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List of monarchs of Afghanistan

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Monarchy of Afghanistan
120px
120px
Mohammed Zahir Shah
Details
Style His Majesty
First monarch Mirwais Hotak
Last monarch Mohammed Zahir Shah
Formation 1709
Abolition 17 July 1973
Residence
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Ahmad Shah Khan

In 1709, Mirwais Hotak and his Afghan tribal chiefs from Kandahar organized themselves and successfully freed their land from Mughal and Persian rule.[1] Mirwais built a large fortress for himself and turned the town of Kandahar to serve as the capital of the Hotak Empire.[2][3] After a long series of wars, this empire was eventually replaced by the Durrani Afghan Empire that was founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747.[4][5] Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as "the Father of the Nation",[6][7][8] Mirwais Hotak as "the Grandfather" and Mohammed Zahir Shah as the last King of Afghanistan.

Hotak Empire (1709–1738)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Mirwais Hotak
  • Shah Mirwais Ghilji
1673 – 1715 1709 1715 Hotak 80px
Abdul Aziz Hotak
? – 1717 1715 1717 Brother of Mirwais Hotak Hotak 80px
Mahmud Hotak
  • Shah Mahmud Ghilji
1697 – 22 April 1725 1717 22 April 1725 Son of Mirwais Hotak Hotak 80px
Ashraf Hotak
  • Shah Ashraf Ghilji
? – 1730 22 April 1725 1730 Nephew of Mirwais Hotak Hotak 80px
Hussain Hotak
? – 1738 22 April 1725 24 March 1738 Son of Mirwais Hotak Hotak 80px

Durrani Empire (1747–1823)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Ahmad Shah Durrani
  • the Father of the Nation
1722 – 16 October 1772 1747 16 October 1772 Durrani 80px
Timur Shah Durrani
1748 – 18 May 1793 16 October 1772 18 May 1793 Son of Ahmad Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Zaman Shah Durrani
1770–1844 18 May 1793 25 July 1801
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Mahmud Shah Durrani
(1st reign)
1769 – 18 April 1829 25 July 1801 13 July 1803
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Shuja Shah Durrani
(1st reign)
4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842 13 July 1803 3 May 1809
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Mahmud Shah Durrani
(2nd reign)
1769 – 18 April 1829 3 May 1809 1818
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Ali Shah Durrani
? – ? 1818 1819
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Ayub Shah Durrani
? – 1 October 1837 1819 1823
(deposed)
Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px

Emirate of Afghanistan (1823–1926)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Dost Mohammad Khan
(1st reign)
23 December 1793 – 9 June 1863 1823 2 August 1839
(deposed)
Son of Sardar Payendah Khan Barakzai 80px
Shuja Shah Durrani
(2nd reign)
  • Shah Shujah
4 November 1785 – 5 April 1842 7 August 1839 5 April 1842 Son of Timur Shah Durrani Durrani 80px
Akbar Khan
1816–1845 5 April 1842 1845 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai 80px
Dost Mohammad Khan
(2nd reign)
23 December 1793 – 9 June 1863 1845 9 June 1863 Son of Sardar Payendah Khan Barakzai 80px
Sher Ali Khan
(1st reign)
1825 – 21 February 1879 9 June 1863 1865
(deposed)
Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai 80px
Mohammad Afzal Khan
1811 – 7 October 1867 1865 7 October 1867 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai 80px
Mohammad Azam Khan
? – 21 February 1868 7 October 1867 21 February 1868 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai 80px
Sher Ali Khan
(2nd reign)
1825 – 21 February 1879 7 October 1868 21 February 1879 Son of Dost Mohammad Khan Barakzai 80px
Mohammad Yaqub Khan
1849 – 15 November 1923 21 February 1879 12 October 1879
(deposed)
Son of Sher Ali Khan Barakzai 80px
Mohammad Ayub Khan
1857 – 7 April 1914 12 October 1879 31 May 1880
(deposed)
Son of Sher Ali Khan Barakzai 80px
Abdur Rahman Khan
1840/44 – 1 October 1901 31 May 1880 1 October 1901 Son of Mohammad Afzal Khan Barakzai 80px
Habibullah Khan
3 June 1872 – 20 February 1919 1 October 1901 20 February 1919 Son of Abdur Rahman Khan Barakzai 80px
Nasrullah Khan
1874–1920 20 February 1919 28 February 1919
(deposed)
Son of Abdur Rahman Khan Barakzai 80px
Amanullah Khan
1 June 1892 – 25 April 1960 28 February 1919 9 June 1926 Son of Habibullah Khan Barakzai 80px

Kingdom of Afghanistan (1926–1973)

Name
Lifespan
Reign start
Reign end
Notes
Family
Image
Amanullah Khan
1 June 1892 – 25 April 1960 9 June 1926 14 January 1929
(deposed)
Son of Habibullah Khan Barakzai 80px
Inayatullah Khan
20 October 1888 – 12 August 1946 14 January 1929 17 January 1929
(deposed)
Son of Habibullah Khan Barakzai 80px
Habibullah Kalakani
1890 – 3 November 1929 17 January 1929 16 October 1929
(deposed)
Non-Dynastic 80px
Mohammed Nadir Shah
9 April 1883 – 8 November 1933 16 October 1929 8 November 1933 Great-nephew of Dost Mohammed Khan Barakzai 80px
Mohammed Zahir Shah
15 October 1914 – 23 July 2007 8 November 1933 17 July 1973
(deposed)
Son of Mohammed Nadir Shah Barakzai 80px

Royal Standard

See also

References

  1. ^ "An Outline Of The History Of Persia During The Last Two Centuries (A.D. 1722-1922)". Edward Granville Browne. London: Packard Humanities Institute. p. 29. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  2. ^ Otfinoski, Steven (2004). Afghanistan. Infobase Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 0-8160-5056-2. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  3. ^ Malleson, George Bruce (1878). History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878. London: Elibron.com. p. 227. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 2010-09-27. 
  4. ^ "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-10-23. Ahmad Shah DURRANI unified the Pashtun tribes and founded Afghanistan in 1747. 
  5. ^ "Last Afghan empire". Louis Dupree, Nancy Hatch Dupree and others. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 
  6. ^ Ganḍā, Singh (1959). Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan. Asia Pub. House. p. 457. ISBN 1-4021-7278-8. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  7. ^ "Ahmad Shah and the Durrani Empire". Library of Congress Country Studies on Afghanistan. 1997. Retrieved 2010-08-25. 
  8. ^ "Aḥmad Shah Durrānī". Encyclopædia Britannica Online Version. 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-25.