List of dried foods
Drying is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the food, which inhibits the growth of bacteria and has been practiced worldwide since ancient times to preserve food. Where or when dehydration as a food preservation technique was invented has been lost to time, however the earliest known practice of food drying is 12,000 BC by inhabitants of the modern Middle East and Asia regions.
- 1 Dried foods
- 2 Plant foods
- 3 Fungi
- 4 Animal foods
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
- Bouillon cubeTemplate:Spaced ndash dehydrated bouillon (French for broth) or stock formed into a small cube about 15 mm wide. It is typically made by dehydrating vegetables, meat stock, a small portion of fat, salt and seasonings and shaping them into a small cube. Vegetarian and vegan types are made.
- Instant breakfast - typically refers to breakfast food products that are manufactured in a powdered form, which is generally prepared with the addition of milk and then consumed as a beverage. An example includes Carnation Instant Breakfast, which was introduced in 1964.
- Instant coffeeTemplate:Spaced ndash a beverage derived from brewed coffee beans. Instant coffee is commercially prepared by either freeze-drying or spray drying, after which it can be rehydrated. Instant coffee in a concentrated liquid form is also manufactured.
- EggsTemplate:Spaced ndash Powdered eggs are fully dehydrated eggs. They are made using spray drying in the same way that powdered milk is made. Powdered eggs have a storage life of 5 to 10 years when stored without oxygen in a cool storage environment. Another dried egg product is freeze-dried eggs, which can be shelf stable for up to 25 years.
- Evaporated milkTemplate:Spaced ndash a shelf-stable canned milk product with about 60% of the water removed from fresh milk. It differs from sweetened condensed milk, which contains added sugar.
- Freeze-dried ice creamTemplate:Spaced ndash ice cream that has had most of the water removed from it by a freeze-drying process, sealed in a pouch, and requires no refrigeration.
- Instant coffee.jpg
- KnorrTemplate:Spaced ndash a German food and beverage brand. It produces dehydrated soup mixes and condiments.
- KashkTemplate:Spaced ndash is used in a large family of foods found in Lebanese, Palestinian, Egyptian, Kurdish, Iranian and Central Asian cuisine. It is made from drained sour milk or yogurt by forming it and letting it dry. It can be made in a variety of forms, including rolled into balls, sliced into strips, and formed into chunks.
- Marvel (food)Template:Spaced ndash a United Kingdom brand of dried milk powder, now marketed by Premier Foods.
- Non-dairy creamerTemplate:Spaced ndash liquid or granular substances intended to substitute for milk or cream as an additive to coffee or other beverages.
- Instant noodles - dried or precooked noodles usually sold with packets of flavoring powder and/or seasoning oil. Instant ramen is a very common type of instant noodle product.
- Popcorn seasoning can be a variety of seasonings that are used to add flavor to popcorn.
- Portable soupTemplate:Spaced ndash a kind of dehydrated food used in the 18th and 19th centuries. It was a precursor of the later meat extract and bouillon cubes, and of industrially dehydrated food.
- Powdered milkTemplate:Spaced ndash a manufactured dairy product made by evaporating milk to dryness. In modern times, powdered milk is usually made by spray drying nonfat skimmed milk, whole milk, buttermilk or whey. Pasteurized milk is first concentrated in an evaporator to approximately 50% milk solids. The resulting concentrated milk is then sprayed into a heated chamber where the water almost instantly evaporates, leaving fine particles of powdered milk solids.
- Instantní vietnamská polévka.JPG
Reconstituted instant ramen noodles
- Instant soup - some instant soups consist of a packet of dry soup stock that does not contain water, and are prepared by adding water and then heating the product for a short time, or by adding hot water directly to the dry soup mix.
- Sugar - Granulated sugar is typically produced by separating and then drying the sugars present in various plants, such as sugar cane and sugar beet.
Dried fruit is fruit from which the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized because of its sweet taste, nutritive value, and long shelf life.
- Apple chips
- Dried apple - can be eaten dried or reconstituted (soaked in water, alcohol or some other liquid) for later use.
- Dried apricotTemplate:Spaced ndash - can be dried either whole or in halves, with or without kernels.
- Banana chipTemplate:Spaced ndash dried or deep-fried slices of bananas, they're commonly found in Indonesia (as kripik) and India.
- Black limeTemplate:Spaced ndash a spice used in Middle Eastern dishes made by boiling fresh lime in salt water and sun drying until the insides turn black.
- Apricots Drying In Cappadocia.JPG
Apricots drying on the ground in Turkey
- Banana chips (close-up).jpg
Dried banana chips
- Dried persian limes (ground).jpg
Dried, ground Persian black lime
- CoconutTemplate:Spaced ndash can be dried whole or halved. A common product is coconut that has been dried and shredded.
- ChenpiTemplate:Spaced ndash sun-dried tangerine (mandarin) peel used as a traditional seasoning in Chinese cooking and traditional medicine.
- Dried cherryTemplate:Spaced ndash cherries which have been subjected to a drying process.
- Dried cranberryTemplate:Spaced ndash made by partially dehydrating fresh cranberries, a process similar to making grapes into raisins. They are popular in trail mix, salads, and breads, with cereals or eaten on their own.
- Dried fig - The "common fig" (Ficus carica) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Ficus, from the family Moraceae, known as the common fig. Dried fig is used in food products such as fig rolls.
- GojiTemplate:Spaced ndash the fruit of Lycium barbarum, goji is usually sold in open boxes and small packages in dried form, and are traditionally cooked before consumption.
- Dried coconuts.JPG
- Dried cranberries.jpg
- A schiocca.JPG
- Lycium chinense MHNT.jpg
Dried goji berries
- Li hing muiTemplate:Spaced ndash salty dried plum. In most parts of China it is called huamei. It was made popular in Hawaii by Yee Sheong, who in early 1900, had begun importing Li hing mui and various other preserved fruits i.e. crack seed snacks from China to Hawaii. The red powder, called "li hing powder", consists of ground-up plum skin that has previously been pickled in a combination of licorice, aspartame, food coloring, salt, and sugar.
- Lycium barbarumTemplate:Spaced ndash one of two species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae (the other is (Lycium chinense) from which the wolfberry or goji berry is harvested, it is also known as Chinese wolfberry, The fruit is preserved by drying them in full sun on open trays or by mechanical dehydration employing a progressively increasing series of heat exposure over 48 hours.
- Lycium chinenseTemplate:Spaced ndash one of two species of boxthorn in the family Solanaceae from which the wolfberry or goji berry is harvested, the other being Lycium barbarum.
- KTM premium red li hing mui.jpg
Red li hing mui sold in Maui, Hawaii
- Li hing powder.jpg
Packaged li hing powder found in Hawaii
- Mangoes Template:Spaced ndash The fruit of the mango tree can be dried. The Philippines produces and exports dried mangoes.
- Nuts are classified as a fruit. In a culinary context, a wide variety of dried seeds are often called nuts, but in a botanical context, only ones that include the indehiscent fruit are considered true nuts.
- Pink peppercornTemplate:Spaced ndash a dried berry of the shrub Schinus molle, commonly known as the Peruvian peppertree. In 1982, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the United States banned the import of Brazilian peppercorns from France into the US, asserting that people who eat the berries risk an array of acute symptoms, such as swollen eyelids and indigestion. In response, the Government of France maintained that the berries are safe to eat if grown in prescribed conditions. The United States later lifted the ban.[when?]
- PruneTemplate:Spaced ndash any of various plum cultivars, mostly Prunus domestica or European Plum, sold as fresh or dried fruit. More than 1,000 cultivars of plums are grown for drying.
- RaisinTemplate:Spaced ndash a dried grape, raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking, baking and brewing.
- RistraTemplate:Spaced ndash an arrangement of drying chili pepper pods, used to preserve chili peppers and also for decoration.
A dried prune
- Ristras&garlic at market.jpg
Ristras of jalapeños, other chili peppers, and garlic at a market in Montreal.
- SaladitosTemplate:Spaced ndash dried, salted plums, which can also be sweetened with sugar and anise or coated in chili and lime.
- Sun-dried tomatoTemplate:Spaced ndash ripe tomatoes that lose most of their water content after spending a majority of their drying time in the sun. These tomatoes are usually pre-treated with sulfur dioxide or salt before being placed in the sun in order to improve quality.
- Traditional dried fruitTemplate:Spaced ndash types of dried fruits that are either sun-dried such as raisins and dried figs or dehydrated in wind tunnels and other dryers such as dried plums (prunes), apricots and peaches. It also includes dates, which are considered to be dried fruit because they have naturally low moisture contents.
- ChuñoTemplate:Spaced ndash a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Bolivia and Peru, and is known in various countries of South America, including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru.
- Potatoes - Instant mashed potatoes are a product that have been through an industrial process of cooking, mashing and dehydrating to yield a packaged convenience food that can be reconstituted in the home in seconds by adding hot water or milk, producing a close approximation of mashed potatoes with very little expenditure of time and effort. Another product is dehydrated shredded potatoes.
- Purple carrot is an innovative product that has recently been developed due to its nutritional properties.
- Vegetable chips – some versions are prepared by simply drying sliced vegetables
- Dehydrated shredded potatoes.jpg
Dehydrated shredded potatoes
- Deep Fried Cassava Chips.jpg
Deep-fried cassava chips, a type of vegetable chip
- BeansTemplate:Spaced ndash "bean" is a common name for large plant seeds used for human food or animal feed of several genera of the family Fabaceae (alternately Leguminosae). The term is sometimes used as a synonym of pulse, though the term pulses is usually reserved for leguminous crops harvested for their dry grain. Dried beans include kidney beans, black turtle beans, pinto beans and several others.
- GrainTemplate:Spaced ndash Hundreds of millions of tonnes of wheat, corn, soybean, rice and other grains as sorghum, sunflower seeds, rapeseed/canola, barley, oats, etc., are dried in grain dryers. In the main agricultural countries, drying comprises the reduction of moisture from about 17-30%w/w to values between 8 and 15%w/w, depending on the grain. The final moisture content for drying must be adequate for storage. Additional grains include lentils, wild rice, chick peas, millet and several others.
- MaizeTemplate:Spaced ndash Some varieties of maize (usually called 'corn' in American English) are dried to produce popcorn. Popcorn kernels with a high moisture content will pop when freshly harvested, but not well and are also susceptible to mold when stored. For these reasons, popcorn growers and distributors dry the kernels until they reach the moisture level at which they expand (pop) the most when cooked. Dried maize is also used for decoration purposes.
- RiceTemplate:Spaced ndash the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice), As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. Unmilled rice is usually harvested when the grains have a moisture content of around 25%, and drying has to be carried out quickly to avoid the formation of molds. There are four major categories of rice worldwide: indica, japonica, aromatic and glutinous.
- Wild riceTemplate:Spaced ndash four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain which can be harvested from them. Wild rice is typically sold as a dried whole grain.
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Beans at a market
Grains at a market
Carnaroli, an Italian variety of rice
- Wheat close-up.JPG
- Dried mushroomsTemplate:Spaced ndash typically prepared by sun-drying, hot-air drying or freeze-drying. Some types of mushrooms that are prepared dried include shiitake, straw and morel mushrooms.
- Mushroom extractTemplate:Spaced ndash a paste-like, concentrated extract made from dried edible mushrooms. Mushroom extract is used to add flavor to soups, sauces, soy sauce and other foods.
Dried fish and seafood
Drying fish is a method of food preservation that works by removing water from the fish, which inhibits the growth of microorganisms. Open air drying using sun and wind has been practiced since ancient times to preserve food. Fish are preserved through such traditional methods as drying, smoking and salting. The oldest traditional way of preserving fish was to let the wind and sun dry it.
- BacalhauTemplate:Spaced ndash the Portuguese word for cod and—in a culinary context—dried and salted cod. Bacalhau dishes are common in Portugal and Galicia, in the northwest of Spain, and to a lesser extent in former Portuguese colonies like Angola, Macau, Brazil, and Goa.
- BalykTemplate:Spaced ndash salted and dried soft parts of fish, usually coming from large valuable species: acipenseridae (e.g., sturgeon) or salmonidae (salmon).
- BokkomsTemplate:Spaced ndash whole, salted and dried mullet (more specifically the Southern mullet, Liza richardsonii, a type of fish commonly known in the Western Cape of South Africa as "harders"), and is a well-known delicacy from the West Coast region of South Africa.
- BoknafiskTemplate:Spaced ndash a variant of stockfish and is unsalted fish partially dried by sun and wind on drying flakes ('hjell') or on a wall. Boknafisk is mostly associated with North Norway, but it is eaten along the entire Norwegian coast down to Bergen.
- Budu (sauce)Template:Spaced ndash a sauce traditionally made by mixing anchovy and salt in the range of ratio of 2:1 to 6:1 and allowing to ferment for 140 to 200 days.
- Dried clam 
- Conpoy - a type of dried seafood product made from the adductor muscle of scallops.
- Craster kipperTemplate:Spaced ndash kippers from the Northumberland village of Craster.
- Dried and salted codTemplate:Spaced ndash or "salt cod", is cod which has been preserved by drying after salting. Cod which has been dried without the addition of salt is stockfish.
- Dried shredded squidTemplate:Spaced ndash a dried, seasoned, seafood product, made from squid or cuttlefish, commonly found in coastal Asian countries, Russia, and Hawaii.
- Dried shrimpTemplate:Spaced ndash are shrimp that have been sun-dried and shrunk. They are used in many Asian cuisines, imparting a unique umami taste.
Commercially-prepared dried shredded squid
- FesikhTemplate:Spaced ndash a traditional Egyptian fish dish consisting of fermented salted and dried gray mullet, of the mugil family, a saltwater fish that lives in both the Mediterranean and the Red Seas.
- GwamegiTemplate:Spaced ndash a Korean half-dried Pacific herring or Pacific saury made during winter. It is mostly eaten in the region of North Gyeongsang Province such as Pohang, Uljin, and Yeongdeok where a large amount of the fish are harvested.
- Juipo - a traditional Korean pressed fish jerky sold as a street snack. Made from the filefish, it is dried, flattened and seasoned and has a subtle sweet flavor.
- KatsuobushiTemplate:Spaced ndash the Japanese name for dried, fermented, and smoked skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis).
- KipperTemplate:Spaced ndash a whole herring, a small, oily fish, that has been split in butterfly fashion from tail to head along the dorsal ridge, gutted, salted or pickled, and cold smoked over smouldering woodchips (typically oak).
- KusayaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Japanese style salted-dried fish and fermented fish. Though the smell of kusaya is strong, its taste is quite mellow.
- Maldive fishTemplate:Spaced ndash cured tuna fish traditionally produced in Maldives. It is a staple of the Maldivian cuisine, as well as of the Sri Lankan cuisine, and in the past it was one of the main exports from Maldives to Sri Lanka.
- MojamaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Spanish delicacy consisting of filleted salt-cured tuna, made using the loins of the tuna.
- Mojama de atun.JPG
- Octopus drying under the sun in Greece.jpg
Octopus being sun-dried in Greece
- PiracuíTemplate:Spaced ndash known in the Amazon region as "farinha de peixe" (fish meal), it is traditionally made from dried salted fish that is crushed or shredded.
- SanyaaTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of dried fish prepared by the Newars.
- StockfishTemplate:Spaced ndash unsalted fish, especially cod, dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks on the foreshore, called "hjell".
- Tatami IwashiTemplate:Spaced ndash a Japanese processed food product made from baby sardines or shirasu laid out and dried while entwined in a single layer to form a large mat-like sheet.
- VoblaTemplate:Spaced ndash salt-dried vobla is a common Russian meal or snack that goes well with beer. It is popular in many Russian households and beer restaurants.
- BaconTemplate:Spaced ndash Some forms of bacon are dried, such as freeze-dried bacon.
- BakkwaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Chinese salty-sweet dried meat product similar to jerky. Bakkwa is made with a meat preservation and preparation technique originating from China.
- Bayonne hamTemplate:Spaced ndash an air dried salted ham that takes its name from the ancient port city of Bayonne in the far South West of France, a city located in both the cultural regions of Basque Country and Gascony. Jambon de Bayonne has PGI status. It is a slightly sweet, delicately flavored meat with little salt to the taste.
- BiltongTemplate:Spaced ndash a variety of cured meat that originated in Southern Africa, various types of meat are used to produce it, ranging from beef and game meats to fillets of ostrich from commercial farms. It is typically made from raw fillets of meat.
- Black Forest hamTemplate:Spaced ndash a variety of dry-cured smoked ham, a pork product, produced in the Black Forest region of Germany. Ham is the thigh and rump from the haunch of a pig or boar. It is the best-selling smoked ham in Europe.
- BortsTemplate:Spaced ndash a Mongolian air-dried meat with preparation involving cutting the meat into long strips which are hung in the shade.
- BresaolaTemplate:Spaced ndash air-dried, salted beef that has been aged two or three months until it becomes hard and turns a dark red, almost purple color. It is made from top (inside) round, and is lean and tender, with a sweet, musty smell. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region.
- BrésiTemplate:Spaced ndash beef which has been salted, dried and smoked over a period of three months, which is made in the Department of Doubs. It resembles Grisons Buendnerfleisch, and first appears in works on gastronomy from about 1560.
- BündnerfleischTemplate:Spaced ndash an air-dried meat that is produced in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland, The main ingredient is beef, taken from the animal’s upper thigh or shoulder, the fat and the sinews being removed. Before drying, the meat is treated with white wine and seasonings such as salt, onion and assorted herbs.
Sliced Black Forest ham
- CabanossiTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of dry sausage, similar to a mild salami. It is made from pork and beef, lightly seasoned and then smoked. Two particular varieties have Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) status under the Common Agricultural Policy of European Union law. Four additional Italian regions produce capocollo, and are not covered under European law, but are designated as "Prodotto agroalimentare tradizionale" (P.A.T.) by the Italian Ministry of Agricultural, Food and Forestry Policies.
- CapicolaTemplate:Spaced ndash a traditional Italian cold cut (salume) made from dry-cured whole pork shoulder or neck.
- Carne secaTemplate:Spaced ndash is a kind of dried beef in Mexican cuisine. In northern Mexican cuisine, particularly the states of Chihuahua and Sonora, carne seca is cooked in a dish called machaca.
- Carne-de-solTemplate:Spaced ndash a dish from Northeastern Brazil. It consists of heavily salted beef, which is exposed to the sun for one or two days to cure.
- Carne-secaTemplate:Spaced ndash a kind of dried, salted meat, usually beef, in Brazilian cuisine, it's a frequent accompaniment to black beans.
- CecinaTemplate:Spaced ndash In Spanish, cecina means "meat that has been salted and dried by means of air, sun or smoke". The word comes either from the Latin siccus (dry) or from the Celtic ciercina related to modern Spanish cierzo or northern wind. In Spain, cecina is similar to ham but is made by curing beef, horse or (less frequently) goat, rabbit, or hare. Cecina de León, which is made of the hind legs of beef, salted, smoked and air-dried in the province of León in northwestern Spain, has Protected designation of origin status.
- CharcuterieTemplate:Spaced ndash the branch of cooking devoted to prepared meat products, such as bacon, ham, sausage, terrines, galantines, pâtés, and confit, primarily from pork. Charcuterie is part of the garde manger chef's repertoire. Originally intended as a way to preserve meat before the advent of refrigeration, they are prepared today for their flavors derived from the preservation processes.
- CharquiTemplate:Spaced ndash a form of jerky common in South America made from dried and salted meat, originally llama where this animal roamed, but nowadays mostly beef.
- Chinese sausageTemplate:Spaced ndash a generic term referring to the many different types of sausages originating in China.
- Chipped beefTemplate:Spaced ndash thinly sliced or pressed salted and dried beef. Some varieties are smoked to add flavor.
- ChorizoTemplate:Spaced ndash can be a fresh sausage, in which case it must be cooked before eating. In Europe, it is more frequently a fermented, salt-cured, smoked sausage
- Cold cutTemplate:Spaced ndash precooked or cured meat, including dried sausages.
- Country hamTemplate:Spaced ndash a variety of cured ham that is typically very salty. Country hams are salt-cured (and occasionally nitrite- and nitrate-cured) for one to three months.
- Culatello- a refined variety of prosciutto, made from heavier pigs, cut to a fraction of the normal prosciutto and aged, and may be cured with wine, with culatello di Zibello having PDO status.
- Corse coppa.jpg
Coppa Spécialité Corse, a variety of capicola
Dried Chinese sausages
- DroëworsTemplate:Spaced ndash a Southern African snack food, based on the traditional, coriander-seed spiced boerewors sausage.
- Elenski butTemplate:Spaced ndash a dry-cured ham from the town of Elena in northern Bulgaria and a popular delicacy throughout the country. The meat has a specific taste and can be preserved in the course of several years, owing much to the special process of making and the climatic conditions of the part of Stara Planina where Elena is located.
- FenalårTemplate:Spaced ndash In Norway, salted, dried and cured leg of lamb. Curing time is normally about three months, but the "fenalår" may be matured for a year or more. The meat is dark red to brownish, with a pronounced taste of mutton. Fenalår is a very popular dish in Norway, and is often served with other preserved food at a Christmas buffet or at Norwegian Constitution Day. Normally the meat is served as thin slices, but it is also common - at informal gatherings - to send the leg around the table with a sharp, stubby knife. The guests then slice the leg themselves. Thus, in western Norway "fenalår" is called "spikkekjøtt", literally "whittle-meat", but this name may also origin from the word "speke", "to cure".
- Genoa salamiTemplate:Spaced ndash an American variety of salami commonly believed to have originated in the area of Genoa. It is normally made from pork, but may also contain beef or be all beef. It is seasoned with garlic, salt, black and white peppercorns, fennel seeds, and red or white wine.
- Hungarian sausagesTemplate:Spaced ndash The cuisine of Hungary produces a vast number of types of sausages. Different regions in Hungary may have their own sausage recipes and tastes. The Hungarian sausages may be boiled, fresh or dried and smoked, with different spices and flavors, "hot" or "mild".
- Jamón ibéricoTemplate:Spaced ndash "Iberian ham", also called pata negra and carna negra; "black hoof") is a type of cured ham produced mostly in Spain, but also in some Portuguese regions where it is called presunto ibérico. According to Spain's Denominación de Origen rules on food products, the jamón ibérico may be made from black Iberian pigs, or cross-bred pigs as long as they are at least 75% ibérico.
- Jamón serranoTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of jamón (dry-cured Spanish ham), which is generally served in thin slices, or occasionally diced. The majority of serrano hams are made from the landrace breed of white pig and are not to be confused with the much more expensive jamón ibérico.
- JerkyTemplate:Spaced ndash lean meat that has been trimmed of fat, cut into strips, and then dried to prevent spoilage. Normally, this drying includes the addition of salt, to prevent bacteria from developing on the meat before sufficient moisture has been removed. Modern manufactured jerky is normally marinated in a seasoned spice rub or liquid, and dried, dehydrated or smoked with low heat (usually under 70 °C/160 °F).
- Jinhua hamTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of dry-cured ham named after the city of Jinhua, where it is produced, in the Zhejiang province of eastern China. The ham is used in Chinese cuisines to flavour stewed and braised foods as well as for making the stocks and broths of many Chinese soups.
- Jamon Serrano.jpg
- Raw jerky in dehydrator.jpg
Raw meat before dehydration into jerky
- KilishiTemplate:Spaced ndash a version of biltong or jerky that originated in Hausaland, it's a delicacy made from cow, sheep or goat meat after the removal of bone.
- KuivalihaTemplate:Spaced ndash salted and dried meat, often reindeer meat. It's a traditional food and a delicacy of northern Finland, prepared at springtime.
- Lacón GallegoTemplate:Spaced ndash a dried ham product from Galicia, Spain with PGI status under European law. Historically, Lacón has been mentioned in texts since at least the 17th century. Only specific breeds of pigs are used to produce the food, and The actual product is only made with the pork shoulder.
- LahndiTemplate:Spaced ndash a winter food popular in Northern Afghanistan, that is usually prepared from lamb and sheep, although it can also be made from beef.
- LomoTemplate:Spaced ndash the Spanish word for tenderloin, a specific type is lomo embuchado, which is a dry-cured meat made from a pork tenderloin. It is similar to cecina, but with pork instead of beef.
- LountzaTemplate:Spaced ndash a meat delicacy of Cyprus of dried, smoked pork tenderloin. The name may come from the Italian lonza stagionata.
- MachacaTemplate:Spaced ndash a dish prepared most commonly from dried, spiced beef or pork, then rehydrated and pounded to make it tender. The reconstituted meat would then be used to prepare any number of dishes.
- Meat extractTemplate:Spaced ndash highly concentrated meat stock, usually made from beef. It is used to add meat flavor in cooking, and to make broth for drinking. Meat extracts have largely been supplanted by bouillon cubes and yeast extract.
- Naegelholt is lightly salted, air-dried beef, produced in the east of The Netherlands and slightly similar to the more common smoked beef ("rookvlees") but naegelholt has a more delicate taste and is not smoked. Naegelholt means literally 'nailwood' (although 'holt' also is a nowadays unusual word for a piece of meat) and refers to the nails to which the beef was attached to dry.
- Njeguška pršutaTemplate:Spaced ndash a specialty of Njeguši, a village in Montenegro, Njeguška pršuta is a dry-cured ham, served uncooked, similar to Italian prosciutto. It has a unique flavor that is attributed to the result of the mixture of sea and mountain air and wood burned during the drying process.
- PancettaTemplate:Spaced ndash Italian bacon, it's pork belly meat that is salt cured and contains peppercorns. Associated with Italy, pancetta varies by region. It is often cubed, as lardon. It is also produced in Spain.
- PastirmaTemplate:Spaced ndash a highly seasoned, air-dried cured beef of Anatolian origin which is now part of the cuisines of the former Ottoman countries.
- PastramiTemplate:Spaced ndash a popular delicatessen meat usually made from beef in Romania, and also from pork and mutton. Like corned beef, pastrami was originally created as a way to preserve meat before modern refrigeration.
- PemmicanTemplate:Spaced ndash an historic food, pemmican is a concentrated mixture of fat and protein used as a nutritious food.
- PepperoniTemplate:Spaced ndash an American variety of salami, usually made from cured pork and beef. Pepperoni is characteristically soft, slightly smoky, and bright red in color.
- PinnekjøttTemplate:Spaced ndash In Norway, a main course dinner dish of lamb or mutton., its preparation uses a traditional method for food preservation utilizing curing, drying and in some regions also smoking.
- PitinaTemplate:Spaced ndash an Italian cold cut with origin in the mountain valleys of Tramonti di Sopra and River Cellina of the province of Pordenone in northeastern Italy.
- PresuntoTemplate:Spaced ndash the name given to dry-cured ham from Portugal. Many varieties exist.
- ProsciuttoTemplate:Spaced ndash a dry-cured ham that is usually thinly sliced and served uncooked; this style is called prosciutto crudo in Italian and is distinguished from cooked ham, prosciutto cotto.
- Presunto de Chaves.jpg
Presunto of Chaves
- Prosciutto di Parma - affettato2.jpg
Prosciutto di Parma
- RousongTemplate:Spaced ndash a dried meat product with a light and fluffy texture similar to coarse cotton, originating from Fujian, China. It also spread to Taiwan. Rousong is used as a topping for many foods, such as congee, tofu, and savory soy milk.
- SalamiTemplate:Spaced ndash cured sausage, fermented and air-dried meat, originating from one or a variety of animals. Historically, salami was popular among Southern European peasants because it can be stored at room temperature for periods of up to 30–40 days once cut, supplementing a possibly meager or inconsistent supply of fresh meat. Varieties of salami are traditionally made across Europe.
- SalumiTemplate:Spaced ndash Italian cured meat products that are predominantly made from pork. It comes from the Italian word salume, pl. salumi "salted meat", derived from Latin sal "salt". The term salumi also encompasses bresaola, which is made from beef, and also cooked products such as mortadella and prosciutto cotto.
- Secca de bœufTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of dried salted beef made in Entrevaux. Similar to the Swiss viande des Grisons or Bündnerfleisch, it is typically eaten as a starter.
- SkerpikjøtTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of wind-dried mutton, it's a delicacy of the Faroe Islands which is traditionally eaten at Christmas but also at other times of the year.
- SlinzegaTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of air-dried meat produced in Valtellina, in the Italian Alps. It is made in a similar manner to Bresaola, with smaller pieces of meat, which therefore bear a stronger taste.
- Smithfield hamTemplate:Spaced ndash a specific form of the country ham, A 1926 Statute of Virginia (passed by the Virginia General Assembly) first regulated the usage of the term "Smithfield Ham". Smithfield hams are a specific variety of country hams which are cured by the long-cure, dry salt method and aged for a minimum period of six months within the limits of the town of Smithfield, Virginia, United States
- SoppressataTemplate:Spaced ndash an Italian dry salami. Two principal types are made, a cured dry sausage typical of Basilicata, Apulia and Calabria, and a very different uncured salami, native to Tuscany and Liguria.
- SpeckTemplate:Spaced ndash In parts of the English-speaking culinary world, the term "Speck" refers to Italian Speck, a type of prosciutto. Speck is also an English word meaning "fat" or "blubber", attested since the early 17th century.
- Suho mesoTemplate:Spaced ndash a smoked beef food preparation eaten in Bosnian cuisine and Serbian cuisine.
- SukutiTemplate:Spaced ndash the Nepali word for dry meat (jerky). Sukuti is either consumed directly or charbroiled and spiced as an appetizer or snack or mixed with other ingredients and served as side dish.
- TapaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Philippine food made dried or cured beef, mutton or venison, although other meats or even fish may be used. It's prepared using thin slices of meat that are cured with salt and spices as a method of preserving it.
- TsamarellaTemplate:Spaced ndash a Cypriot traditional food. It consists of meat, usually goat meat, that is salted and cured for preservation. The process of preparation traditionally involves drying in the sun.
- Tyrolean SpeckTemplate:Spaced ndash a distinctively juniper-flavored ham originally from Tyrol, an historical region that since 1918 partially lies in Italy. Tyrolean speck is made from the hind leg of the pig, and is deboned before curing in salt and one of various spice combinations, which may include garlic, bay leaves, juniper berries, nutmeg, and other spices. It's then rested for a period of several weeks, after which, the smoking process begins. It is cold-smoked slowly and intermittently for two or three hours a day for a period of roughly a week using woods such as beech at temperatures that never exceed 20 °C (68 °F). It is then matured for five months.
- Winter salamiTemplate:Spaced ndash a type of Hungarian salami based on a centuries-old producing tradition. Made from mangalitsa pork and spices: white pepper, allspice and others. Winter salami is cured in cold air and smoked slowly.
- "Historical Origins of Food Preservation". Accessed June 2011.
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- "Influence of Pre-drying Treatments on Quality and Safety of Sun-dried Tomatoes. Part I: Use of Steam Blanching, Boiling Brine Blanching, and Dips in Salt or Sodium Metabisulfite" (PDF).
- Hodel DR and Johnson DV. Dates. Imported and American Varieties of Dates (Phoenix Dactylifera) in the United States. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication 3498 (2007)
- Commercial dehydration of vegetables and fruits in wartime. United States. Dept. of Agriculture. 1943. pp. 20-26.
- Vegetable and Fruit Dehydration: A Manual for Plant Operators. U.S. Department of Agriculture. 1944.
- Timothy Johns: With bitter Herbs They Shall Eat it : Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1990, ISBN 0-8165-1023-7, p. 82-84
- Nutritional properties of purples carrots from Cuevas Bajas, Spain.
- Snack of purple carrot.
- D. Brooker, F. W. Bakker-Arkema, and C. W. Hall, The Drying and Storage of Grains and Oilseeds. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Avi Book, New York.
- Tropical Mushrooms: Biological Nature and Cultivation Method. pp. 74-77, p. 84.
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- Grandidier (1899), p. 521
- HAT – Verklarende Handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse Taal, 5de Uitgawe, FF Odendal & RH Gouws (redakteurs), Pearson Education South Africa, Maskew Miller Longman, 2005, p 112
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- Feseekh and Melouha فسيخ و ملوحة | The Baheyeldin Dynasty
- "What's an oily fish?". Food Standards Agency. 24 June 2004.
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- Leistner, Lothar (1999). Lund, Barbara M. et al., eds. The microbiological safety and quality of food: Volume 1. Gaithersburg: Aspen Publishers. p. 306. ISBN 978-0-8342-1323-4.
- The Association of the Black Forest Ham Manufacturers (website). Accessed June 2010.
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- Ruhlman, 19.
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- Peery, Susan M. & Reavis, Charles G. Home Sausage Making: How-to Techniques for Making and Enjoying 100 Sausages at Home, third ed. North Adams, Mass.: Storey Publishing, 2003. ISBN 978-1-58017-471-8.
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- Lag ditt eget pinnekjøtt og vossakorv - Apéritif
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- OED sv. salumeria, n.
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- SpeckTemplate:Spaced ndash Smoked Prosciutto (Mario Batali)