth 8: 155–194. doi:10.1023/a:1024471506938. Retrieved September 13, 2012.