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List of modern conflicts in the Middle East

This article is about modern conflicts in the West Asia. For ancient conflicts, see List of conflicts in the Near East.
Middle East
Contemporary Middle East
Countries (2013) Bahrain, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq (Iraqi Kurdistan), Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Palestine, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria (Syrian Kurdistan), Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Yemen
Unrecognized Countries (2015) Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

This is a list of modern conflicts in the Middle East ensuing in the geographic and political region known as the Middle East. The "Middle East" is traditionally defined as the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia), Levant, and the Delta of the Nile and neighboring areas of Arabia, Anatolia and Iran. It currently encompasses the area from Egypt, Turkey and Cyprus in the west to Iran and the Persian Gulf in the east, and from Turkey and Iran to the north, to Oman and Yemen to the south.[1]

  • Conflicts are separate incidents with at least 100 casualties, and are listed by total deaths, including sub-conflicts.[2]
  • The term "modern" refers to the post-Ottoman period, in other words, since 1918.

List of conflicts

Date Conflict Location Casualties
1902–1932 Unification of Saudi Arabia [a] 23px Emirate of Riyadh
23px Kingdom of Hejaz
23px Kuwaiti Emirate,
23px Sultanate of Nejd,
Template:Country data Jordan Emirate of Transjordan,
Template:Country data Iraq Mandatory Iraq
23px Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz
8,000–9,000
1914–1918 Middle Eastern theatre of World War I 23px Persia
23px Russian Empire
23px Sultanate of Egypt
23x15px Greece
46px Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
23px Emirate of Nejd and Hasa
23px Emirate of Jabal Shammar
23px Sheikhdom of Kuwait
23px Sultanate of Lahej
23px Ottoman Empire (Anatolia, Hejaz, Palestine, Transjordan, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen, Iraq)
23px Armenia
23px Azerbaijan
2,825,000[3][4][5]-5,000,000[6] (Ottoman Empire deaths including civilians). 1,000,000-1,500,000[citation needed] (Allied killed, wounded, captured or missing)
1918–1922 Simko Shikak revolt[7][verification needed] 23px Persia 1,000–5,500
1919 Egyptian Revolution of 1919[8] 23x15px Sultanate of Egypt 3,000
1919–1923 Turkish War of Independence [b][verification needed] 23x15px Turkey
23x15px Greece
23x15px Armenia
23x15px Soviet Union
170,500–873,000
1919–2003 Iraqi-Kurdish conflict [c] Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Iraq Iraq,
22px Kingdom of Kurdistan
142,000–320,000
1920 Franco-Syrian War[citation needed] 23px Arab Kingdom of Syria
23px Occupied Enemy Territory Administration
5,000
1920 Iraqi revolt against the British[9][10] Template:Country data Iraq Mandatory Iraq 2,050–9,000
1923 Adwan Rebellion Template:Country data Jordan Transjordan 100
1924–1927 Great Syrian Revolt (Druze War)[11][verification needed] 23px Greater Lebanon
23x15pxState of Syria
23px Jabal Druze
23x15px Alawite State
8,000–12,000
1925 Sheikh Said rebellion.[12] 23x15px Turkey 15,000–250,500
1929-1948[l] Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine 23x15px Mandatory Palestine 8,280
1930 Ararat rebellion[13][14][15][16][17] 23x15px Turkey
23px Republic of Ararat
4,500–47,000
1933 Simele massacre[18] 23x15px Kingdom of Iraq 3,000
1934 Saudi-Yemeni War[19] 23x15px Saudi Arabia
23px Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
2,100
1935 Imam Reza shrine rebellion[20] Template:Country data Iran 151
1935–1936 1935–1936 Iraqi Shia revolts 23x15px Iraq 500
1935 1935 Yazidi revolt[18] 23x15px Iraq 200
1937 Dersim Rebellion[21][22][verification needed] 23x15px Turkey 40,000–70,000
1939–1945 World War II (including the Anglo-Iraqi War, the Syria–Lebanon Campaign, and the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran) 23x15px Iraq
Template:Country data Iran Iran
23px French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon
23x15px Mandatory Palestine
~16,000
1946 Egyptian Student Riots (1946)[23][verification needed][24] 23x15px Egypt 100–300
1946 Iran crisis of 1946[2][12][e] Template:Country data Iran
23x15px Republic of Mahabad
23px Azerbaijan People's Government
23x15px Soviet Union
2,000
1948– Arab-Israeli conflict[f] 23x15px Egypt
23px All-Palestine Government
23x15px Egypt
23x15px United Arab Republic
23x15px Syrian Republic
23x15px Syria
Template:Country data Jordan
23x15px Lebanon
Template:Country data Israel
23x15px Palestinian Authority
73,000–84,000
1948 Alwaziri coup[2] 23x15px Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen 4,000–5,000
1948 Al-Wathbah uprising[citation needed] 23x15px Iraq 300–400
1952 Egyptian Revolution of 1952[2] 23x15px Egypt 1,000
1953 1953 Iranian coup d'état[2][12][25] Template:Country data Iran 300–800
1954–1960 Jebel Akhdar War[12] 23px Sultanate of Muscat and Oman 100–523
1955–1963 Cypriot intercommunal violence[26][27] 23x15px Cyprus 400–600
1956–1960 Yemeni-Adenese clan violence[2] 23x15px Aden 1,000
1958 1958 Lebanon Crisis[2][8][27] 23x15px Lebanon 1,300–4,000
1958 1958 Iraqi Revolution[2] 23x15px Arab Federation 100
1959 1959 Mosul uprising[2] Template:Country data Iraq Iraqi Republic 2,000–4,000
1962–1970 North Yemen Civil War[28][29][g] 23x15px North Yemen 100,000–200,000
1962–1975 Dhofar Rebellion[12] 23x15px Oman 10,000
1963 White Revolution (Iran)[12] Template:Country data Iran 100
1963 February 1963 Ba'athist Iraqi coup[30] Template:Country data Iraq 1,000
1963 8th of March Syrian Revolution[31] 23x15px United Arab Republic
23x15px Syria
820
1963–1967 Aden Emergency[32] 23x15px Federation of South Arabia
23x15px South Yemen
2,096
1963 November 1963 Iraqi coup [30] Template:Country data Iraq 250
1964 1964 Hama riot[33][34] 23x15px Syria 70–100
1966 1966 neo-Ba'athist coup d'état in Syria[12] 23x15px Syria 400
1970–1971 Jordan-Palestinian Civil War[27] Template:Country data Jordan 2,000–25,000
1974 Turkish invasion of Cyprus[19][35] 23x15px Cyprus 1,500–5,000
1975–1990 Lebanese Civil War[36][h] 23x15px Lebanon 150,000
1976–1979 Political violence in Turkey, 1970s[37][38][39] 23x15px Turkey 5,000–5,388
1976–1982 Islamic uprising in Syria[40] 23x15px
23x15px Syria
40,000
1979 Iranian Revolution[41][42] Template:Country data Iran 3,164–60,000
1979–1980 Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution [i] Template:Country data Iran 10,171
1979–1983 Saudi Eastern Province unrest[43] 23x15px Saudi Arabia 182–219
1979 Grand Mosque Seizure[44] 23x15px Saudi Arabia 307
1980 1980 Turkish coup d'état[45][46] 23x15px Turkey 127–550
1980 Sadr uprising (1980)[47] Template:Country data Iraq 1,000–30,000
1980–1988 Iran-Iraq war[19][48][j] Template:Country data Iran
Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Kuwait
1,000,000–1,250,000
1984–2013 Turkey-PKK conflict[49][verification needed] 23x15px Turkey
23x15px Iraqi Kurdistan
Template:Country data Iraq
23x15px Federation of Arab Republics
23x15px Syria
30,000–100,000
1986 South Yemen Civil War[50] 23x15px South Yemen 5,000–12,000
1986 1986 Egyptian Conscription Riot[51] 23x15px Egypt 107
1986 1986 Damascus bombings[citation needed] 23x15px Syria 204
1987 Iranian pilgrim riot (Mecca massacre)[52] 23x15px Saudi Arabia 402
1987–1988 ANO Executions 23x15px Lebanon
23x15px Syria
170
1989–1996 KDPI insurgency (1989–96) Template:Country data Iran 1,000
1990–1991 Gulf War[36] Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Kuwait
23x15px Saudi Arabia
40,000–57,000
1991 1991 uprisings in Iraq[47][53] Template:Country data Iraq 50,000–100,000
1992–2000 Terrorism in Egypt[54][page needed] 23x15px Egypt 1,300–2,000
1994 1994 civil war in Yemen[citation needed] 23x15px Yemen 7,000–10,000
1995– Islamic Insurgency in Saudi Arabia[citation needed] 23x15px Saudi Arabia 300
1998 Operation Desert Fox[26][27] (Iraqi no-fly zones) Template:Country data Iraq 2,000
1999 1999 Shia uprising in Iraq[12][55] Template:Country data Iraq 100–200
2003–2011 Iraq War[56][57][58][59][60][61][k] Template:Country data Iraq
Template:Country data Iraq Iraq
109,032–150,726
2004 Qamishli massacre (2004)[62][63] 23x15px Syria 30–100
2004–2014 Shia insurgency in Yemen[64][65][verification needed][66] 23x15px Saudi Arabia
23x15px Yemen
8,500–25,000
2004– Iran-PJAK conflict[67] Template:Country data Iran
23x15px Iraqi Kurdistan
588–747
2006– Fatah–Hamas conflict[68][69] 23x15px Palestinian Authority
23px Gaza Strip
600
2007 Nahr al-Bared fighting 23x15px Lebanon 480
2008 2008 Lebanon conflict 23x15px Lebanon 105
2009– South Yemen Insurgency[70] 23x15px Yemen 2,100+
2009–2010 Iranian election protests[71] Template:Country data Iran 72-150
2010– Yemeni al-Qaeda crackdown[72][73] 23x15px Yemen 3,000+
2011 Egyptian Revolution of 2011 23x15px Egypt 846
2011– 2011 Bahraini uprising 23x15px Bahrain 100+
2011 2011 Yemeni revolution 23x15px Yemen 2,000
2011– Syrian Civil War 23x15px Syria 220,374–313,374+
2011– Sinai insurgency 23x15px Egypt 1,000+
2011– Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal) Template:Country data Iraq 22,000–30.000
2011– Syrian Civil War spillover in Lebanon 23x15px Lebanon 675-700
2013–2014 Islamist unrest in Egypt (2013–2014) 23x15px Egypt 3,150+
2015- Yemeni Civil War (2015) 23x15px Yemen 750-1000

Casualties breakdown

[a].^ Unification of Saudi Arabia (combined casualties 7,989–8,989+)

Battle of Riyadh (1902) – 37 killed.
Battle of Dilam (1903) – 410 killed.
Saudi–Rashidi War (1903–1907) – 2,300+ killed.
Annexation of Al-Hasa and Qatif (1913) – unknown.
Battle of Jarrab (1915) – unknown.
Battle of Kanzaan (1915) – unknown.
First Nejd-Hejaz War 1918–1919 – 1,392 killed[12]
Kuwait-Najd Border War (1921) – 200[12]–800 killed.
1921 Ikhwan raid on Iraq – 700 killed.
Conquest of Ha'il – unknown.
Ikhwan raids on Transjordan 1922–1924 – 500[74]-1,500 killed.
Second Nejd-Hejaz War (1924–1925) – 450 killed.[12]
Ikhwan Revolt (1927–1930) – 2,000 killed.[12]

[b].^ Turkish War of Independence (combined figure 170,500–873,000+):

Greco-Turkish War – 70,000[citation needed]–400,000 casualties[36][verification needed]
Franco-Turkish War – 40,000 casualties.[citation needed]
Turkish-Armenian War – 60,000–432,500 casualties.[75]
Koçkiri Rebellion – 500 killed.[citation needed]
Revolt of Ahmet Anzavur – unknown.
Kuva-i Inzibatiye revolt – unknown.

[c].^ Iraqi–Kurdish conflict (combined casualty figure 138,800-320,100) of:

Mahmud Barzanji revolts – unknown.
Ahmad Barzanji revolt (1931) – unknown.
1943 Iraqi Kurdish revolt (1943) – unknown.
First Kurdish-Iraqi War (1961–1970) – 75,000–105,000 killed.[28][36]
Second Kurdish-Iraqi War (1974–1975) – 9,000 killed.[76]
PUK insurgency (1976–1978) – 800 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish uprising (1982–1988) – 50,000–198,000 killed.
1991 Uprising in As Sulaymaniyah – 700–2,000 killed.
Iraqi Kurdish Civil War (1994–1997) – 3,000[77]-5,000 killed.
2003 invasion of Iraq – several hundred killed (~300) on the Kurdish front, at least 24 Peshmerga killed.

[d].^ World War II (combined casualty figure 12,338-14,898+) of:

Anglo-Iraqi War – at least 560 killed.[78][79]
Farhud 175–780 killed.
Syria–Lebanon Campaign 10,404–12,964 killed.
Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran 100[12] – 1,062 killed.
Bombing of Palestine in World War II 137 deaths.[80]
Bombing of Bahrain in World War II – unknown.

[e].^ Iran crisis of 1946 (combined casualty figure 1,921+):

Azerbaijan People's Republic crisis – 421 killed.[81]
Republic of Mahabad crisis – ~1,000 killed.[citation needed]
Civil interregnum – 500 killed.[82]

[f].^ Arab–Israeli conflict (combined casualty figure 76,338–87,338+):

Israeli–Palestinian conflict (1948–present) – 23,000 killed.
Fedayeen insurgency and Retribution Operations (1950s) – 3,456 casualties.
Palestinian insurgency in South Lebanon
First Intifada - 2,000 killed
Second Intifada - 7,000 killed
Gaza-Israel conflict - 3,500 killed
Arab-Israeli War (1948–1949) – 14,400 casualties.
Suez War (1956) – 3,203 killed.
Six Day War (1967) – 13,976 killed.
War of Attrition (1967–1970) – 6,403 killed.
Yom Kippur War (1973) 10,000–21,000.[83]
Second Lebanon War – 1,900 killed.

[g].^ North Yemen Civil War (combined 100,000–200,000 casualties):

1962 Coup d'état
Ramadan offensive
Haradh offensive
1965 Royalist offensive
Siege of Sana'a (1967)

[h].^ Lebanese Civil War (combined 39,132–43,970+ mortal casualties):

Bus massacre – 27 killed.
Hundred Days' War – 160 killed.
Karantina massacre – 1,000–1,500 killed.
Damour massacre – 684 killed.
Battle of the Hotels – 700 killed.
Black Saturday (Lebanon) – 200–600 killed.
Tel al-Zaatar massacre – 1,778–3,278 killed.
1982 Lebanon War – 28,280 killed.
Sabra and Shatila massacre – 762–3,500 killed.
War of the Camps (1986–1987) – 3,781 killed.
Mountain War – 1,600 killed.
War of Liberation (1989–1990) – unknown.
October 13 massacre – 500–700 killed, 260 civilians massacred.

[i].^ Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution (combined fatalities count 12,000):

1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran – 10,171+ killed and executed.[84][85]
1979 Khuzestan uprising – 112+ killed.
1979 Khorasan uprising – unknown.
1979 Azeri uprising – unknown.
1979 Baluchistan uprising – 50 killed.
Iran hostage crisis – 9 killed.
1979–1980 Tehran clashes – unknown.

[j].^ Iran–Iraq war (combined death count 645,000–823,000+):

Iraqi invasion 1980
Mujahedin al-Halq uprising 1981–1982
Liberation of Khorramshahr 1982 – 17,000 killed
Operation Undeniable Victory 1982 – 50,000 mortal casualties
Operation Ramadan 1982 – 80,000 killed
Kurdish Rebellion 1983-1988 (including the Al-Anfal Campaign) 50,000–198,000 killed
Operation Before the Dawn 1983 – 6,000+ killed
Operation Dawn 3 – 162,000 killed
Operation Dawn 5 1984 – 50,000 killed
Operation Dawn 6 1984 – unknown
Operation Khaibar 1984 – 49,000 killed
Tanker War 1984
Operation Badr (1985) – 30,000–32,000
War of the Cities 1985–1987
Operation Dawn-8 1986 – unknown
Operation Karbala-4 1986 – 15,000 killed
Operation Karbala-5 – 85,000 killed
Operation Nasr 4 – unknown
Operation Karbala-10 – unknown
Operation Mersad 1987 – 4,900 killed
1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners 2,000[86] – 30,000 executed

[k].^ Iraq War (combined casualty figure of 85,000–100,000):

2003 invasion of Iraq – 35,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (2003–2006) – 15,000 killed
Civil war in Iraq 2006–2008 – 30,000–40,000 killed
Iraqi insurgency (2008-2011) – 5,000–10,000 killed
Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Iraq – ~1,000 killed

[l].^ Sectarian conflict in Mandatory Palestine (combined casualties 7,718)

1929 Palestine riots - 251 killed.[87][88]
1933 Palestine riots - 20 killed.[89]
Arab Revolt in Palestine - 5,000 killed.[26]
Jewish insurgency in Palestine (1944-47) - 338 British[90] and around 100 Palestinian Jews killed.
1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine - 2,009 killed by 1 April 1948.[91]

See also

References

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