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List of dried foods

File:Food dehydrator.jpg
An electric food dehydrator with mango and papaya slices being dried

Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which inhibits the growth of bacteria and has been practiced worldwide since ancient times to preserve food. Where or when dehydration as a food preservation technique was invented has been lost to time, however the earliest known practice of food drying is 12,000 BC by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions.[1]

Dried foods

Processed foods

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  • KnorrTemplate:Spaced ndash a German food and beverage brand. It produces dehydrated soup mixes and condiments.
  • KashkTemplate:Spaced ndash is used in a large family of foods found in Lebanese, Palestinian, Egyptian, Kurdish, Iranian and Central Asian cuisine. It is made from drained sour milk or yogurt by forming it and letting it dry. It can be made in a variety of forms, including rolled into balls, sliced into strips, and formed into chunks.

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  • Instant soup - some instant soups consist of a packet of dry soup stock that does not contain water, and are prepared by adding water and then heating the product for a short time, or by adding hot water directly to the dry soup mix.
  • Sugar - Granulated sugar is typically produced by separating and then drying the sugars present in various plants, such as sugar cane and sugar beet.

Plant foods

Dried fruit

Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, and long shelf life.

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  • Li hing muiTemplate:Spaced ndash salty dried plum. In most parts of China it is called huamei. It was made popular in Hawaii by Yee Sheong, who in early 1900, had begun importing Li hing mui and various other preserved fruits i.e. crack seed snacks from China to Hawaii. The red powder, called "li hing powder", consists of ground-up plum skin that has previously been pickled in a combination of licorice, aspartame, food coloring, salt, and sugar.
  • Lycium barbarumTemplate:Spaced ndash one of two species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae (the other is (Lycium chinense) from which the wolfberry or goji berry is harvested, it is also known as Chinese wolfberry,[8] The fruit is preserved by drying them in full sun on open trays or by mechanical dehydration employing a progressively increasing series of heat exposure over 48 hours.
  • Lycium chinenseTemplate:Spaced ndash one of two species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae from which the wolfberry or goji berry is harvested, the other being Lycium barbarum.

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  • Nuts are classified as a fruit. In a culinary context, a wide variety of dried seeds are often called nuts, but in a botanical context, only ones that include the indehiscent fruit are considered true nuts.

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File:Raisins 01.jpg
A variety of raisins from different grapes

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Dried vegetables

Many types of dried and dehydrated vegetables exist, such as potatoes, beans, snap beans, lima beans, leafy vegetables, carrot, corn and onion.[12][13]

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  • Vegetable chips – some versions are prepared by simply drying sliced vegetables

Dried seeds

  • MaizeTemplate:Spaced ndash Some varieties of maize (usually called 'corn' in American English) are dried to produce popcorn. Popcorn kernels with a high moisture content will pop when freshly harvested, but not well and are also susceptible to mold when stored. For these reasons, popcorn growers and distributors dry the kernels until they reach the moisture level at which they expand (pop) the most when cooked. Dried maize is also used for decoration purposes.

Fungi

  • Mushroom extractTemplate:Spaced ndash a paste-like, concentrated extract made from dried edible mushrooms.[19] Mushroom extract is used to add flavor to soups, sauces, soy sauce and other foods.[19]

Animal foods

Dried fish and seafood

Drying fish is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the fish, which inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Open air drying using sun and wind has been practiced since ancient times to preserve food.[20] Fish are preserved through such traditional methods as drying, smoking and salting.[21] The oldest traditional way of preserving fish was to let the wind and sun dry it.

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  • Juipo - a traditional Korean pressed fish jerky sold as a street snack. Made from the filefish, it is dried, flattened and seasoned and has a subtle sweet flavor.

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File:Tørrfesk.jpg
A stockfish warehouse in the village of Forsøl, Norway

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Dried meats

Dried meat is a feature of many cuisines around the world.

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File:Bak kwa.jpg
Chinese bakkwa (sweet meat jerky) made from pork

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  • Elenski butTemplate:Spaced ndash a dry-cured ham from the town of Elena in northern Bulgaria and a popular delicacy throughout the country. The meat has a specific taste and can be preserved in the course of several years, owing much to the special process of making and the climatic conditions of the part of Stara Planina where Elena is located.

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  • FenalårTemplate:Spaced ndash In Norway, salted, dried and cured leg of lamb. Curing time is normally about three months, but the "fenalår" may be matured for a year or more. The meat is dark red to brownish, with a pronounced taste of mutton. Fenalår is a very popular dish in Norway, and is often served with other preserved food at a Christmas buffet or at Norwegian Constitution Day. Normally the meat is served as thin slices, but it is also common - at informal gatherings - to send the leg around the table with a sharp, stubby knife. The guests then slice the leg themselves. Thus, in western Norway "fenalår" is called "spikkekjøtt", literally "whittle-meat", but this name may also origin from the word "speke", "to cure".

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File:Csabai kolbász.jpg
Csabai kolbász, a type of Hungarian sausage

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  • Jamón ibéricoTemplate:Spaced ndash "Iberian ham", also called pata negra and carna negra; "black hoof") is a type of cured ham produced mostly in Spain, but also in some Portuguese regions where it is called presunto ibérico. According to Spain's Denominación de Origen rules on food products, the jamón ibérico may be made from black Iberian pigs, or cross-bred pigs as long as they are at least 75% ibérico.
  • Jamón serranoTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of jamón (dry-cured Spanish ham), which is generally served in thin slices, or occasionally diced. The majority of serrano hams are made from the landrace breed of white pig and are not to be confused with the much more expensive jamón ibérico.
  • JerkyTemplate:Spaced ndash lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before sufficient moisture has been removed. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F).
  • Jinhua hamTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of dry-cured ham named after the city of Jinhua, where it is produced, in the Zhejiang province of eastern China. The ham is used in Chinese cuisines to flavour stewed and braised foods as well as for making the stocks and broths of many Chinese soups.

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File:Dried reindeer meat.jpg
Kuivaliha, in the form of dried reindeer meat

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  • Naegelholt is lightly salted, air-dried beef, produced in the east of The Netherlands and slightly similar to the more common smoked beef ("rookvlees") but naegelholt has a more delicate taste and is not smoked. Naegelholt means literally 'nailwood' (although 'holt' also is a nowadays unusual word for a piece of meat) and refers to the nails to which the beef was attached to dry.
  • Njeguška pršutaTemplate:Spaced ndash a specialty of Njeguši, a village in Montenegro, Njeguška pršuta is a dry-cured ham, served uncooked, similar to Italian prosciutto. It has a unique flavor that is attributed to the result of the mixture of sea and mountain air and wood burned during the drying process.[37]

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  • TapaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Philippine food made dried or cured beef, mutton or venison, although other meats or even fish may be used. It's prepared using thin slices of meat that are cured with salt and spices as a method of preserving it.
  • TsamarellaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Cypriot traditional food. It consists of meat, usually goat meat, that is salted and cured for preservation. The process of preparation traditionally involves drying in the sun.
  • Tyrolean SpeckTemplate:Spaced ndash a distinctively juniper-flavored ham originally from Tyrol, an historical region that since 1918 partially lies in Italy. Tyrolean speck is made from the hind leg of the pig, and is deboned before curing in salt and one of various spice combinations, which may include garlic, bay leaves, juniper berries, nutmeg, and other spices. It's then rested for a period of several weeks, after which, the smoking process begins. It is cold-smoked slowly and intermittently for two or three hours a day for a period of roughly a week using woods such as beech at temperatures that never exceed 20 °C (68 °F). It is then matured for five months.

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See also

References

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  8. ^ "GRIN Taxonomy for Lycium barbarum". United States Department of Agriculture Germplasm Resources Information Network. 
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  10. ^ "Influence of Pre-drying Treatments on Quality and Safety of Sun-dried Tomatoes. Part I: Use of Steam Blanching, Boiling Brine Blanching, and Dips in Salt or Sodium Metabisulfite" (PDF). 
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  12. ^ Commercial dehydration of vegetables and fruits in wartime. United States. Dept. of Agriculture. 1943. pp. 20-26.
  13. ^ Vegetable and Fruit Dehydration: A Manual for Plant Operators. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1944.
  14. ^ Timothy Johns: With bitter Herbs They Shall Eat it : Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1990, ISBN 0-8165-1023-7, p. 82-84
  15. ^ Nutritional properties of purples carrots from Cuevas Bajas, Spain.
  16. ^ Snack of purple carrot.
  17. ^ D. Brooker, F. W. Bakker-Arkema, and C. W. Hall, The Drying and Storage of Grains and Oilseeds. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Avi Book, New York.
  18. ^ a b Tropical Mushrooms: Biological Nature and Cultivation Method. pp. 74-77, p. 84.
  19. ^ a b c Handbook of Spices, Seasonings, and Flavorings, Second Edition - Susheela Raghavan. pp. 212-213.
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  21. ^ Grandidier (1899), p. 521
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  31. ^ The Association of the Black Forest Ham Manufacturers (website). Accessed June 2010.
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  42. ^ Lag ditt eget pinnekjøtt og vossakorv - Apéritif
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  44. ^ OED sv. salumeria, n.
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  46. ^ Famularo, Joe (2003). A Cook's Tour of Italy. HPBooks. pg. 320 ISBN 1-55788-418-8
  47. ^ SpeckTemplate:Spaced ndash Smoked Prosciutto (Mario Batali)

External links