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List of fermented foods

File:Fante kenkey.jpg
A woman preparing kenkey

This is a list of fermented foods, which are foods produced or preserved by the action of microorganisms. In this context, fermentation typically refers to the fermentation of sugar to alcohol using yeast, but other fermentation processes involve the use of bacteria such as lactobacillus, including the making of foods such as yogurt and sauerkraut. The science of fermentation is known as zymology.

Many pickled or soured foods are fermented as part of the pickling or souring process, but many are simply processed with brine, vinegar, or another acid such as lemon juice.

Fermented foods

Name Image Origin Description
Amasi 120px A word for fermented milk that tastes like cottage cheese or plain yogurt. It is very popular in South Africa.
Amazake 120px Japan A traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
Appam 120px A type of South Indian pancake made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk. It is a popular food in South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu. It is also very popular in Sri Lanka where it is commonly referred to by its anglicized name as Hoppers.
Atchara 120px A pickle made from grated unripe papaya that is popular in the Philippines. It is often served as a side dish for fried or grilled foods such as pork barbecue. The name may come from several names for South Asian pickle and is related to acar from neighbouring Indonesia and Malaysia.
Ayran 120px A cold yogurt beverage mixed with salt.[1] In addition to Turkey, where it is considered a national drink, ayran is found in Iran (here called doogh), Afghanistan, Armenia (here called tan), Azerbaijan, the Balkans, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Syria and across the Caucasus.[2] Its primary ingredients are water and yogurt.
Bagoong 120px Philippines A Philippine condiment made of partially or completely fermented fish or shrimp and salt.[3] The fermentation process also results in fish sauce (known as patis).[4]
Bagoong monamon 120px Prepared by fermenting salted anchovies
Bagoong terong 120px Made by salting and fermenting the bonnet mouth fish
Bánh cuốn 120px Northern Vietnam.[5] Made from a thin, wide sheet of steamed fermented[6] rice batter filled with seasoned ground pork, minced wood ear mushroom, and minced shallots.
Blaand A fermented milk product made from whey. It is similar in alcohol content to wine.
Bread 120px Some breads, such as sourdough, use dough that is fermented
Brem 120px A traditional fermented food of Indonesia
Burong mangga Philippines Made by mixing sugar, salt, and water to mangoes that have previously been salted
Calpis Japan An uncarbonated soft drink, manufactured by Calpis Co., Ltd. that is produced using lactic acid fermentation
Chass Gujarat, India The word used for buttermilk in Rajasthani and Gujarati.[7] Chass is the traditional Gujarati beverage from Gujarat, India.
Cheese 120px Some cheeses, such as Shanklish (pictured), are fermented as part of their production
Cheonggukjang 120px A fermented soybean paste used in Korean cuisine that contains both whole and ground soybeans
Chicha 120px In South America and Central America, chicha is a fermented or non-fermented beverage usually derived from maize.[8] Chicha includes corn beer known as chicha de jora and non-alcoholic beverages such as chicha morada.
Chinese pickles Various vegetables or fruits, which have been fermented by pickling with salt and brine or marinated in mixtures based on soy sauce or savory bean pastes
Cod Liver Oil (Traditional preparation method) Cod liver oil was traditionally manufactured by filling a wooden barrel with fresh cod livers and seawater and allowing the mixture to ferment for up to a year before removing the oil.
Crème fraîche 120px A soured cream containing 30–45% butterfat and having a pH of around 4.5.[9] It is soured with bacterial culture, but is less sour than U.S.-style sour cream, and has a lower viscosity and a higher fat content.
Curtido 120px A type of lightly fermented cabbage relish. It is typical in Salvadoran cuisine and that of other Central American countries, and is usually made with cabbage, onions, carrots, and sometimes lime juice
Dhokla 120px Gujarat, India A vegetarian food item made with a fermented batter derived from rice and chickpea splits.[10]
Doenjang 120px Korea A thick bean paste that includes fermentation in its preparation
Doogh 120px Ancient Persia A savory yogurt-based beverage
Dosa 120px A fermented crepe or pancake made from rice batter and black lentils. It is a staple food in many parts of India. Pictured is Rava dosa, a type of Dosa dish.
Doubanjiang 120px A spicy, salty paste made from fermented broad beans, soybeans, salt, rice, and various spices
Douchi 120px A type of fermented and salted black soybean
Fermented bean curd 120px Fermented tofu (pictured) is a type of Fermented bean curd
Fermented bean paste 120px A category of fermented foods typically made from ground soybeans, which are indigenous to the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia. In some cases, such as in the production of miso, other varieties of beans such as broad beans, may also be used.[11]
Fermented fish 120px A traditional preparation of fish. Before refrigeration, canning and other modern preservation techniques became available, fermenting was an important preservation method.
Fermented milk products 120px Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc. Pictured is matzoon, a fermented milk product of Armenian origin.
Filmjölk 120px Nordic countries A mesophilic fermented milk product that is made by fermenting cow's milk with a variety of bacteria from the species Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides.[12][13]
Fish sauce 120px
Ganjang 120px
Garri 120px
Garum Garum was a fish sauce made from the fermentation of fish entrails, used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece, Rome, and Byzantium. It is believed to have resembled the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici still produced today in Campania, Italy.
Gejang 120px
Gochujang 120px
Gundruk 120px
Hákarl 120px Pictured is Hákarl hanging to dry in Iceland
Hongeohoe 120px
Idli 120px
Igunaq 120px
Injera 120px A sourdough-risen flatbread with a unique, slightly spongy texture. Traditionally made out of teff flour,[14] it is a national dish in Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Iru (food) 120px
Jeotgal 120px
Kapusta kiszona duszona 120px
Katsuobushi 120px
Kaymak 120px
Kefir 120px A fermented milk product
Kenkey 120px
Ketchup 120px In Indonesian cuisine, which is similar to Malay, the term kecap refers to fermented savory sauces.
Khanom chin 120px
Kimchi 120px
Kisela repa Fermented shreds of turnip, used in bean soup or as a side usually in winter meals in continental Croatian cuisine.
Kiviak Kiviak or kiviaq is a traditional wintertime Inuit food from Greenland that is made of auks preserved in the hollowed-out body of a seal.
Kombucha 120px
Kumis 120px
Kuzhi paniyaram 120px
Kvass 120px
Lassi 120px
Leben (milk product)
Lufu (food)
Mageu 120px
Meigan cai 120px
Miso 120px
Mixian (noodle) 120px
Mohnyin tjin 120px
Murri (condiment)
Myeolchijeot 120px
Nata de coco 120px
Nattō 120px
Ngapi 120px
Ogi (cereal ferment)
Oncom 120px
Pesaha Appam 120px
Peuyeum 120px
Pickles[15] 120px
Poi (food) 120px
Pulque 120px
Puto 120px Pictured is puto in banana leaf
Rakfisk 120px
Rượu nếp 120px
Saeujeot 120px
Sauerkraut 120px Finely cut cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus.[16][17] It has a long shelf life and a distinctive sour flavor, both of which result from the lactic acid that forms when the bacteria ferment the sugars in the cabbage.
Şalgam 120px Turkey Şalgam is a popular beverage from southern Turkey's cities of Adana and Mersin. It is made with the juice of red carrot pickles, salted, spiced, and flavoured with aromatic turnip (çelem) fermented in barrels with the addition of ground bulgur.
Shiokara 120px
Shrimp paste 120px
Sinki (food)
Skyr 120px
Smântână 120px
Smetana (dairy product) 120px
Som moo 120px
Sour cabbage 120px Vegetable preserve similar to sauerkraut, with the difference that it is prepared through the lacto-fermentation of whole heads of cabbage (Brassica Oleracea var.capitata), not separate leaves or grated mass.
Sour cream 120px Obtained by fermenting a regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.[18] The bacterial culture, which is introduced either deliberately or naturally, sours and thickens the cream. Pictured is Smetana.
Soured milk 120px
Soy sauce 120px Pictured is traditional Korean soy sauce
Ssamjang 120px
Stinky tofu 120px
Strained yogurt 120px
Suan cai 120px
Sumbala 120px
Surströmming 120px
Tabasco Sauce 120px
Tapai 120px
Tarhana 120px
Tempeh 120px Indonesia A traditional soy product originally from Indonesia that is made by a natural culturing and controlled fermentation process that binds soybeans into a cake form
Tianjin preserved vegetable 120px
Tianmianjiang 120px
Tibicos 120px
Tsukemono 120px
White sugar sponge cake 120px
Worcestershire sauce 120px
Yakult 120px
Yellow soybean paste
Yogurt 120px A fermented milk product produced by the bacterial fermentation of milk
Zha cai 120px

See also

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  1. ^ A. Y. Tamime (ed.) (2008). Fermented Milks. John Wiley & Sons. p. 124. ISBN 9781405172387. 
  2. ^ For popularity in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan see Yildiz Fatih (2010). Development and Manufacture of Yogurt and Other Functional Dairy Products. CRC Press. p. 10. ISBN 9781420082081.  For the Balkans, see Leslie Strnadel, Patrick Erdley (2012). Bulgaria (Other Places Travel Guide). Other Places Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9780982261996. 
  3. ^ J. Dagoon (2000). Agriculture & Fishery Technology III. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 242–243. ISBN 978-971-23-2822-0. 
  4. ^ National Research Council (U.S.). Panel on the Applications of Biotechnology to Traditional Fermented Foods (1992). Applications of biotechnology to traditional fermented foods: report of an ad hoc panel of the Board on Science and Technology for International Development. National Academies. pp. 132–133. 
  5. ^ Lonely Planet Vietnam (Italian) "bánh cuốn – involtini di carta di riso cotti a vapore, ripieni di carne di maiale tritata e gamberi disidratati;"
  6. ^ T.H. Yellowdawn: Fermented Foods (2008); p.302-p.304
  7. ^ Suresh Singh, Kumar; Rajendra Behari Lal (2003). Gujarat. Popular Prakashan. p. 789. ISBN 81-7991-104-7. 
  8. ^ [1] Michael Andrew Malpass, Daily Life in the Inca Empire. Retrieved 31 August 2008
  9. ^ Meunier-Goddik, L. (2004). "Sour Cream and Creme Fraiche". Handbook of Food and Beverage Fermentation Technology. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-4780-0. doi:10.1201/9780203913550.ch8.  edit, p. 181f
  10. ^ Redhead, J. F. (1989). Utilization of tropical foods. Food & Agriculture Org. p. 26. ISBN 978-92-5-102774-5. 
  11. ^ The Book of Miso, 2nd ed., by Shurtleff and Aoyagi. Berkeley, California: Ten Speed Press (1985)
  12. ^ "Filmjölk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-29. 
  13. ^ "Ekologisk filmjölk odd milk" (in Swedish). Arla Foods. Retrieved 2007-06-30. 
  14. ^ Science of Bread: Ethiopian injera recipe
  15. ^ "Science of Pickles: Fermentation and Food | Exploratorium". Retrieved 2013-11-02. 
  16. ^ Farnworth, Edward R. (2003). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods. CRC. ISBN 0-8493-1372-4. 
  17. ^ "Fermented Fruits and Vegetables - A Global SO Perspective". United Nations FAO. 1998. Retrieved 2007-06-10. 
  18. ^ "What is sour cream. Sour cream for cooking recipes". 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-09-14. 

External links