List of physicians and scientists of Upstate New York
- William Martin Beauchamp, ethnologist and clergyman. Born in Orange County, he served an Episcopal parish in Baldwinsville for 35 years while also performing archæological research, particularly concerning the Haudenosaunee, and publishing his findings in eight books between 1892 and 1908.
- Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell, abolitionist, women's rights activist, and the first female doctor in the United States, studied medicine at Geneva College.
- Dr. Asa Fitch of Salem, the first occupational entomologist in the United States. In 1838 he began to collect and study insects for New York state. In 1854 he became the first professional Entomologist of New York State Agricultural Society, commissioned by the State of New York.
- Dr. George Franklin Grant. Born in Oswego, he was the first African American professor at Harvard. He was also a Boston dentist, and the inventor of the golf tee.
- James Hall (paleontologist)
- Prof. Joseph Henry, scientist who advanced the understanding of electricity, and who served as the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.
- Franklin B. Hough
- Irving Langmuir, chemist and physicist, Nobel laureate and resident of Schenectady.
- Eben Jenks Loomis, born at Oppenheim, was an astronomer. He was assistant in the Harvard American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac office from 1850 until his retirement in 1900. During this time he also held the position of special assistant at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, DC. He was a member of the United States eclipse expedition to Africa of 1889.
- Lewis Henry Morgan of Aurora and Rochester, ethnologist, anthropologist, writer and attorney. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels relied on his accounts of the evolution of indigenous peoples to fill in their own account of the development of capitalist society.
- Roger Tory Peterson, naturalist, ornithologist, writer and educator, born in Jamestown.
- Prof. Carl Sagan
- Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, geographer, geologist, and ethnologist, born in Guilderland.
- Dr. Edward Livingston Trudeau, who established the Adirondack Cottage Sanitarium at Saranac Lake for treatment of tuberculosis.
- Charles Doolittle Walcott, paleontologist
- Dr. Mary Edwards Walker of Oswego, feminist, abolitionist, prohibitionist, suffragist, alleged spy, prisoner of war, surgeon, and the only woman to receive the Medal of Honor.
- Henry Augustus Ward