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List of file formats

This is a list of computer file formats, organized by type. Filename extensions are usually noted in parentheses if they differ from the format name or abbreviation. Many operating systems do not limit filenames to a single extension shorter than 4 characters, as was common with some operating systems that supported the FAT file system. Examples of operating systems that do not impose this limit include Unix-like systems. Also, Microsoft Windows NT, 95, 98, and Me do not have a three character limit on extensions for 32-bit or 64-bit applications on file systems other than pre-Windows 95/Windows NT 3.5 versions of the FAT file system. Some filenames are given extensions longer than three characters.


Archive and compressed

  • .cab — A cabinet (.cab) file is a library of compressed files stored as a single file. Cabinet files are used to organize installation files that are copied to the user's system.[1]
  • .?Q? — files compressed by the SQ program
  • 7z — 7-Zip compressed file
  • AAC — Advanced Audio Coding
  • ace — ACE compressed file
  • ALZ — ALZip compressed file
  • APK — Applications installable on Android
  • AT3 — Sony's UMD Data compression
  • .bke — Data compression
  • ARC
  • ARJ — ARJ compressed file
  • ASS - Halo game engine file
  • BA — Scifer Archive (.ba), Scifer External Archive Type
  • big — Special file compression format used by Electronic Arts for compressing the data for many of EA's games
  • BIK (.bik) — Bink Video file. A video compression system developed by RAD Game Tools
  • BIN — compressed Archive. can be read and used by cd-roms and java, Extractable by 7-zip and WINRAR
  • BKF (.bkf) — Microsoft backup created by NTBACKUP.EXE
  • bzip2 — (.bz2)
  • bld — Skyscraper Simulator Building
  • c4 — JEDMICS image files, a DOD system
  • cab — Microsoft Cabinet
  • cals — JEDMICS image files, a DOD system
  • CLIPFLAIR (.clipflair, - ClipFlair Studio [1] component saved state file (contains component options in XML, extra/attached files and nested components' state in child files – activities are also components and can be nested at any depth)
  • cpt/sea — Compact Pro (Macintosh)
  • DAA — Closed-format, Windows-only compressed disk image
  • debDebian install package
  • DMG — an Apple compressed/encrypted format
  • DDZ — a file which can only be used by the "daydreamer engine" created by "fever-dreamer", a program similar to RAGS, it's mainly used to make somewhat short games.
  • DPE — Package of AVE documents made with Aquafadas digital publishing tools.
  • .egg — Alzip Egg Edition compressed file
  • EGT (.egt) — EGT Universal Document also used to create compressed cabinet files replaces .ecab
  • ECAB (.ECAB, .ezip) — EGT Compressed Folder used in advanced systems to compress entire system folders, replaced by EGT Universal Document
  • ESS (.ess) — EGT SmartSense File, detects files compressed using the EGT compression system.
  • GHO (.gho, .ghs) — Norton Ghost
  • gzip (.gz) — Compressed file
  • IPG (.ipg) — Format in which Apple Inc. packages their iPod games. can be extracted through Winrar
  • jar — ZIP file with manifest for use with Java applications.
  • LBR (.Lawrence) — Lawrence Compiler Type file
  • LBR — Library file
  • LQR — LBR Library file compressed by the SQ program.
  • LHA (.lzh) — Lempel, Ziv, Huffman
  • lzip (.lz) — Compressed file
  • lzo
  • lzma
  • LZX (algorithm)
  • MBRWizard archive (.mbw)
  • MPQ Archives (.mpq) — Used by Blizzard games
  • MacBinary (.bin)
  • NTH (.nth) — Nokia Theme Used by Nokia Series 40 Cellphones
  • OSZ — Osu! compressed beatmap archive
  • PAK — Enhanced type of .ARC archive
  • Parchive — (.par, .par2)
  • Portable Application File — (.paf)
  • PYK (.pyk) Compressed File
  • Quake 3 archive (.pk3) — (See note on Doom³)
  • Doom³ archive (.pk4) — (Opens similarly to a zip archive.)
  • RAR Rar Archive (.rar) — for multiple file archive (rar to .r01-.r99 to s01 and so on)
  • RAG / RAGS game file, a game playable in the RAGS game-engine, a free program which both allows people to create games, and play games, games created have the file format "RAG game file"
  • RPM — Red Hat package/installer for Fedora, RHEL, and similar systems.
  • SEN Scifer Archive (.sen) — Scifer Internal Archive Type
  • sit/sitx — StuffIt (Macintosh)
  • SKB — Google Sketchup Backup File
  • tar — group of files, packaged as one file
  • .tar.gz, .tgz — gzipped tar file
  • TB (.tb) — Tabbery Virtual Desktop Tab file
  • TIB (.tib) — Acronis True Image backup
  • uha — Ultra High Archive Compression
  • .uue — user unifile element
  • VIV — Archive format used to compress data for several video games, including Need For Speed: High Stakes.
  • VOL — unknown archive
  • VSA — Altiris Virtual Software Archive
  • WAX — Wavexpress — A ZIP alternative optimized for packages containing video, allowing multiple packaged files to be all-or-none delivered with near-instantaneous unpacking via NTFS file system manipulation.
  • .tar.xz — an xz compressed tar file. (Based on LZMA2.)
  • Z — Unix compress file
  • zoo — based on LZW
  • zip — popular compression format

Physical recordable media archiving

  • ADZ — The GZip-compressed version of ADF.
  • DMS — Disk Masher System, a disk-archiving system native to the Amiga.
  • DSK — For archiving floppy disks from a number of other platforms, including the ZX Spectrum and Amstrad CPC.
  • D64 — An archive of a Commodore 64 floppy disk.
  • SDI — System Deployment Image, used for archiving and providing "virtual disk" functionality.
  • MDSDAEMON tools native disc image file format used for making images from optical CD-ROM, DVD-ROM, HD DVD or Blu-ray Disc. It comes together with MDF file and can be mounted with DAEMON Tools.
  • MDX — New DAEMON Tools file format that allows to get one MDX disc image file instead of two (MDF and MDS).
  • DMG — Macintosh disk image files

(MPEG-1 is found in a .DAT file on a video CD.)

  • CDI — DiscJuggler image file
  • CUE — CDRWrite CUE image file
  • CIF — Easy CD Creator .cif format
  • C2D — Roxio / WinOnCD .c2d format
  • DAA — PowerISO .daa format
  • CCD,SUB,IMG — CloneCD image file
  • B6T — BlindWrite 5/6 image file

Computer-aided Design

Computer-aided is a prefix for several categories of tools (e.g., design, manufacture, engineering) which assist professionals in their respective fields (e.g., machining, architecture, schematics).

Computer-aided design (CAD)

Computer-aided design (CAD) software assists engineers, architects and other design professionals in project design.

  • 3dmlw — (3D Markup Language for Web) files
  • 3dxml — Dassault Systemes graphic representation
  • 3MF — Microsoft 3D Manufacturing Format [2]
  • ACP — VA Software VA — Virtual Architecture CAD file
  • AMF — Additive Manufacturing File Format
  • AEC — DataCAD drawing format [3]
  • AR — Ashlar-Vellum Argon — 3D Modeling
  • ART — ArtCAM model
  • ASC — BRL-CAD Geometry File (old ASCII format)
  • ASM — Solidedge Assembly, Pro/ENGINEER Assembly
  • BIN, BIM — Data Design System DDS-CAD
  • BREP — Open CASCADE 3D model (shape)
  • CCC — CopyCAD Curves
  • CCM — CopyCAD Model
  • CCS — CopyCAD Session
  • CAD — CadStd
  • CATDrawing — CATIA V5 Drawing document
  • CATPart — CATIA V5 Part document
  • CATProduct — CATIA V5 Assembly document
  • CATProcess — CATIA V5 Manufacturing document
  • cgr — CATIA V5 graphic representation file
  • CO — Ashlar-Vellum Cobalt — parametric drafting and 3D modeling
  • DRW — Caddie Early version of Caddie drawing — Prior to Caddie changing to DWG
  • DFT — Solidedge Draft
  • DGNMicroStation design file
  • DGK — Delcam Geometry
  • DMT — Delcam Machining Triangles
  • DXF — ASCII Drawing Interchange file formatAutoCAD
  • DWB — VariCAD drawing file
  • DWF — Autodesk's Web Design Format; AutoCAD & Revit can publish to this format; similar in concept to PDF files; Autodesk Design Review is the reader
  • DWGAutoCAD and Open Design Alliance applications, Autodesk Inventor Drawing file
  • EASM — SolidWorks eDrawings assembly file
  • EDRW — eDrawings drawing file
  • EMB — Wilcom ES Designer Embroidery CAD file
  • EPRT — eDrawings part file
  • ESW — AGTEK format
  • EXCELLON — Excellon file
  • EXP — Drawing Express file format
  • FM — FeatureCAM Part File
  • FMZ — FormZ Project file
  • G — BRL-CAD Geometry File
  • GBR — Gerber file
  • GLM — KernelCAD model
  • GRB — T-FLEX CAD File
  • GTC — GRAITEC Advance file format
  • IAM — Autodesk Inventor Assembly file
  • ICD — IronCAD 2D CAD file
  • IDW — Autodesk Inventor Drawing file
  • IFCbuildingSMART for sharing AEC and FM data
  • IGES — Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
  • Intergraph's Intergraph Standard File Formats
  • IPN — Autodesk Inventor Presentation file
  • IPT — Autodesk Inventor Part file
  • JT (visualization format) Jupiter Tesselation
  • MCD — Monu-CAD (Monument/Headstone Drawing file)
  • model — CATIA V4 part document
  • OCD — Orienteering Computer Aided Design (OCAD) file
  • PAR — Solidedge Part
  • PIPE — PIPE-FLO Professional Piping system design file
  • PLN — ArchiCad project
  • PRT — NX (recently known as Unigraphics), Pro/ENGINEER Part, CADKEY Part
  • PSM — Solidedge Sheet
  • PSMODEL — PowerSHAPE Model
  • PWI — PowerINSPECT File
  • PYT — Pythagoras File
  • SKP — SketchUp Model
  • RLF — ArtCAM Relief
  • RVM - AVEVA PDMS 3D Review model
  • RVT — Autodesk Revit project files
  • RFA — Autodesk Revit family files
  • S12 — Spirit file, by Softtech
  • SCAD — OpenSCAD 3D part model
  • SCDOC — SpaceClaim 3D Part/Assembly
  • SLDASM — SolidWorks Assembly drawing
  • SLDDRW — SolidWorks 2D drawing
  • SLDPRT — SolidWorks 3D part model
  • Softimage's dotXSI
  • STEP — Standard for the Exchange of Product model data
  • STL — Stereo Lithographic data format used by various CAD systems and stereo lithographic printing machines.
  • TCT — TurboCAD drawing template
  • TCW — TurboCAD for Windows 2D and 3D drawing
  • UNV — I-DEAS I-DEAS (Integrated Design and Engineering Analysis Software)
  • VC6 — Ashlar-Vellum Graphite — 2D and 3D drafting
  • VLM — Ashlar-Vellum Vellum, Vellum 2D, Vellum Draft, Vellum 3D, DrawingBoard
  • VS — Ashlar-Vellum Vellum Solids
  • WRL — Similar to STL, but includes color. Used by various CAD systems and 3D printing rapid prototyping machines. Also used for VRML models on the web.
  • X_B — Parasolids binary format.
  • X_T — Parasolids
  • XE — Ashlar-Vellum Xenon — for Associative 3D Modeling

Electronic design automation (EDA)

Electronic design automation (EDA), or electronic computer-aided design (ECAD), is specific to the field of electrical engineering.

Test technology

Files output from Automatic Test Equipment or post-processed from such.


Desktop publishing


These files store formatted text and plain text.

Financial records

Financial data transfer formats

Font file

Geographic information system

Graphical information organizers

  • 3DT3D Topicscape The database in which the meta-data of a 3D Topicscape is held. A 3D Topicscape is a form of 3D concept map (like a 3D mind-map) used to organize ideas, information and computer files.
  • ATY3D Topicscape file, produced when an association type is exported by 3D Topicscape. Used to permit round-trip (export Topicscape, change files and folders as desired, re-import them to 3D Topicscape).
  • CAGLinear Reference System.
  • FES3D Topicscape file, produced when a fileless occurrence in 3D Topicscape is exported to Windows. Used to permit round-trip (export Topicscape, change files and folders as desired, re-import them to 3D Topicscape).
  • MGMF — MindGenius Mind Mapping Software file format.
  • MMFreeMind mind map file (XML).
  • MMPMind Manager mind map file.
  • TPC3D Topicscape file, produced when an inter-Topicscape topic link file is exported to Windows. Used to permit round-trip (export Topicscape, change files and folders as desired, re-import them to 3D Topicscape).


Main article: image file formats

Color palettes

  • ACT — Adobe Color Table. Contains a raw color palette and consists of 256 24-bit RGB colour values.
  • PAL — Microsoft palette file

Color management

  • ICC/ICM — Color profile conforming the specification of the ICC.

Raster graphics

Raster (or Bitmap) files store images as a group of pixels.

Vector graphics

Vector graphics use geometric primitives such as points, lines, curves, and polygons to represent images.

  • 3DV — 3-D wireframe graphics by Oscar Garcia
  • AMF — Additive Manufacturing File Format
  • AWG — Ability Draw
  • AIAdobe Illustrator Document
  • CGM — Computer Graphics Metafile an ISO Standard
  • CDR — CorelDRAW Document
  • CMX — CorelDRAW vector image
  • DXF — ASCII Drawing Interchange file Format, used in AutoCAD and other CAD-programs
  • E2D — 2-dimensional vector graphics used by the editor which is included in JFire
  • EGT — EGT Universal Document, EGT Vector Draw images are used to draw vector to a website
  • EPS — Encapsulated Postscript
  • FS — FlexiPro file
  • GBR — Gerber file
  • ODG — OpenDocument Drawing
  • SVG — Scalable Vector Graphics, employs XML
  • Scene description languages (3D vector image formats)
    • STL — Stereo Lithographic data format (see STL (file format)) used by various CAD systems and stereo lithographic printing machines. See above.
    • VRML Uses .wrl extension — Virtual Reality Modeling Language, for the creation of 3D viewable web images.
    • X3D
  • SXD — XML (obsolete) Drawing
  • V2D — voucher design used by the voucher management included in JFire
  • VND — Vision numeric Drawing file used in TypeEdit, Gravostyle.
  • WMF — Windows Meta File
  • EMF — Enhanced (Windows) MetaFile, an extension to WMF
  • ART — Xara — Drawing (superseded by XAR)
  • XAR — Xara — Drawing

3-D graphics

3D graphics are 3D models that allow building models in real-time or non real-time 3D rendering.

Links and shortcuts


Object code, executable files, shared and dynamically linked libraries

Object extensions

  • .VBX — Visual Basic extensions
  • .OCX — Object Control extensions
  • .TLB — Windows Type Library

Page description language

Personal information manager


Project management software

Reference management software

Formats of files used for bibliographic information (citation) management.

Scientific data (data exchange)

  • FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) — standard data format for astronomy (.fits)
  • Silo — a storage format for visualization developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • SPC — spectroscopic data
  • EAS3 — binary file format for structured data
  • OST (Open Spatio-Temporal) — extensible, mainly images with related data, or just pure data; meant as an open alternative for microscope images
  • CCP4 — X-ray crystallography voxels (electron density)
  • MRC — voxels in cryo-electron microscopy
  • HITRAN — spectroscopic data with one optical/infrared transition per line in the ASCII file (.hit)
  • Simple Data Format (SDF) — a platform-independent, precision-preserving binary data I/O format capable of handling large, multi-dimensional arrays.



  • GRIB — Grid In Binary, WMO format for weather model data
  • BUFR — WMO format for weather observation data
  • PP — UK Met Office format for weather model data
  • NASA-Ames — Simple text format for observation data. First used in aircraft studies of the atmosphere.


Main article: chemical file format



Biomedical imaging

Biomedical signals (time series)

  • ACQ — AcqKnowledge File Format for Windows/PC from Biopac Systems Inc., Goleta, CA, USA.
  • BCI2000 — The BCI2000 project, Albany, NY, USA.
  • BDF — BioSemi data format from BioSemi B.V. Amsterdam, Netherlands.
  • BKR — The EEG data format developed at the University of Technology Graz, Austria.
  • CFWB — Chart Data File Format from ADInstruments Pty Ltd, Bella Vista NSW, Australia.
  • DICOM — Waveform An extension of Dicom for storing waveform data
  • ecgML — A markup language for electrocardiogram data acquisition and analysis.
  • EDF/EDF+ — European Data Format.
  • FEF — File Exchange Format for Vital signs, CEN TS 14271.
  • GDF v1.x — The General Data Format for biomedical signals — Version 1.x.
  • GDF v2.x — The General Data Format for biomedical signals — Version 2.x.
  • HL7aECG — Health Level 7 v3 annotated ECG.
  • MFER — Medical waveform Format Encoding Rules
  • OpenXDF — Open Exchange Data Format from Neurotronics, Inc. Gainesville, FL, USA.
  • SCP-ECG — Standard Communication Protocol for Computer assisted electrocardiography EN1064:2007,
  • SIGIF — A digital SIGnal Interchange Format with application in neurophysiology.
  • WFDB — Format of Physiobank
  • XDF — eXtensible Data Format

Other Biomedical Formats

  • Health Level 7 (HL7) — a framework for exchange, integration, sharing, and retrieval of electronic health information
  • xDT — a family of data exchange formats for medical records

Biometric Formats

  • CBF — Common Biometric Format, based upon CBEFF 2.0 (Common Biometric Exchange Formats Framework).
  • EBF — Extended Biometric Format. Based on CBF but with S/MIME encryption support and semantic extensions
  • CBFX — XML Common Biometric Format, based upon XCBF 1.1 (OASIS XML Common Biometric Format)
  • EBFX — XML Extended Biometric Format, based on CBFX but with W3C XML Encryption support and semantic extensions



Authentication and general encryption formats are listed here.

Certificates and keys


Encrypted files

This section shows file formats for encrypted general data, rather than a specific program's data.

  • AXX — encrypted file, created with Axcrypt
  • EEA — An encrypted CAB, ostensibly for protecting email attachments
  • TC — virtual encrypted disk container, created by TrueCrypt

Password files

Password files (sometimes called keychain files) contain lists of other passwords, usually encrypted.

  • BPW — encrypted password file created by Bitser password manager
  • KeePass 1 database (.kdb)
  • KeePass 2 database (.kdbx)

Signal data (non-audio)

  • ACQ — AcqKnowledge File Format for Windows/PC from Biopac
  • BKR — The EEG data format developed at the University of Technology Graz
  • BDF — BioSemi data format — similar to EDF but 24bit
  • CFG — Configuration file for Comtrade data
  • CFWB — Chart Data File Format from ADInstruments
  • DAT — Raw data file for Comtrade data
  • EDF — European data format
  • FEF — File Exchange Format for Vital signs
  • GDF — General data formats for biomedical signals
  • GMS — Gesture And Motion Signal format
  • IROCK — intelliRock Sensor Data File Format
  • MFER — Medical waveform Format Encoding Rules
  • SCP-ECG — Standard Communication Protocol for Computer assisted electrocardiography
  • SEG YReflection seismology data format
  • SIGIF — SIGnal Interchange Format

Sound and music

Lossless audio

  • Uncompressed
    • 8SVX — Commodore-Amiga 8-bit sound (usually in an IFF container)
    • 16SVX — Commodore-Amiga 16-bit sound (usually in an IFF container)
    • AIFF (.aif, .aifc, .aiff) — Audio Interchange File Format
    • AU
    • BWF — Broadcast Wave Format (BWF), an extension of WAVE
    • CDDA
    • RAW — raw samples without any header or sync
    • WAV — Microsoft Wave
  • Compressed

Lossy audio

Other music


Audio editing, music production

Source code for computer programs

(see also: Script)

  • ADA, ADB, 2.ADA — Ada (body) source
  • ADS, 1.ADA — Ada (specification) source
  • ASM, S — Assembly language source
  • BAS — BASIC, FreeBASIC, Visual Basic, BASIC-PLUS source,[6] PICAXE basic
  • BB — Blitz3D
  • BMX — BlitzMax
  • C — C source
  • CLJ — Clojure source code
  • CLS — Visual Basic class
  • COB, CBL — COBOL source
  • CPP, CC, CXX, C, CBP — C++ source
  • CS — C# source
  • CSPROJ — C# project (Visual Studio .NET)
  • D — D source
  • DBA — DarkBASIC source
  • DBPro123 — DarkBASIC Professional project
  • E — Eiffel source
  • EFS — EGT Forever Source File
  • EGT — EGT Asterisk Source File, could be J, C#,, EF 2.0 (EGT Forever)
  • EL — Emacs Lisp source
  • FOR, FTN, F, F77, F90 — Fortran source
  • FRM — Visual Basic form
  • FRX — Visual Basic form stash file (binary form file)
  • FTH — Forth source
  • GED — Game Maker Extension Editable file as of version 7.0
  • GM6 — Game Maker Editable file as of version 6.x
  • GMD — Game Maker Editable file up to version 5.x
  • GMK — Game Maker Editable file as of version 7.0
  • GML — Game Maker Language script file
  • GO — Go source
  • H — C/C++ header file
  • HPP, HXX — C++ header file
  • HS — Haskell source
  • I — SWIG interface file
  • INC — Turbo Pascal included source
  • JAVA — Java source
  • L — lex source
  • LGT — Logtalk source
  • LISP — Common Lisp source
  • M — Objective-C source
  • M — MATLAB
  • M — Mathematica
  • M4 — m4 source
  • ML — Standard ML / OCaml source
  • N — Nemerle source
  • NB — Nuclear Basic source
  • P — Parser source
  • PAS, PP, P — Pascal source (DPR for projects)
  • PHP, PHP3, PHP4, PHP5, PHPS, Phtml — PHP source
  • PIV — Pivot stickfigure animator
  • PL, PM — Perl
  • PRG — db, clipper, Microsoft FoxPro, harbour and Xbase
  • PRO — IDL
  • POL — Apcera Policy Language doclet
  • PY — Python source
  • R — R source
  • RED — Red source
  • REDS — Red/System source
  • RB — Ruby source
  • RESX — Resource file for .NET applications
  • RC, RC2 — Resource script files to generate resources for .NET applications
  • RKT, RKTL — Racket source
  • SCALA — Scala source
  • SCI, SCE — Scilab
  • SCM — Scheme source
  • SD7 — Seed7 source
  • SKB, SKC — Sage Retrieve 4GL Common Area (Main and Amended backup)
  • SKD — Sage Retrieve 4GL Database
  • SKF, SKG — Sage Retrieve 4GL File Layouts (Main and Amended backup)
  • SKI — Sage Retrieve 4GL Instructions
  • SKK — Sage Retrieve 4GL Report Generator
  • SKM — Sage Retrieve 4GL Menu
  • SKO — Sage Retrieve 4GL Program
  • SKP, SKQ — Sage Retrieve 4GL Print Layouts (Main and Amended backup)
  • SKS, SKT — Sage Retrieve 4GL Screen Layouts (Main and Amended backup)
  • SKZ — Sage Retrieve 4GL Security File
  • SLN — Visual Studio solution
  • SPIN — Spin source (for Parallax Propeller microcontrollers)
  • STK — Stickfigure file for Pivot stickfigure animator
  • SWG — SWIG source code
  • TCL — TCL source code
  • VAP — Visual Studio Analyzer project
  • VB — Visual Basic.NET source
  • VBG — Visual Studio compatible project group
  • VBP, VIP — Visual Basic project
  • VBPROJ — Visual Basic .NET project
  • VCPROJ — Visual C++ project
  • VDPROJ — Visual Studio deployment project
  • XPL — XProc script/pipeline
  • XQ — XQuery file
  • XSL — XSLT stylesheet
  • Y — yacc source


Tabulated data


Main article: video file format
  • AAF — mostly intended to hold edit decisions and rendering information, but can also contain compressed media essence
  • 3GP — the most common video format for cell phones
  • GIF — Animated GIF (simple animation; until recently often avoided because of patent problems)
  • ASF — container (enables any form of compression to be used; MPEG-4 is common; video in ASF-containers is also called Windows Media Video (WMV))
  • AVCHD — Advanced Video Codec High Definition
  • AVI — container (a shell, which enables any form of compression to be used)
  • CAMaMSN webcam log file
  • DAT — video standard data file (automatically created when we attempted to burn as video file on the CD)
  • DSH
  • FLV — Flash video (encoded to run in a flash animation)
  • M1V MPEG-1 — Video
  • M2V MPEG-2 — Video
  • FLA — Macromedia Flash (for producing)
  • FLR — (text file which contains scripts extracted from SWF by a free ActionScript decompiler named FLARE)
  • SOL — Adobe Flash shared object ("Flash cookie")
  • M4V — (file format for videos for iPods and PlayStation Portables developed by Apple)
  • Matroska (*.mkv) — Matroska is a container format, which enables any video format such as MPEG-4 ASP or AVC to be used along with other content such as subtitles and detailed meta information
  • WRAP — MediaForge (*.wrap)
  • MNG — mainly simple animation containing PNG and JPEG objects, often somewhat more complex than animated GIF
  • QuickTime (.mov) — container which enables any form of compression to be used; Sorenson codec is the most common; QTCH is the filetype for cached video and audio streams
  • MPEG (.mpeg, .mpg, .mpe)
  • MXF — Material Exchange Format (standardized wrapper format for audio/visual material developed by SMPTE)
  • ROQ — used by Quake 3
  • NSV — Nullsoft Streaming Video (media container designed for streaming video content over the Internet)
  • Ogg — container, multimedia
  • RM — RealMedia
  • SVI — Samsung video format for portable players
  • SMI — SAMI Caption file (HTML like subtitle for movie files)
  • SWF — Macromedia Flash (for viewing)
  • WMV — Windows Media Video (See ASF)
  • [YUV] - Raw video format - Resolution (horizontal x vertical)and Sample structure 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 need to be known explicitly

Video editing, production

Video game data

List of common file formats of data for video games on systems that support filesystems, most commonly PC games.

  • TrackMania United/Nations Forever Engine — File formats used by games based on the TrackMania engine.
    • XeX
    • CHALLENGE.GBX — (Edited) Challenge files.
    • CONSTRUCTIONCAMPAIGN.GBX — Construction campaignes files.
    • FIDCACHE.GBX — Saved game.
    • GBX — Other TrackMania items.
    • REPLAY.GBX — Replays of races.
  • DOOM Engine — File formats used by games based on the DOOM engine.
    • DEH — DeHackEd files to mutate the game executable (not officially part of the DOOM engine)
    • DSG — Saved game
    • LMP — A lump is an entry in a DOOM wad.
    • LMP — Saved demo recording
    • MUS — Music file (usually contained within a WAD file)
    • WAD — Data storage (contains music, maps, and textures)
  • Quake Engine — File formats used by games based on the Quake engine.
    • BSP — (For Binary space partitioning) compiled map format
    • MAP — Raw map format used by editors like GtkRadiant or QuArK
    • MDL/MD2/MD3/MD5 — Model for an item used in the game
    • PAK/PK2 — Data storage
    • PK3/PK4 — used by the Quake II, Quake III Arena and Quake 4 game engines, respectively, to store game data, textures etc. They are actually .zip files.
    • .dat — not specific file type, often generic extension for "data" files for a variety of applications
      • sometimes used for general data contained within the .PK3/PK4 files
      • .fontdat — a .dat file used for formatting game fonts
    • .roq — Video format
    • .sav — Savegame format
  • Unreal Engine — File formats used by games based on the Unreal engine.
    • U — Unreal script format
    • UAX — Animations format for Unreal Engine 2
    • UMX — Map format for Unreal Tournament
    • UMX — Music format for Unreal Engine 1
    • UNR — Map format for Unreal
    • UPK — Package format for cooked content in Unreal Engine 3
    • USX — Sound format for Unreal Engine 1 and Unreal Engine 2
    • UT2 — Map format for Unreal Tournament 2003 and Unreal Tournament 2004
    • UT3 — Map format for Unreal Tournament 3
    • UTX — Texture format for Unreal Engine 1 and Unreal Engine 2
    • UXX — Cache format. These are files that client downloaded from server (which can be converted to regular formats)
  • Duke Nukem 3D Engine — File formats used by games based on the Duke Nukem 3D engine.
    • DMO — Save game
    • GRP — Data storage
    • MAP — Map (usually constructed with BUILD.EXE)
  • Diablo Engine — File formats used by Diablo by Blizzard Entertainment.
    • SV — Save Game
    • ITM — Item File
  • Real Virtuality Engine — File formats used by Bohemia Interactive. Operation:Flashpoint, ARMA 2, VBS2
    • SQF — Format used for general editing
    • SQM — Format used for mission files
    • PBO — Binarized file used for compiled models
    • LIP — Format that is created from WAV files to create in-game accurate lip-synch for character animations.
  • Other Formats
    • B — used for Grand Theft Auto saved game files
    • BOL — used for levels on Poing!PC
    • DBPF — The Sims 2, DBPF, Package
    • DIVA — Project DIVA timings, element coördinates, MP3 references, notes, animation poses and scores.
    • HE0, HE2, HE4 HE games File
    • GCF — format used by the Steam content management system for file archives
    • IMG — format used by Renderware-based Grand Theft Auto games for data storage
    • MAP — format used by Halo: Combat Evolved for archive compression, Doom³, and various other games
    • NBT — format used by Minecraft for storing program variables along with their (Java) type identifiers
    • OEC — format used by OE-Cake for scene data storage
    • P3D — format for panda3d by Disney
    • POD — format used by Terminal Reality
    • REP — used by Blizzard Entertainment for scenario replays in StarCraft.
    • Simcity 4, DBPF (.dat, .SC4Lot, .SC4Model) — All game plugins use this format, commonly with different file extensions
    • SMZIP — ZIP-based package for Stepmania songs, themes and announcer packs.
    • VVVVVV — format used by VVVVVV[13]

Video game storage media

List of the most common filename extensions used when a game's ROM image or storage medium is copied from an original ROM device to an external memory such as hard disk for back up purposes or for making the game playable with an emulator. In the case of cartridge-based software, if the platform specific extension is not used then filename extensions ".rom" or ".bin" are usually used to clarify that the file contains a copy of a content of a ROM. ROM, disk or tape images usually do not consist of a single file or ROM, rather an entire file or ROM structure contained within a single file on the backup medium.[14]

  • N64, V64, Z64, U64, USA, JAP, PAL, EUR, BIN — Nintendo 64 (.n64, .v64, .z64, .u64, .usa, .jap, .pal, .eur, .bin)
  • FDS — Famicom Disk System (.fds)
  • JST — Jnes Save States (.jst)
  • FC? — FCEUX Save States (.fc#, where # is any character, usually a number)
  • FIG — Super Famicom (Japanese releases are rarely .fig, above extensions are more common)
  • SRM — Super NES Saved Data Files (.srm)
  • ZST — ZSNES Save States (.zst, .zs1-.zs9, .z10-.z99)
  • FRZ — Snes9X Save States (.frz, .000-.008)
  • TAP (for tape images without copy protection)
  • Z80,SNA — (for snapshots of the emulator RAM)
  • DSK — (for disk images)
  • TAP — Commodore 64 (.tap) (for tape images including copy protection)
  • T64 — (for tape images without copy protection, considerably smaller than .tap files)
  • D64 — (for disk images)
  • CRT — (for cartridge images)
  • ADF — Amiga (.adf) (for 880K diskette images)
  • ADZ — GZip-compressed version of the above.
  • DMS — Disk Masher System, previously used as a disk-archiving system native to the Amiga, also supported by emulators.

Virtual machines

Microsoft Virtual PC, Virtual Server

  • VFD — Virtual Floppy Disk (.vfd)
  • VHD — Virtual Hard Disk (.vhd)
  • VUD — Virtual Undo Disk (.vud)
  • VMC — Virtual Machine Configuration (.vmc)
  • VSV — Virtual Machine Saved State (.vsv)

EMC VMware ESX, GSX, Workstation, Player

  • LOG — Virtual Machine Logfile (.log)
  • VMDK, DSK — Virtual Machine Disk (.vmdk, .dsk)
  • NVRAM — Virtual Machine BIOS (.nvram)
  • VMEM — Virtual Machine paging file (.vmem)
  • VMSD — Virtual Machine snapshot metadata (.vmsd)
  • VMSN — Virtual Machine snapshot (.vmsn)
  • VMSS,STD — Virtual Machine suspended state (.vmss, .std)
  • VMTM — Virtual Machine team data (.vmtm)
  • VMX,CFG — Virtual Machine configuration (.vmx, .cfg)
  • VMXF — Virtual Machine team configuration (.vmxf)


  • VDI — VirtualBox Virtual Disk Image (.vdi)

Parallels Workstation

Main article: Parallels Workstation
  • HDD — Virtual Machine hard disk (.hdd)
  • PVS — Virtual Machine preferences/configuration (.pvs)
  • SAV — Virtual Machine saved state (.sav)


  • COW — Copy-on-write
  • QCOW — QEMU copy-on-write Qcow
  • QCOW2 — QEMU copy-on-write — version 2 Qcow
  • QED — QEMU enhanced disk format


  • Static
    • dtd, Document Type Definition (standard), MUST be public and free
    • HTML — (.html, .htm) — HyperText Markup Language
    • XHTML — (.xhtml, .xht) — eXtensible HyperText Markup Language
    • MHTML — (.mht, .mhtml) — Archived HTML, store all data on one web page (text, images, etc.) in one big file
    • MAF — (.maff) — web archive based on ZIP
  • Dynamically generated
    • ASP — (.asp) — Microsoft Active Server Page
    • ASPX — (.aspx) — Microsoft Active Server Page. NET
    • ADP — AOLserver Dynamic Page
    • BML — (.bml) — Better Markup Language (templating)
    • CFM — (.cfm) — ColdFusion
    • CGI — (.cgi)
    • iHTML — (.ihtml) — Inline HTML
    • JSP — (.jsp) JavaServer Pages
    • Lasso — (.las, .lasso, .lassoapp) — A file created or served with the Lasso Programming Language
    • PL — Perl (.pl)
    • PHP — (.php, .php?, .phtml) — ? is version number (previously abbreviated Personal Home Page, later changed to PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor)
    • RNA — (.rna) — Real Native Application File
    • R — (.r) — Real Native Application File (short alternative)
    • RNX — (.rnx) — Real Native Application File (using experimental version 6 of RNA/Karbon Language)
    • SSI — (.shtml) — HTML with Server Side Includes (Apache)
    • SSI — (.stm) — HTML with Server Side Includes (Apache)

Markup languages other web standards-based file formats

  • Atom — (.atom, .xml) — Another syndication file format
  • EML — (.eml) — File format used by several desktop email clients
  • JSON-LD — (.jsonld) — A JSON-based Serialization for Linked Data
  • Metalink — (.metalink, .met) — A file format for listing metadata about downloads, such as mirrors, checksums, and other information.
  • RSS — (.rss, .xml) — Syndication file format
  • Markdown — (.markdown, .md) — A light-weight, plain-text, easy to read and write markup language.
  • Shuttle — (.se) — lightweight markup language


  • AXD — cookie extensions found in temporary internet folder
  • BDF — Binary Data Format — raw data from recovered blocks of unallocated space on a hard drive
  • CBP — CD Box Labeler Pro, CentraBuilder, Code::Blocks Project File, Conlab Project[15]
  • CEX — SolidWorks Enterprise PDM Vault File
  • CREDX — CredX Dat File
  • DDB — Generating code for Vocaloid singers voice (see .DDI)
  • DDI — Vocaloid phoneme library (Japanese, English, Korean, Spanish, Chinese, Catalan)
  • DUPX — DuupeCheck database management tool project file
  • GA3 — Graphical Analysis 3
  • GEDCOM (.ged) — (GEnealogical Data COMmunication) file format for exchanging genealogical data between different genealogy software
  • HLP — Windows help file
  • IGC — flight tracks downloaded from GPS devices in the FAI's prescribed format
  • INF — similar file format to INI file; used to install device drivers under Windows, inter alia.
  • JAM — JAM Message Base Format for BBSes
  • KMC — tests made with KatzReview's MegaCrammer
  • LSM — LSMaker script file (program using layered .jpg to create special effects; specifically designed to render lightsabers from the Star Wars universe) (.lsm)
  • OER — AU OER TOOL, Open Educational Resource editor
  • PIF — Used for running MS-DOS programs under Windows
  • POR — So called "portable" SPSS files, readable by PSPP
  • PXZ — Compressed file to exchange media elements with PSALMO
  • RISE — File containing RISE generated information model evolution
  • SKP — SketchUp file
  • TOPC — TopicCrunch SEO Project file holding keywords, domain and search engine settings (ASCII);
  • TOS — Character file from The Only Sheet
  • XLF — Extensible LADAR Format
  • XMC — Assisted contact lists file format, based on xml and used in kindergartens and schools
  • ZED — My Heritage Family Tree
  • Zone file — a text file containing a DNS zone


  • ANI — Animated Cursor
  • CUR — Cursor file
  • Smes — Hawk's Dock configuration file

Generalized files

General data formats

These file formats are fairly well defined by long-term use or a general standard, but the content of each file is often highly specific to particular software or has been extended by further standards for specific uses.


Generic file extensions

These are filename extensions and broad types reused frequently with differing formats or no specific format by different programs.

Binary files

  • Bak file (.bak, .bk) — various backup formats: some just copies of data files, some in application-specific data backup formats, some formats for general file backup programs
  • BIN — binary data, often memory dumps of executable code or data to be re-used by the same software that originated it
  • DAT — data file, usually binary data proprietary to the program that created it
  • DSK — file representations of various disk storage images
  • RAW — raw (unprocessed) data

Text files

Partial files

Differences and patches

  • diff — text file differences created by the program diff and applied as updates by patch

Incomplete transfers

  •  !UT — partially completed downloads in uTorrent
  • PART (.part) — partially completed downloads in Mozilla Firefox
  • CRDOWNLOAD (.crdownload) - partially completed downloads in Google Chrome
  • OPDOWNLOAD (.opdownload) - partially completed downloads in Opera

Temporary files

  • Temporary file (.temp, .tmp, various others) — sometimes in a specific format, but often just raw data in the middle of processing

See also


External links

pt:Lista de extensões de ficheiros