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List of language regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies. Language academies are motivated by, or closely associated with, linguistic purism, and typically publish prescriptive dictionaries,[1] which purport to officiate and prescribe the meaning of words and pronunciations. A language regulator may also be descriptive, however, while maintaining (but not imposing) a standard spelling.

Many world languages have one or more language academies. However, the degree of control that the academies exert over these languages does not render the latter controlled natural languages in the sense that the various kinds of "simple English" (e.g. Basic English, Simplified Technical English) or George Orwell's fictional Newspeak are. They instead remain natural languages to a considerable extent and are thus not formal languages such as Attempto Controlled English. They have a degree of standardization that allows them to function as standard languages (e.g. standard French).

Natural languages

Language Territory Regulator(s)
Afrikaans 23x15px South Africa Die Taalkommissie
Akan 23x15px Ghana Akan Orthography Committee (AOC)
Albanian 23x15px Albania
23x15px Kosovo
Academy of Sciences of Albania, Tirana
Arabic 23x15px Algeria
23x15px Egypt
Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Jordan
23x15px Morocco
23x15px Somalia
23x15px Sudan
23x15px Syria
23x15px Tunisia
Template:Country data Israel
Academy of the Arabic Language (مجمع اللغة العربية) Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia, Sudan
Israel
Arabic Language International Council
Aragonese 23x15px Aragon Academia de l'Aragonés, Aragon, Spain
Armenian 23x15px Armenia Armenian National Academy of Sciences
Assamese Template:Country data India Assam Asam Sahitya Sabha (অসম সাহিত্য সভা)
Asturian 23x15px Asturias Academy of the Asturian Language (Academia de la Llingua Asturiana)
Azerbaijani 23x15px Azerbaijan Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences
Bengali (Bangla) 23x15px Bangladesh Bangla Academy (বাংলা একাডেমি)
Template:Country data India West Bengal Paschimbanga Bangla Akademi (পশ্চিমবঙ্গ বাংলা আকাদেমি)
Basque 23x15px Basque Country Euskaltzaindia, often translated as Royal Academy of the Basque language
Belarusian 23x15px Belarus The Jakub Kolas and Janka Kupala Institute of Language and Literature[2] at the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus
Bosnian 23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina
23x15px Sandžak
University of Sarajevo
Berber or Tamazight 23x15px Morocco Royal Institute of Amazight Culture (IRCAM)
23x15px Algeria HCA
Bulgarian 23x15px Bulgaria Institute for Bulgarian Language at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Burmese 23x15px Burma Myanmar Language Commission
Catalan 23x15px Catalonia Institute of Catalan Studies (Institut d'Estudis Catalans)
23x15px Valencian Community Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (for the Valencian standard)
Cebuano 23x15px Philippines Visayan Academy of Arts and Letters
Cherokee 23x15px Cherokee Nation Council of the Cherokee Nation (ᏣᎳᎩᎯ ᎠᏰᎵ)
Mandarin Chinese 23x15px People's Republic of China National Commission on Language and Script Work (国家语言文字工作委员会)
23x15px Republic of China (Taiwan) National Languages Committee (國語推行委員會)
23x15px Singapore Promote Mandarin Council (讲华语运动理事会)
23x15px Malaysia Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia (马来西亚华语规范理事会)
Cornish 23x15px Cornwall Cornish Language Partnership (Keskowethyans an Taves Kernewek)
Croatian 23x15px Croatia Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics (Institut za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje)
Czech 23x15px Czech Republic Institute of the Czech Language (of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic) — Ústav pro jazyk český (Akademie věd České republiky)
Danish 23x15px Denmark Dansk Sprognævn (Danish Language Council)
Dalecarlian 23x15px Dalarna County Ulum Dalska
Dari 23x15px Afghanistan Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Divehi 23x15px Maldives Dhivehi Academy
Dutch 23x15px Netherlands
23x15px Belgium
23x15px Suriname
Nederlandse Taalunie (Dutch Language Union)
Dzongkha 23x15px Bhutan Dzongkha Development Commission
Estonian 23x15px Estonia Emakeele Seltsi keeletoimkond (Language Board at the Mother Tongue Society) sets rules and standards, authoritative advice is given by the Institute of the Estonian Language (Eesti Keele Instituut)
Faroese 23x15px Faroe Islands Faroese Language Council (Málráðið)
Filipino 23x15px Philippines Commission on the Filipino Language
Finnish 23x15px Finland Research Institute for the Languages of Finland
French 23x15px France Académie française (French Academy)
23x15px Quebec Office québécois de la langue française (Quebec Office of the French Language)
Galician 23x15px Galicia Royal Galician Academy (Real Academia Galega, official)
German 23x15px Germany
23x15px Austria
23x16px  Switzerland
23x15px South Tyrol
23x15px Belgium
23x15px Liechtenstein
23x15px Luxembourg
Council for German Orthography (Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung)
Greenlandic 23x15px Greenland The Greenland Language Secretariat (Oqaasileriffik)
Greek 23x15px Greece
23x15px Cyprus
Center for the Greek language (Κέντρον Ελληνικής Γλώσσας)
Haitian Creole Template:Country data Haiti Ministère de l'éducation nationale et de la formation professionnelle (Haitian department of education)[citation needed]
Hebrew Template:Country data Israel The Academy of the Hebrew Language (האקדמיה ללשון העברית)
Hindi Template:Country data India Central Hindi Directorate (regulates use of Devanagari script and Hindi spelling in India)
Hmar Template:Country data India Hmar Literature Society (Manipur, India)[citation needed]
Hungarian 23x15px Hungary Research Institute for Linguistics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia Nyelvtudományi Intézete)
Icelandic Template:Country data Iceland Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies
Igbo 23x15px Nigeria Society for Promoting Igbo Language and Culture
Indonesian Template:Country data Indonesia Badan Pengembangan dan Pembinaan Bahasa
Irish 23x15px Ireland
23x15px Northern Ireland
Foras na Gaeilge
Italian 23x15px Italy
23x15px San Marino
23x16px  Switzerland
23x16px  Vatican City
Accademia della Crusca (Academy of the bran)
Japanese Template:Country data Japan No official centralized regulation, but de facto regulations by Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) at the Ministry of Education of Japan (文部科学省)
Kannada Template:Country data India Karnataka Various academies and Government of Karnataka
Kashubian 23x15px Poland Commission of the Kashubian Language (Radzëzna Kaszëbsczégò Jãzëka[dead link])
Kazakh Template:Country data Kazakhstan Ministry of Culture of Kazakhstan
Korean Template:Country data South Korea The National Institute of the Korean Language (국립국어원)
Kven 23x15px Norway Kainun institutti – kvensk institutt
Kyrgyz Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan National Committee for State Language under the President of the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасынын Президентине караштуу Мамлекеттик тил боюнча улуттук комиссия)
Ladino Template:Country data Israel Autoridad Nasionala del Ladino (National Authority of Ladino) [2]
Latin 23x15px Holy See Pontifical Academy for Latin (Pontificia Academia Latinitatis) (Latin in the Roman Catholic Church)[3]
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy: botanical Latin)
International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature: zoological Latin)
Latvian 23x15px Latvia Latvian State Language Center (Valsts Valodas Centrs)
Lithuanian 23x15px Lithuania Commission of the Lithuanian Language (Valstybinė lietuvių kalbos komisija)
Lusoga 23x15px Uganda Lusoga Language Authority (LULA)
Macedonian 23x15px Macedonia Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" (Институт за македонски јазик „Крсте Мисирков“, Institut za makedonski jazik „Krste Misirkov“)
Malay 23x15px Malaysia
23x15px Brunei
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka (The Institute of Language and Literature)
Malayalam Template:Country data India Kerala Kerala Sahitya Akademi (കേരള സാഹിത്യ പരിശീലന സ്ഥാപനം) and Government of Kerala
Maltese 23x15px Malta National Council for the Maltese Language (www.kunsilltalmalti.gov.mt)
Manx 23x15px Isle of Man Coonceil ny Gaelgey
Māori 23x15px New Zealand Māori Language Commission
Mirandese 23x15px Portugal Anstituto de la Lhéngua Mirandesa (Institute of the Mirandese Language)
Mixtec 23x15px Mexico Academy of the Mixtec Language (Ve'e Tu'un Sávi)
Mongolian 23x15px Mongolia Council of the official state language (Төрийн хэлний зөвлөл). Decisions have to be confirmed by the Mongolian government.[4]
Nepali File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal Language Academy of Nepal
Norwegian (Bokmål and Nynorsk) 23x15px Norway Norwegian Language Council
Occitan 23x15px France
23x15px Spain
23x15px Monaco
23x15px Italy
Lo Congrès Permanent de la lenga occitana (the permanent congress of occitan language)[3]
Pashto 23x15px Afghanistan
23x15px Pakistan
Academy of Sciences of Afghanistan
Pashto Academy
Persian Template:Country data Iran
23x15px Tajikistan
23x15px Afghanistan
23x15px Uzbekistan
Academy of Persian Language and Literature (فرهنگستان زبان و ادب فارسی)
Polish 23x15px Poland Polish Language Council (Rada Języka Polskiego)
Portuguese 23x15px Portugal Academia das Ciências de Lisboa, Classe de Letras
23x15px Brazil Academia Brasileira de Letras (Brazilian Literary Academy)
Quechua 23x15px Peru High Academy of the Quechua Language (Qheswa simi hamut'ana kuraq suntur)
Romanian 23x15px Romania Institutul de Lingvisticǎ al Academiei Române (Institute for Linguistics of the Romanian Academy)
23x15px Moldova Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei
Russian 23x15px Russian Empire Russian Academy (1783–1841)
23x15px Russia Russian Language Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (since 1944)
Scots 23x15px Scotland The Scots Language Centre supports the Scots language.[5] Scottish Language Dictionaries record and analyse the language as it is spoken and written throughout Scotland and Ulster today.[6]
Scottish Gaelic 23x15px Scotland Bòrd na Gàidhlig maintains the national plan for Gaelic, to promote its use and make Gaelic culture accessible
Secwepemctsín 23x15px Canada Stk'wemiple7s re Secwepemctsin, are the group of people supported by the Secwepemc Cultural Education Society who develop new words.
Serbian and Montenegrin 23x15px Serbia
23x15px Montenegro
Board for Standardization of the Serbian Language
Sindhi 23x15px Pakistan Sindhi Language Authority [4]
Sinhala 23x15px Sri Lanka Hela Havula (හෙළ හවුල)
Slovak 23x15px Slovakia Ľudovít Štúr Institute of Linguistics (Jazykovedný ústav Ľudovíta Štúra) at Slovak Academy of Sciences (Slovenská akadémia vied)
Slovene 23x15px Slovenia Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts
Somali 23x15px Djibouti
23x15px Ethiopia
23x15px Somalia
Regional Somali Language Academy
Sorbian 23x15px Germany Serbski institut [5]
Spanish 23x15px Spain
23x15px Colombia
23x15px Ecuador
23x15px Mexico
23x15px El Salvador
23x15px Venezuela
23x15px Chile
23x15px Peru
23x15px Guatemala
23x15px Costa Rica
23x15px Philippines
23x15px Panama
23x15px Cuba
23x15px Paraguay
23x15px Dominican Republic
23x15px Bolivia
23x15px Nicaragua
23x15px Argentina
23x15px Uruguay
Template:Country data Honduras
23x15px Puerto Rico
23x15px United States
Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española (constituted by the Real Academia Española plus 21 other separate national academies in the Spanish-speaking world)
Swahili 23x15px Tanzania Baraza la Kiswahili la Taifa
Template:Country data Kenya Chama cha Kiswahili cha Taifa
Swedish 23x15px Sweden Swedish Language Council (semi-official)
Swedish Academy
23x15px Finland Swedish Language Department of the Research Institute for the Languages of Finland (Svenska språkbyrån)
Tamil Template:Country data India Tamil Nadu Thanjavur Tamil University and Official language Commission of Government of Tamil Nadu
Tatar 23x15px Tatarstan Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan
Telugu Template:Country data India Andhra Pradesh Telugu Academy and Official Language Commission of Government of Andhra Pradesh
Tetum 23x15px Timor-Leste National Institute of Linguistics at the National University of East Timor
Thai 23x15px Thailand Royal Society of Thailand (ราชบัณฑิตยสภา)
Turkish 23x15px Turkey Turkish Language Association
Ukrainian 23x15px Ukraine National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Urdu 23x15px Pakistan
Template:Country data India
National Language Authority, Pakistan
National Council for Promotion of Urdu Language, India
Urhobo 23x15px Nigeria Urhobo Studies Association
Võro 23x15px Estonia Võro Institute
Waray-Waray 23x15px Philippines Sanghiran san Binisaya ha Samar ug Leyte (Academy of the Visayan Language of Samar and Leyte) defunct
Welsh 23x15px Wales Welsh Language Commissioner (Meri Huws)
— The Welsh Government
(previously the Welsh Language Board Bwrdd yr Iaith Gymraeg)(Principally, however, the role of the Welsh Language Commissioner is that of language planning and policy regulator and enforcer. The role also includes corpus planning.)
West Frisian 23x15px Friesland Fryske Akademy (Frisian Academy)
Wolof 23x15px Senegal Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar (Center of Applied Linguistics of Dakar at the Cheikh Anta Diop University)
Yiddish 23x15px United States
23x15px Sweden
23x15px Russia
YIVO [6]
Yoruba 23x15px Nigeria The Yoruba Academy

Auxiliary languages

Interlingua

The auxiliary language Interlingua has no regulating body, as its vocabulary, grammar, and orthography are viewed as a product of ongoing social forces. In theory, Interlingua therefore evolves independent from any human regulator. Interlingua's vocabulary is verified and recorded by dynamically applying certain general principles to an existing set of natural languages and their etymologies.

Constructed languages

Languages such as Esperanto and Ido have been constructed (or planned) by a person or small group, before being adopted and further developed by communities of users through natural language evolution. Bodies such as the Akademio de Esperanto look at questions of usage in the light of the original goals and principles of the language.

International auxiliary languages

Language Regulator(s)
Esperanto Akademio de Esperanto
Ido Uniono por la Linguo Internaciona Ido
Lojban Logical Language Group
Volapük Kadäm Volapüka

Other constructed languages

Language Regulator(s)
Klingon Marc Okrand
Talossan Comità per l'Útzil del Glheþ

See also

References

  1. ^ Thomas, George (1991) Linguistic purism p.108, quotation:
    Whereas a number of the puristically motivated language societies have assumed de facto responsibility for language cultivation, the decisions of the academies have often had the force of law. ... Since academies are so closely associated with the notion of purism, a brief word on their history may not be out of place. The first academy to deal expressly and exclusively with language matters was the Accademia della Crusca ... Its orientation was essentially conservative, favouring a return to the Tuscan language as cultivated in the fourteenth century over the innovations of contemporary renaissance poets such as Torquato Tasso. ... One of its first tasks -- as with so many academies to follow -- was to produce a large-scale prescriptive dictionary of Italian
  2. ^ "Organizations Attached to the Department of Humanitarian Sciences and Arts". National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Retrieved 8 June 2012. Field of Activities: ... compilation of the Belarusian language dictionaries including Belarusian – the other Slavonic languages and the other Slavonic languages – Belarusian dictionaries; ... 
  3. ^ "Pontificia Academia Latinitatis - Index". Vatican.va. 2012-11-10. Retrieved 2013-08-19. 
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ Scots language Centre
  6. ^ Scottish Language Dictionaries