This is a list of the offices of heads of state, heads of government, cabinet, and legislature, of sovereign states. Date of Origin refers to most recent fundamental change in form of government, for example independence, change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, revolution, new constitution.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n In Commonwealth realms other than the UK, the Governor-General represents Queen Elizabeth II who is the official head of state.
- ^ Kim Jong-il, as Chairman of the National Defense Commission is considered North Korea's "highest administrative authority". However, Kim Yong-nam, as President of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly does many of the duties of a Head of State. Deceased former North Korean ruler Kim Il-sung is listed as the Eternal President of the Republic.