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List of popes

This article is about the Catholic Church. For popes of the Coptic Orthodox Church, see List of Coptic Orthodox Popes of Alexandria. For a graphical representation of this list, see List of Popes (graphical).
File:Tafel paepste.jpg
Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St Peter's (their names in Latin and the year of their burial)

This chronological list of popes corresponds to that given in the Annuario Pontificio under the heading "I Sommi Pontefici Romani" (The Supreme Pontiffs of Rome), excluding those that are explicitly indicated as antipopes. Published every year by the Roman Curia, the Annuario Pontificio attaches no consecutive numbers to the popes, stating that it is impossible to decide which side represented at various times the legitimate succession, in particular regarding Pope Leo VIII, Pope Benedict V and some mid-11th-century popes.[1] The 2001 edition of the Annuario Pontificio introduced "almost 200 corrections to its existing biographies of the popes, from St Peter to John Paul II". The corrections concerned dates, especially in the first two centuries, birthplaces and the family name of one pope.[2]

The term pope (Latin: papa "father") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Catholic Church. The Catholic pope uses various titles by tradition, including Summus Pontifex, Pontifex Maximus, and Servus servorum Dei. Each title has been added by unique historical events and unlike other papal prerogatives, is not incapable of modification.[3]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain.

A significant number of these popes have been recognized as saints, including 48 out of the first 50 consecutive popes, and others are in the sainthood process. The first 31 popes, with the exception of Zephyrinus, died as martyrs (see List of murdered popes).

Chronological list of popes

1st–5th century

1st century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
1 33 – 64/67 100px St Peter
PETRUS
Šimʻōn Kêpâ (Simon Peter) Bethsaida, Galilea, Syria, Roman Empire Apostle of Jesus from whom he received the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 16:18–19. Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. He is recognized by the Catholic Church as the first Bishop of Rome appointed by Christ. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.[4]
2 64/67(?) – 76/79(?) 100px St Linus
LINUS
Linus Tuscia, Italia Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
3 76/79(?) – 92 100px St Anacletus
(Cletus)
ANACLETUS
Anacletus Rome Martyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus[5]
4 92 – 99 100px St Clement I
CLEMENS
Clemens Rome Feast day 23 November. Issued 1 Clement which is said to be the basis of apostolic authority for the clergy. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
5 99 – 107 100px St Evaristus
EVARISTUS
Aristus Bethlehem, Judea Said to have divided Rome into parishes, assigning a priest to each. Feast day of 26 October.

2nd century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
6 107 – 115 100px St Alexander I
ALEXANDER
Alexander Rome Inaugurated the custom of blessing houses with holy water. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
7 115/116 – 125 100px St Sixtus I
XYSTUS
Xystus Rome Feast day of 6 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
8 125 – 136/138 100px St Telesphorus
TELESPHORUS
Telesphorus Terranova da Sibari, Calabria Feast day of 5 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 22 February. Church Father St. Irenaeus called him a great martyr.
9 136/138 – 140/142 100px St Hyginus
HYGINUS
Ygínos Athens, Greece Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 11 January
10 140/142 – 155 100px St Pius I
PIUS
Pius Aquileia, Friuli Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July. Decreed that Easter should only be celebrated on a Sunday.
11 155 – 20 April 168 100px St Anicetus
ANICETUS
Anicitus Emesa, Syria Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 17 April. Decreed that priests are not allowed to have long hair.
12 168 – 174 100px St Soter
SOTERIUS
Soterius Fondi, Latium Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 22 April. Declared that marriage was valid as a sacrament blessed by a priest; formally inaugurated Easter as an annual festival in Rome.
13 174 – 24 May 189 100px St Eleuterus
ELEUTHERIUS
Eleutherius Nicopoli, Epirus Greece Tradition holds he was martyred; feast day 6 May
14 189 – 198/199 100px St Victor I
VICTOR
Victor Roman Africa Known for excommunicating Theodotus of Byzantium. Quartodecimanism controversy.
15 199–20 December 217 100px St Zephyrinus
ZEPHYRINUS
Zephyrinus Rome Combated against the adoptionist heresies of the followers of Theodotus the Byzantium who were ruled by Theodotus, the Money Changer and Asclepiodotus.

Although not physically martyred, he is called a martyr for the suffering he endured.

3rd century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
16 c. 217 – 222 100px St Callixtus I
CALLISTUS
Callistus Iberian Peninsula Martyred; feast day 14 October.
17 222 – 23 May 230 100px St Urban I
URBANUS
Urbanus Rome Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
18 21 July 230
– 28 September 235
(5 years, 69 days)
100px St Pontian
PONTIANUS
Pontianus Rome First to abdicate after exile to Sardinia by Emperor Maximinus Thrax. The Liberian Catalogue records his death on 28 September 235, the earliest exact date in papal history.[6][7]
19 21 November 235
– 3 January 236
(43 days)
100px St Anterus
ANTERUS
Anterus Petilia Policastro - Calabria Feast day 3 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
20 10 January 236
– 20 January 250
(14 years, 10 days)
100px St Fabian
FABIANUS
Fabianus Rome Divided the communities of Rome into seven districts, each supervised by a deacon. Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
21 6/11 March 251
– June 253
(2 years+)
100px St Cornelius
CORNELIUS
Cornelius Rome Died a martyr through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September.
22 25 June 253
– 5 March 254
(256 days)
100px St Lucius I
LUCIUS
Lucius Rome Feast day 5 March.
23 12 May 254
– 2 August 257
(3 years, 82 days)
100px St Stephen I
STEPHANUS
Stephanus Rome Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
24 31 August 257
– 6 August 258
(341 days)
100px St Sixtus II
XYSTUS Secundus
Sixtus Greece Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
25 22 July 259
– 26 December 268
(9 years, 157 days)
100px St Dionysius
DIONYSIUS
Dionysius Greece Feast day 26 December
26 5 January 269
– 30 December 274
(5 years, 890 days)
100px St Felix I
FELIX
Felix Rome  
27 4 January 275
– 7 December 283
(8 years, 337 days)
100px St Eutychian
EUTYCHIANUS
Eutychianus Tuscany  
28 17 December 283
– 22 April 296
(12 years, 127 days)
100px St Caius
CAIUS
Gaius Salona, Dalmatia Martyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
29 30 June 296
– 1 April 304
(7 years, 276 days)
100px St Marcellinus
MARCELLINUS
Marcellinus Rome Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
30 308–309 100px St Marcellus I
MARCELLUS
Marcellus Italia Banished from Rome under Maxentius (309).
31 18 April – 17 August 309 or 310 100px St Eusebius
EUSEBIUS
Eusebius Sardinia Banished by the emperor Maxentius, and died in exile.
32 2 July 311
– 10 January 314
(2 years, 192 days)
100px St Miltiades
(Melchiades)
MILTIADES
Miltiades (or Melchiades) Africa First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great. Presided over the Lateran council of 313.
33 31 January 314
– 31 December 335
(21 years, 334 days)
100px St Sylvester I
SILVESTER
Silvester Sant'Angelo a Scala, Avellino Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea (325). Under him was built: the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Santa Croce in Gerusalemme and Old St. Peter's Basilica. Donation of Constantine.
34 18 January 336
– 7 October 336
(263 days)
100px St Mark
MARCUS
Marcus Rome Feast day 7 October
35 6 February 337
– 12 April 352
(15 years, 66 days)
100px St Julius I
IULIUS
Iulius Rome Arian controversy. Credited with splitting the birth of Christ into two distinct celebrations: The Epiphany stayed on the traditional date, and the Nativity was added on 25 December.
36 17 May 352
– 24 September 366
(14 years, 130 days)
100px Liberius
LIBERIUS
Liberius Rome Earliest pope not canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.[8]
37 1 October 366
– 11 December 384
(18 years, 71 days)
100px St Damasus I
DAMASUS
Damasus Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Council of Rome (382).
38 11 December 384
– 26 November 399
(14 years, 350 days)
100px St Siricius
Papa SIRICIUS
Sicirius Rome
39 27 November 399
– 19 December 401
(2 years, 22 days)
100px St Anastasius I
Papa ANASTASIUS
Anastasius Rome Instructed priests to stand and bow their heads as they read from the Gospels.

5th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
40 22 December 401
– 12 March 417
(15 years, 80 days)
100px St Innocent I
Papa INNOCENTIUS
  Albano, Latium Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric
41 18 March 417
– 26 December 418
(1 year, 283 days)
100px St Zosimus
Papa ZOSIMUS
  Mesoraca, Calabria  
42 28 December 418
– 4 September 422
(3 years, 250 days)
100px St Boniface I
Papa BONIFATIUS
  Rome  
43 10 September 422
– 27 July 432
(9 years, 321 days)
100px St Celestine I
Papa COELESTINUS
  Rome, Western Roman Empire Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
44 31 July 432
– 18 August 440
(8 years, 18 days)
100px St Sixtus III
Papa SIXTUS Tertius
  Rome  
45 29 September 440
– 10 November 461
(21 years, 43 days)
100px St Leo I
(Leo the Great)
Papa LEO MAGNUS
  Rome Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Wrote the Tome which was instrumental in the Council of Chalcedon and in defining the hypostatic union. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
46 19 November 461
– 29 February 468
(6 years, 102 days)
100px St Hilarius
Papa HILARIUS
Hilarius Sardinia  
47 3 March 468
– 10 March 483
(15 years, 7 days)
100px St Simplicius
Papa SIMPLICIUS
Simplicius Tivoli  
48 13 March 483
– 1 March 492
(8 years, 354 days)
100px St Felix III (Felix II)
Papa FELIX Tertius (Secundus)
Felice Rome Sometimes called Felix II
49 1 March 492
– 21 November 496
(4 years, 265 days)
100px St Gelasius I
Papa GELASIUS
Gelasius Africa The last pope to have been born on the continent of Africa. The first pope called the "Vicar of Christ".[9]
50 24 November 496
– 19 November 498
(1 year, 360 days)
100px Anastasius II
Papa ANASTASIUS Secundus
Anastasius Rome Tried to end the Acacian schism but it resulted in the Laurentian schism.
51 22 November 498
– 19 July 514
(15 years, 239 days)
100px St Symmachus
Papa SYMMACHUS
Simmaco Sardinia  

6th–15th centuries

6th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
52 20 July 514
– 19 July 523
(8 years, 364 days)
100px St Hormisdas
Papa HORMISDAS
Hormisdas Frosinone, Southern Latium Father of Pope Silverius. Acacian schism.
53 13 August 523
– 18 May 526
(2 years, 278 days)
100px St John I
Papa IOANNES
Giovanni Toscana  
54 13 July 526
– 22 September 530
(4 years, 71 days)
100px St Felix IV (Felix III)
Papa FELIX Quartus (Tertius)
Felice Samnium Sometimes called Felix III. Built Santi Cosma e Damiano.
55 22 September 530
– 17 October 532
(2 years, 25 days)
100px Boniface II
Papa BONIFATIUS Secundus
Bonifacio Rome to Ostrogoth parents Changed the numbering of the years in the Julian Calendar from Ab Urbe Condita to Anno Domini.
56 2 January 533
– 8 May 535
(2 years, 126 days)
100px John II
Papa IOHANNES Secundus
Mercurio Rome First pope not to use his personal name. This was because of the Roman god, Mercury.
57 13 May 535
– 22 April 536
(346 days)
100px St Agapetus I
Papa AGAPITUS
Agapito Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom Feast days 22 April and 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
58 1 June 536
– 11 November 537
(1 year, 163 days)
100px St Silverius
Papa SILVERIUS
Silverius Italia Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas
59 29 March 537
– 7 June 555
(18 years, 70 days)
100px Vigilius
Papa VIGILIUS
  Rome  
60 16 April 556
– 4 March 561
(4 years, 322 days)
100px Pelagius I
Papa PELAGIUS
  Rome Credited with the construction of the basilica of Santi Apostoli.
61 17 July 561
– 13 July 574
(12 years, 361 days)
100px John III
Papa IOANNES Tertius
Catelinus Rome, Eastern Roman Empire  
62 2 June 575
– 30 July 579
(4 years, 58 days)
100px Benedict I
Papa BENEDICTUS
  Italia  
63 26 November 579
– 7 February 590
(10 years, 73 days)
100px Pelagius II
Papa PELAGIUS Secundus
  Rome Ordered the construction of the Basilica di San Lorenzo fuori le Mura.
64 3 September 590
– 12 March 604
(13 years, 191 days)
100px St Gregory I
(Gregory the Great)
Papa GREGORIUS MAGNUS
Gregorio
O.S.B.
Rome The first formally to employ the titles Servus servorum Dei and Pontifex Maximus. Established the Gregorian chant. Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March. Known as "the Father of Christian Worship". Known as "St. Gregory the Dialogist" in Eastern Orthodoxy.

7th Century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
65 13 September 604
– 22 February 606
(1 year, 162 days)
100px Sabinian
Papa SABINIANUS
  Blera  
66 19 February 607
– 12 November 607
(267 days)
100px Boniface III
Papa BONIFATIUS Tertius
Bonifacio Rome  
67 25 August 608
– 8 May 615
(6 years, 256 days)
100px St Boniface IV
Papa BONIFATIUS Quartus
Bonifacio
O.S.B.
Marsi First pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
68 19 October 615
– 8 November 618
(3 years, 20 days)
100px St Adeodatus I
(Deusdedit)
Papa ADEODATUS sive DEUSDEDIT
  Rome Sometimes called Deusdedit, as a result Pope Adeodatus II is sometimes called Pope Adeodatus without a number. The first pope to use lead seals on papal documents, which in time came to be called Papal bulls.
69 23 December 619
– 25 October 625
(5 years, 306 days)
100px Boniface V
Papa BONIFATIUS Quintus
Bonifacio Naples  
70 27 October 625
– 12 October 638
(12 years, 350 days)
100px Honorius I
Papa HONORIUS
Onorio Campania, Byzantine Empire Named a heretic and anathematized by the Third Council of Constantinople (680)
71 28 May 640
– 2 August 640
(66 days)
100px Severinus
Papa SEVERINUS
Severino Rome  
72 24 December 640
– 12 October 642
(1 year, 292 days)
100px John IV
Papa IOANNES Quartus
  Zadar, Dalmatia, Byzantine Empire
73 24 November 642
– 14 May 649
(6 years, 171 days)
100px Theodore I
Papa THEODORUS
  Jerusalem The last pope from Palestine. Planned the Lateran Council of 649, but died before it could open.
74 21 July 649
– 16 September 655
(6 years, 57 days)
100px St Martin I
Papa MARTINUS
Martino Near Todi, Umbria, Byzantine Empire Last pope recognized as a martyr. Feast day of 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
75 10 August 654
– 1 June 657
(2 years, 295 days)
100px St Eugene I
Papa EUGENIUS
Eugenio Rome  
76 30 July 657
– 27 January 672
(14 years, 181 days)
100px St Vitalian
Papa VITALIANUS
  Segni, Byzantine Empire  
77 11 April 672
– 17 June 676
(4 years, 67 days)
100px Adeodatus II
Papa ADEODATUS Secundus
unknown
O.S.B.
Rome, Byzantine Empire Sometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) in reference to Pope Adeodatus I sometimes being called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
78 2 November 676
– 11 April 678
(1 year, 160 days)
100px Donus
Papa DONUS
  Rome, Byzantine Empire  
79 27 June 678
– 10 January 681
(2 years, 197 days)
100px St Agatho
Papa AGATHO
  Sicily Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
80 17 August 682
– 28 June 683
(315 days)
100px St Leo II
Papa LEO Secundus
Leo Sicily Feast day 3 July
81 26 June 684
– 8 May 685
(317 days)
100px St Benedict II
Papa BENEDICTUS Secundus
Benedetto Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 7 May
82 12 July 685
– 2 August 686
(1 year, 21 days)
100px John V
Papa IOANNES Quintus
  Syria  
83 21 October 686
– 22 September 687
(335 days)
100px Conon
Papa CONON
  Sicily  
84 15 December 687
– 8 September 701
(13 years, 267 days)
100px St Sergius I
Papa SERGIUS
  Sicily Introduced the singing of the Lamb of God at mass.[9]

8th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
85 30 October 701
– 11 January 705
(3 years, 73 days)
100px John VI
Papa IOANNES Sextus
  Greece  
86 1 March 705
– 18 October 707
(2 years, 231 days)
100px John VII
Papa IOANNES Septimus
  Rossano, Calabria The second pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor.
87 15 January 708
– 4 February 708
(21 days)
100px Sisinnius
Papa SISINNIUS
  Syria  
88 25 March 708
– 9 April 715
(7 years, 15 days)
100px Constantine
Papa COSTANTINUS sive CONSTANTINUS
  Syria Last pope to visit Greece while in office, until John Paul II in 2001.
89 19 May 715
– 11 February 731
(15 years, 268 days)
100px St Gregory II
Papa GREGORIUS Secundus
Gregorio Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 11 February. Held the Synod of Rome (721).
90 18 March 731
– 28 November 741
(10 years, 255 days)
100px St Gregory III
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius
  Syria The third pope to bear the same name as his immediate predecessor. Was previously the last pope to have been born outside Europe until the election of Francis in 2013.
91 3 December 741
– 22 March 752
(10 years, 110 days)
100px St Zachary
Papa ZACHARIAS
  Santa Severina - Calabria Feast day 15 March. Built the church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva.
(never consecrated) 23 March 752
– 25 March 752
(Never took office as pope)
100px Pope-elect Stephen
Papa Electus STEPHANUS
    Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election; never receiving episcopal consecration. Some lists still include him. The Vatican sanctioned his addition in the sixteenth century; removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a pope by the Catholic Church.
92 26 March 752
– 26 April 757
(5 years, 31 days)
100px Stephen II (Stephen III)
Papa STEPHANUS Secundus (Tertius)
  Rome Sometimes called Stephen III. The Donation of Pepin. Brother of Paul I.
93 29 May 757
– 28 June 767
(10 years, 30 days)
100px St Paul I
Papa PAULUS
Paolo Rome Brother of Stephen II.
94 7 August 768
– 24 January 772
(3 years, 170 days)
100px Stephen III (Stephen IV)
Papa STEPHANUS Tertius (Quartus)
Stefano Sicily Sometimes called Stephen IV. The Lateran Council (769).
95 1 February 772
– 26 December 795
(23 years, 328 days)
100px Adrian I
Papa HADRIANUS
Adriano Rome  
96 26 December 795
– 12 June 816
(20 years, 169 days)
100px St Leo III
Papa LEO Tertius
Leo Rome Crowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy.

9th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at election / death or resigned # years as pope Notes
97 12 June 816
– 24 January 817
(226 days)
100px Stephen IV (Stephen V)
Papa STEPHANUS Quartus (Quintus)
Stephanus Rome   <1 Sometimes called Stephen V.
98 25 January 817
– 11 February 824
(7 years, 17 days)
100px St Paschal I
Papa PASCHALIS
Pasquale Rome   7 Credited with finding the body of Saint Cecilia in the Catacomb of Callixtus, building the basilica of Santa Cecilia in Trastevere and the church of Santa Maria in Domnica.
99 8 May 824
– August 27 827
(3 years, 111 days)
100px Eugene II
Papa EUGENIUS Secundus
Eugenio Rome   3  
100 31 August 827
– 10 October 827
(40 days)
100px Valentine
Papa VALENTINUS
Valentino Rome   <1  
101 December 827
– 25 January 844
(17 years+)
100px Gregory IV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus
Gregorio Rome   17 Rebuilt the atrium of St. Peter’s Basilica and in the newly decorated chapel transferred the body of Gregory I.
102 25 January 844
– 7 January 847
(2 years, 347 days)
100px Sergius II
Papa SERGIUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
103 27 January 847
– 17 July 855
(8 years, 171 days)
100px St Leo IV
Papa LEO Quartus
Leo
O.S.B.
Rome   8 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
104 29 July 855
– 7 April 858
(2 years, 252 days)
100px Benedict III
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius
Benedetto Rome      
105 24 April 858
– 13 November 867
(9 years, 203 days)
100px St Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
Papa NICOLAUS MAGNUS
Niccolò Rome   9 Encouraged missionary activity.
106 14 December 867
– 14 December 872
(5 years, 0 days)
100px Adrian II
Papa HADRIANUS Secundus
Adriano Rome   5  
107 14 December 872
– 16 December 882
(10 years, 2 days)
100px John VIII
Papa IOANNES Octavus
Giovanni Rome   10  
108 16 December 882
– 15 May 884
(1 year, 151 days)
100px Marinus I
Papa MARINUS
Marino Gallese, Rome   1  
109 17 May 884
– July 885
(1 year+)
100px St Adrian III
Papa HADRIANUS Tertius
Adriano Rome      
110 September 885
– 14 September 891
(4 years+)
100px Stephen V (Stephen VI)
Papa STEPHANUS Quintus (Sextus)
Stefano Rome     Sometimes called Stephen VI.
111 19 September 891
– 4 April 896
(4 years, 198 days)
100px Formosus
Papa FORMOSUS
Formoso Ostia   4 Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod.
112 4 April 896
– 19 April 896
(16days)
100px Boniface VI
Papa BONIFATIUS Sextus
Bonifacio Rome   <1  
113 22 May 896
– 14 August 897
(1 year, 84 days)
100px Stephen VI (Stephen VII)
Papa STEPHANUS Sextus (Septimus)
Stefano Rome   1 Sometimes called Stephen VII. Held the infamous Cadaver Synod.
114 August 897 – November 897 100px Romanus
Papa ROMANUS
Romano Gallese, Rome   <1  
115 December 897 - 20 December 897 100px Theodore II
Papa THEODORUS Secundus
Teodoro Rome   <1  
116 January 898
– January 900
(2 years+)
100px John IX
Papa IOANNES Nonus
Giovanni
O.S.B.
Tivoli     Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
117 1 February 900
– July 903
(3 years+)
100px Benedict IV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus
Benedetto Rome      

10th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at election / death or resigned # years as pope Notes
118 July 903 – September 903 100px Leo V
Papa LEO Quintus
Leo Ardea   <1  
119 29 January 904
– 14 April 911
(7 years, 75 days)
100px Sergius III
Papa SERGIUS Tertius
Sergio Rome   7 "Saeculum obscurum" begins. The first pope to be depicted with the Papal Tiara.
120 April 911 – June 913 100px Anastasius III
Papa ANASTASIUS Tertius
  Rome   2  
121 July/August 913 – 25 February 914 100px Lando
Papa LANDUS
Lando Sabina   <1  
122 March 914 – May 928 100px John X
Papa IOANNES Decimus
Giovanni Romagna   14  
123 June 928 – February 929 100px Leo VI
Papa LEO Sextus
Leo Rome   <1  
124 February 929 – 15 March 931 100px Stephen VII (Stephen VIII)
Papa STEPHANUS Septimus (Octavus)
Stefano Rome   2 Sometimes called Stephen VIII.
125 February/March 931 – December 935 100px John XI
Papa IOANNES Undecimus
Giovanni Rome   4  
126 3 January 936
– 13 July 939
(3 years, 191 days)
100px Leo VII
Papa LEO Septimus
Leo
O.S.B.
Rome   3 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
127 14 July 939 – October 942 100px Stephen VIII (Stephen IX)
Papa STEPHANUS Octavus (Nonus)
Stephan Rome   3 Sometimes called Stephen IX.
128 30 October 942
– 10 May 946
(3 years, 192 days)
100px Marinus II
Papa MARINUS Secundus
Marino Rome   3  
129 10 May 946
– 8 December 955
(9 years, 212 days)
100px Agapetus II
Papa AGAPITUS Secundus
Agapito Rome   9  
130 16 December 955
– 14 May 964
(8 years, 150 days)
100px John XII
Papa IOANNES Duodecimus
Octavian Rome   8 Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Saeculum obscurum".
131 22 May 964
– 23 June 964
(32 days)
100px Benedict V
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus
  Rome   <1 Elected by the people of Rome, in opposition to the Antipope Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; he accepted his own deposition in 964 leaving Leo VIII as the sole pope.
132 July 964 – 1 March 965 100px Leo VIII
Papa LEO Octavus
  Rome   <1 Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. He became the true pope after Benedict V was deposed.
133 1 October 965
– 6 September 972
(6 years, 341 days)
100px John XIII
Papa IOANNES Tertius Decimus
  Rome   6 Chronicled after his death as "the Good".
134 19 January 973
– June 974
(1 year+)
100px Benedict VI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus
  Rome, Papal States   1 Deposed and murdered.
135 October 974 – 10 July 983 100px Benedict VII
Papa BENEDICTUS Septimus
  Rome   8  
136 December 983 – 20 August 984 100px John XIV
Papa IOANNES Quartus Decimus
Pietro Campanora Pavia   <1  
137 August 985
– March 996
(8 years+)
100px John XV
Papa IOANNES Quintus Decimus
John Rome   10 The first pope to formally canonize a saint.
138 3 May 996
– 18 February 999
(2 years, 291 days)
100px Gregory V
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus
Bruno of Carinthia Germany, Holy Roman Empire   2 First German Pope
139 2 April 999
– 12 May 1003
(4 years, 40 days)
100px Sylvester II
Papa SILVESTER Secundus
Gerbert d'Aurillac Auvergne region of France   4 The first French pope.

11th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
140 June 1003
– 6 December 1003
100px John XVII
Papa IOANNES Septimus Decimus
Siccone Rome, Papal States  
141 25 December 1003
– July 1009
(5 years+)
100px John XVIII
Papa IOANNES Duodevicesimus
Giovanni Fasano; Phasianus Rapagnano, Papal States  
142 31 July 1009
– 12 May 1012
(2 years, 286 days)
100px Sergius IV
Papa SERGIUS Quartus
Pietro Martino Boccapecora, O.S.B. Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
143 18 May 1012
– 9 April 1024
(11 years, 327 days)
100px Benedict VIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Octavus
Theophylactus II, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
144 April/May 1024
– 20 October 1032
(8 years+)
100px John XIX
Papa IOANNES Undevicesimus
Romanus, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
145 20 October 1032 – 31 December 1044

(12 years, 72 days)

100px Benedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 1st Term
146 1 January 1045 - 31 March 1045

(0 years, 89 days)

100px Sylvester III
Papa SILVESTER Tertius
John, Bishop of Sabina Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Validity of election questioned; considered Anti-Pope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
147 1 April 1045 – 10 November 1045

(0 years, 223 days)

100px Benedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 2nd Term; deposed at the Council of Sutri
148 10 November 1045– 23 December 1046

(1 year, 43 days)

100px Gregory VI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus,
Johannes Gratianus Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Deposed at the Council of Sutri
149 24 December 1046
– 9 October 1047

(0 years, 289 days)

100px Clement II
Papa CLEMENS Secundus
Suidger Hornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire Appointed by Henry III at the Council of Sutri; crowned Henry III as Holy Roman Emperor.
150 November 1047 – 17 July 1048 100px Benedict IX
Papa BENEDICTUS Nonus
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire 3rd Term; deposed and excommunicated
151 17 July 1048
– 9 August 1048
(0 years, 23 days)
100px Damasus II
Papa DAMASUS Secundus
Poppo Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire  
152 12 February 1049
– 19 April 1054
(5 years, 66 days)
100px St Leo IX
Papa LEO Nonus
Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg Eguisheim, Swabia, Holy Roman Empire In 1054, mutual excommunications of Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius began the East–West Schism. The anathematizations were rescinded by Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras in 1965.[10]
153 13 April 1055
– 28 July 1057
(2 years, 106 days)
100px Victor II
Papa VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg Kingdom of Germany, Holy Roman Empire  
154 2 August 1057
– 29 March 1058
(0 years, 241 days)
100px Stephen IX (Stephen X)
Papa STEPHANUS Nonus (Decimus)
Frédéric de Lorraine, O.S.B. Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
155 6 December 1058
– 27 July 1061
(2 years, 233 days)
100px Nicholas II
Papa NICOLAUS Secundus
Gérard de Bourgogne Château de Chevron, Kingdom of Arles In 1059 the College of Cardinals was designated the sole body of pope electors in the document In nomine Domini. (Papal conclave).
156 30 September 1061
– 21 April 1073
(11 years, 203 days)
100px Alexander II
Papa ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da Baggio Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Authorised the Norman conquest of England in 1066.
157 22 April 1073
– 25 May 1085
(12 years, 33 days)
100px St Gregory VII
Papa GREGORIUS Septimus
Hildebrand
O.S.B.
Sovana, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Initiated the Gregorian Reforms. Restricted the use of the title "Papa" to the Bishop of Rome.[4] Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Political struggle with German Emperor Henry IV, who had to go to Canossa (1077).
158 24 May 1086
– 16 September 1087
(1 year, 115 days)
100px Bl. Victor III
Papa VICTOR Tertius
Desiderio; Desiderius; Dauferius
O.S.B.
Benevento, Duchy of Benevento Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Called the Synod of Benevento (1087) condemning lay investiture.
159 12 March 1088
– 29 July 1099
(11 years, 139 days)
100px Bl. Urban II
Papa URBANUS Secundus
Odo of Lagery, O.S.B. Lagery, County of Champagne, France Preached and started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
160 13 August 1099
– 21 January 1118
(18 years, 161 days)
100px Paschal II
Papa PASCHALIS Secundus
Raniero
O.S.B.
Bleda, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Ordered the building of the basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati.

12th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
161 24 January 1118
– 28 January 1119
(1 year, 4 days)
100px Gelasius II
Papa GELASIUS Secundus
Giovanni Coniulo, O.S.B. Gaeta, Principality of Capua Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
162 2 February 1119
– 13 December 1124
(5 years, 315 days)
100px Callixtus II
Papa CALLISTUS Secundus
Guido, Comte de Bourgogne Quingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123
163 15 December 1124
– 13 February 1130
(5 years, 60 days)
100px Honorius II
Papa HONORIUS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi, Can.Reg. Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno. Approved the new military order of the Knights Templar in 1128.
164 14 February 1130
– 24 September 1143
(13 years, 222 days)
100px Innocent II
Papa INNOCENTIUS Secundus
Gregorio Papareschi, Can.Reg. Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of Lateran; Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139
165 26 September 1143
– 8 March 1144
(164 days)
100px Celestine II
Papa COELESTINUS Secundus
Guido Città di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
166 12 March 1144
– 15 February 1145
(340 days)
100px Lucius II
Papa LUCIUS Secundus
Gerardo Caccianemici dal Orso, Can.Reg. Bologna, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca
167 15 February 1145
– 8 July 1153
(8 years, 143 days)
100px Bl. Eugene III
Papa EUGENIUS Tertius
Bernardo da Pisa, O.Cist. Pisa, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Order of Cistercians. Announced the Second Crusade.
168 8 July 1153
– 3 December 1154
(1 year, 148 days)
100px Anastasius IV
Papa ANASTASIUS Quartus
Corrado Demetri della Suburra Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
169 4 December 1154
– 1 September 1159
(4 years, 271 days)
100px Adrian IV
Papa HADRIANUS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear, Can.Reg. Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of England First and only English pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Canon Regular of St. Rufus Monastery .
170 7 September 1159
– 30 August 1181
(21 years, 357 days)
100px Alexander III
Papa ALEXANDER Tertius
Rolando Siena, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179
171 1 September 1181
– 25 November 1185
(4 years, 85 days)
100px Lucius III
Papa LUCIUS Tertius
Ubaldo Allucingoli Lucca, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  
172 25 November 1185
– 19 October 1187
(1 year, 328 days)
100px Urban III
Papa URBANUS Tertius
Uberto Crivelli Cuggiono, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  
173 21 October 1187
– 17 December 1187
(57 days)
100px Gregory VIII
Papa GREGORIUS Octavus
Alberto di Morra, Can.Reg. Benevento, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular Premostratense. Proposed the Third Crusade.
174 19 December 1187
– 20 March 1191[11]
(3 years, 91 days)
100px Clement III
Papa CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo Scolari Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
175 100px 21 March 1191
– 8 January 1198
(6 years, 293 days)
100px Celestine III
Papa COELESTINUS Tertius

Perfice gressus meos in semitis tuis
("Going in Thy path")

Giacinto Bobone Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Confirmed the statutes of the Teutonic Knights as a military order.
176 100px 8 January 1198
– 16 July 1216
(18 years, 190 days)
100px Innocent III
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius
Lothario dei Conti di Segni Gavignano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade but later distanced himself from it and threatened participants with excommunication when it became clear that the leadership abandoned a focus on conquest of the Holy Land and instead intended to sack Christian cities.[12]

13th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
177100px 18 July 1216
– 18 March 1227
(10 years, 243 days)
100px Honorius III
Papa HONORIUS Tertius
Cencio Savelli Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Initiated the Fifth Crusade. Approved several religious and tertiary orders.
178100px 19 March 1227
– 22 August 1241
(14 years, 156 days)
100px Gregory IX
Papa GREGORIUS Nonus
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni, O.F.S Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canonized Elisabeth of Hungary (1235). Initiated the Inquisition in France and endorsed the Northern Crusades.
179100px 25 October 1241
– 10 November 1241
(16 days)
100px Celestine IV
Papa COELESTINUS Quartus
Goffredo Castiglioni Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Died before coronation.
180100px 25 June 1243
– 7 December 1254
(11 years, 165 days)
100px Innocent IV
Papa INNOCENTIUS Quartus
Sinibaldo Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire Convened the First Council of Lyons (1245). Issued the bull Ad extirpanda that permitted the torture of heretics (1252).
181100px 12 December 1254
– 25 May 1261
(6 years, 164 days)
100px Alexander IV
Papa ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne Jenne, Papal States Established an Inquisition in France.
182100px 29 August 1261
– 2 October 1264
(3 years, 34 days)
100px Urban IV
Papa URBANUS Quartus
Jacques Pantaléon Troyes, County of Champagne, France Instituted the feast of Corpus Christi (1264).
183100px 5 February 1265
– 29 November 1268
(3 years, 298 days)
100px Clement IV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus
Gui Faucoi Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, France  
N/A 29 November 1268
– 1 September 1271
30px Interregnum Almost 3 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
184100px 1 September 1271
– 10 January 1276
(4 years, 131 days)
100px Bl. Gregory X
Papa GREGORIUS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti, O.F.S Piacenza, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Second Council of Lyons (1274). Responsible for regulation all papal conclaves until the 20th century.
185100px 21 January 1276
– 22 June 1276
(153 days)
100px Bl. Innocent V
Papa INNOCENTIUS Quintus
Pierre de Tarentaise, O.P. County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Dominican Order.
186100px 11 July 1276
– 18 August 1276
(38 days)
100px Adrian V
Papa HADRIANUS Quintus
Ottobuono Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire Annulled Gregory X's papal bull on the regulations of papal conclaves.
187100px 8 September 1276
– 20 May 1277
(254 days)
100px John XXI
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Julião (a.k.a. Petrus Hispanus and Pedro Hispano) Lisbon, Portugal Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, there was no John XX. There has never been a John XX, because the 20th pope of this name formerly when elected, decided to skip the number XX and be counted as John XXI instead. He wanted to correct what in his time was believed to be an error in the counting of his predecessors John XV to XIX
188100px 25 November 1277
– 22 August 1280
(2 years, 271 days)
100px Nicholas III
Papa NICOLAUS Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
189100px 22 February 1281
– 28 March 1285
(4 years, 34 days)
100px Martin IV
Papa MARTINUS Quartus
Simon de Brion Meinpicien, Touraine, France  
190100px 2 April 1285
– 3 April 1287
(2 years, 1 day)
100px Honorius IV
Papa HONORIUS Quartus
Giacomo Savelli Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
191100px 22 February 1288
– 4 April 1292
(4 years, 42 days)
100px Nicholas IV
Papa NICOLAUS Quartus
Girolamo Masci, O.F.M. Lisciano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Franciscan Order.
N/A 4 April 1292
– 5 July 1294
30px Interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
192100px 5 July 1294
– 13 December 1294
(161 days)
100px St Celestine V
Papa COELESTINUS Quintus
Pietro Angelerio, O.S.B. Sant'Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily One of the few popes who resigned voluntarily. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Founded the Celestines.
193100px 24 December 1294
– 11 October 1303
(8 years, 291 days)
100px Boniface VIII
Papa BONIFATIUS Octavus
Benedetto Caetani Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Formalized the Jubilee in 1300. Issued Unam Sanctam (1302) which proclaimed papal supremacy and pushing it to its historical extreme.

14th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Notes
194100px 22 October 1303
– 7 July 1304
(259 days)
100px Bl. Benedict XI
Papa BENEDICTUS Undecimus

Illustra faciem Tuam super servum Tuum
("Let Your Face shine upon Your servant")

Niccolò Boccasini, O.P. Treviso Member of the Dominican Order. Reverted Boniface VIII's Unam Sanctam.
195100px 5 June 1305
– 20 April 1314
(8 years, 319 days)
100px Clement V
Papa CLEMENS Quintus
Bertrand de Got Villandraut, Gascony, France Pope at Avignon. Convened the Council of Vienne (1311–1312). Initiated the persecution of the Knights Templar with the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae under pressure from King Philip IV of France.
N/A 20 April 1314
– 7 August 1316
30px Interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
196100px 7 August 1316
– 4 December 1334
(18 years, 119 days)
100px John XXII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse Cahors, Quercy, France Pope at Avignon. Controversial for his views on the Beatific Vision.
197100px 20 December 1334
– 25 April 1342
(7 years, 126 days)
100px Benedict XII
Papa BENEDICTUS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier, O.Cist. Saverdun, County of Foix, France Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians. Known for issuing the Apostolic constitution Benedictus Deus (1336).
198100px 7 May 1342
– 6 December 1352
(10 years, 213 days)
100px Clement VI
Papa CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger, O.S.B. Maumont, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon. Reigned during the Black Death and absolved those who died of it of their sins.
199100px 18 December 1352
– 12 September 1362
(9 years, 268 days)
100px Innocent VI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Sextus
Étienne Aubert Les Monts, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon. Through his exertions the Treaty of Brétigny (1360) was brought about.
200100px 28 September 1362
– 19 December 1370
(8 years, 82 days)
100px Bl. Urban V
Papa URBANUS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard, O.S.B. Grizac, Languedoc, France Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Reformed areas of education and sent missionary movements across Europe and Asia. His pontificate witnessed the Alexandrian and Savoyard crusades.
201100px 30 December 1370
– 27 March 1378
(7 years, 87 days)
100px Gregory XI
Papa GREGORIUS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de Beaufort Maumont, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome. The last French pope.
202100px 8 April 1378
– 15 October 1389
(11 years, 190 days)
100px Urban VI
Papa URBANUS Sextus
Bartolomeo Prignano Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism. Last pontiff to be elected outside the College of Cardinals.
203100px 2 November 1389
– 1 October 1404
(14 years, 334 days)
100px Boniface IX
Papa BONIFATIUS Nonus
Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism.

15th century

  • R This pope resigned his office.
  • B The exact birth date of Innocent VIII and almost all popes prior to Eugene IV is unknown, therefore the lowest probable age has been assumed for this table.
Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
204100px 17 October 1404
– 6 November 1406
(2 years, 20 days)
100px Innocent VII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Septimus
Cosimo Gentile Migliorati Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples 65 / 67 [B] Western Schism
205100px 30 November 1406
– 4 July 1415
(8 years, 216 days)
100px Gregory XII
Papa GREGORIUS Duodecimus
Angelo Correr Venice, Republic of Venice [R] Western Schism; abdicated during the Council of Constance, which had been called by his opponent John XXIII.
N/A 4 July 1415
– 11 November 1417
30px Interregnum Two-year period without a valid pope elected.
206100px 11 November 1417
– 20 February 1431
(13 years, 101 days)
100px Martin V
Papa MARTINUS Quintus
Oddone Colonna, O.F.S Genazzano, Papal States 48 / 62 Convened the Council of Basel (1431). Initiated the Hussite Wars.
207100px 3 March 1431
– 23 February 1447
(15 years, 357 days)
100px Eugene IV
Papa EUGENIUS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer, O.S.A. Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 63 [B] Member of the Augustinian Order. Nephew of Martin V. Crowned Sigismund emperor at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.
208100px 6 March 1447
– 24 March 1455
(8 years, 18 days)
100px Nicholas V
Papa NICOLAUS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli, O.P. Sarzana, Republic of Genoa 49 / 57 Member of the Dominican Order. Held the Jubilee of 1450. Crowned Frederick III emperor at Rome (1452). Created a library in the Vatican which would eventually become the Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana.
209100px 8 April 1455
– 6 August 1458
(3 years, 120 days)
100px Callixtus III
Papa CALLISTUS Tertius
Alfonso de Borja Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 76 / 79 The first Spanish pope. Ordered the Feast of the Transfiguration to be celebrated on 6 August. Ordered the retrial of Joan of Arc, in which she was vindicated.
210100px 19 August 1458
– 15 August 1464
(5 years, 362 days)
100px Pius II
Papa PIUS Secundus
Enea Silvio Piccolomini Corsignano, Republic of Siena 52 / 58 Displayed a great interest in urban planning. Founded Pienza near Siena as the ideal city in 1462. Known for his work on the Commentaries.
211100px 30 August 1464
– 26 July 1471
(6 years, 330 days)
100px Paul II
Papa PAULUS Secundus
Pietro Barbo Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 54 The nephew of Eugene IV. Built the Palazzo San Marco (now Palazzo Venezia). Approved the introduction of printing in the Papal States.
212100px 9 August 1471
– 12 August 1484
(13 years, 3 days)
100px Sixtus IV
Papa XYSTUS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere, O.F.M. Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa 57 / 70 Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel. Authorized an Inquisition targeting converted Jewish Christians in Spain at the request of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand.
213100px 29 August 1484
– 25 July 1492
(7 years, 331 days)
100px Innocent VIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Octavus
Giovanni Battista Cybo Genoa, Republic of Genoa 51 / 59 [B] Appointed Tomás de Torquemada. Endorsed the prosecution of witchcraft in the bull Summis desiderantes affectibus (1484).
214100px 11 August 1492
– 18 August 1503
(11 years, 7 days)
100px Alexander VI
Papa ALEXANDER Sextus
Roderic Llançol i de Borja Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 61 / 72 Nephew of Callixtus III; father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in the bull Inter caetera (1493). No Alexander V due to the antipope.

16th–20th centuries

16th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
215100px 22 September 1503
– 18 October 1503
(26 days)
100px Pius III
Papa PIUS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini Siena, Republic of Siena 64 / 64 Nephew of Pius II. Founded the Piccolomini Library adjourning the Siena Cathedral.
216100px 31 October 1503
– 21 February 1513
(9 years, 113 days)
100px Julius II
Papa IULIUS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere, O.F.M. Albisola, Republic of Genoa 59 / 69 Nephew of Sixtus IV; convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran (1512). Took control of all the Papal States for the first time. Commissioned Michelangelo to paint the Sistine Chapel ceiling. Proposed plans for rebuilding St Peter's Basilica.
217100px 9 March 1513
– 1 December 1521
(8 years, 267 days)
100px Leo X
Papa LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 37 / 45 Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Closed the Fifth Council of the Lateran. Remembered for granting indulgences to those who donated to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica; excommunicated Martin Luther (1521). Extended the Spanish Inquisition into Portugal.
218100px 9 January 1522
– 14 September 1523
(1 year, 248 days)
100px Adrian VI
Papa HADRIANUS Sextus

Patere et sustine
("Respect and wait")[13]

Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (now Netherlands) 62 / 64 The only Dutch pope; last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. Tutor of Emperor Charles V. Retained his baptismal name as his regnal name.
219100px 26 November 1523
– 25 September 1534
(10 years, 303 days)
100px Clement VII
Papa CLEMENS Septimus

Candor illæsus
("Unharmed candor")[14]

Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 45 / 56 Cousin of Leo X. Rome plundered by imperial troops (1527). Forbade the divorce of Henry VIII; crowned Charles V as emperor at Bologna (1530). His niece was married to the future Henry II of France. Ordered Michelangelo's painting of The Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel.
220100px 13 October 1534
– 10 November 1549
(15 years, 28 days)
100px Paul III
Papa PAULUS Tertius
Alessandro Farnese Canino, Lazio, Papal States 66 / 81 Opened the Council of Trent (1545). His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma. Decreed the second and final excommunication of Henry VIII. Appointed Michelangelo to supervise construction of St. Peter's Basilica (1546).
221100px 7 February 1550
– 29 March 1555
(5 years, 50 days)
100px Julius III
Papa IULIUS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte Rome, Lazio, Papal States 62 / 67 Established the Collegium Germanicum (1552). Reconvened the Council of Trent. The Innocenzo Scandal.
222100px 9 April 1555
– 1 May 1555
(0 years, 22 days)
100px Marcellus II
Papa MARCELLUS Secundus
Marcello Cervini degli Spannochi Montefano, Marche, Papal States 53 / 53 The last to use his birth name as the regnal name. Instituted immediate economies in Vatican expenditures. The Missa Papae Marcelli composed in his honour.
223100px 23 May 1555
– 18 August 1559
(4 years, 87 days)
100px Paul IV
Papa PAULUS Quartus

Dominus mihi adjutor
("The Lord is my helper")[15]

Giovanni Pietro Carafa, C.R. Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples 78 / 83 Member of the Theatines. Established the Roman Ghetto in Cum Nimis Absurdum (1555) and established the Index of Forbidden Books. Ordered Michelangelo to repaint the nudes of The Last Judgment modestly.
224100px 26 December 1559
– 9 December 1565
(5 years, 348 days)
100px Pius IV
Papa PIUS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Duchy of Milan 60 / 66 Reopened and closed the Council of Trent. Ordered public construction to improve the water supply of Rome. Instituted the Tridentine Creed.
225100px 7 January 1566
– 1 May 1572
(6 years, 115 days)
100px St Pius V
Papa PIUS Quintus

Utinam dirigantur viæ meæ ad custodiendas
("It binds us to keep")[16]

Antonio Ghislieri, O.P. Bosco, Piedmont, Duchy of Milan 61 / 68 Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Elizabeth I (1570). Battle of Lepanto (1571); instituted the feast of Our Lady of Victory. Issued the 1570 Roman Missal.
226100px 13 May 1572
– 10 April 1585
(12 years, 332 days)
100px Gregory XIII
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius Decimus

Aperuit et clausit
("Opened and closed")[17]

Ugo Boncompagni Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 70 / 83 Reformed the calendar (1582); built the Gregorian Chapel in the Vatican. The first pope to bestow the Immaculate Conception as Patroness to the Philippine Islands through the bull Ilius Fulti Præsido (1579). Strengthened diplomatic ties with Asian nations.
227100px 24 April 1585
– 27 August 1590
(5 years, 125 days)
100px Sixtus V
Papa XYSTUS Quintus
Felice Peretti di Montalto, O.F.M. Conv. Grottammare, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Known for fixing and completing building works to major basilicas in Rome. Limited the College of Cardinals to 70 in number; doubled the number of curial congregations.
228100px 15 September 1590
– 27 September 1590
(12 days)
100px Urban VII
Papa URBANUS Septimus
Giovanni Battista Castagna Rome, Lazio, Papal States 69 / 69 Shortest-reigning pope; died before coronation. Set the first known worldwide smoking ban, banning smoking in and near all churches.
229100px 5 December 1590
– 16 October 1591
(0 years, 315 days)
100px Gregory XIV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò Sfondrati Somma Lombardo, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 55 / 56 Modified the constitution Effraenatam of Sixtus V so that the penalty for abortion did not apply until the foetus became animated (1591). Made gambling on papal elections punishable by excommunication.
230100px 29 October 1591
– 30 December 1591
(62 days)
100px Innocent IX
Papa INNOCENTIUS Nonus
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 72 / 72 Supported the cause of Philip II and the Catholic League against Henry IV in the French Wars of Religion. Prohibited the alienation of church property.
231100px 30 January 1592
– 3 March 1605
(13 years, 32 days)
100px Clement VIII
Papa CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito Aldobrandini Fano, Marche, Papal States 55 / 69 Initiated an alliance of European Christian powers to partake in the war with the Ottoman Empire known as The Long War (1595). Convened the Congregatio de Auxiliis which addressed doctrinal disputes between the Dominicans and Jesuits regarding free will and divine grace.[18]

17th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
232100px 1 April 1605
– 27 April 1605
(26 days)
100px Leo XI
Papa LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici Florence, Duchy of Florence 69 / 69 The nephew of Leo X. Called "Papa Lampo" (Lightning Pope) for his brief pontificate.
233100px 16 May 1605
– 28 January 1621
(15 years, 257 days)
100px Paul V
Papa PAULUS Quintus

Absit nisi in te gloriari
("Far, but in your glory")[19]

Camillo Borghese Rome, Lazio, Papal States 52 / 68 Known for various building projects which included the facade of St Peter's Basilica. Established the Bank of the Holy Spirit (1605); restored the Aqua Traiana.
234100px 9 February 1621
– 8 July 1623
(2 years, 149 days)
100px Gregory XV
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro Ludovisi Bologna, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 67 / 69 Established the Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith (1622). Issued the bull Aeterni Patris (1621) which imposed conclaves to be by secret ballot. Issued the constitution Omnipotentis Dei against magicians and witches (1623).
235100px 6 August 1623
– 29 July 1644
(20 years, 358 days)
100px Urban VIII
Papa URBANUS Octavus
Maffeo Barberini Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 55 / 76 Trial against Galileo Galilei. The last pope to expand papal territory by force of arms. Issued a 1624 bull that made the use of tobacco in holy places punishable by excommunication.
236100px 15 September 1644
– 7 January 1655
(10 years, 114 days)
100px Innocent X
Papa INNOCENTIUS Decimus

Alleviatæ sunt aquæ super terram
("Water on earth")[20]

Giovanni Battista Pamphilj Rome, Lazio, Papal States 70 / 80 The great-great-great-grandson of Alexander VI. Erected the Fontana dei Quattro Fiumi in Piazza Navona. Promulgated the apostolic constitution Cum occasione (1653) which condemned five doctrines of Jansenism as heresy.
237100px 7 April 1655
– 22 May 1667
(12 years, 45 days)
100px Alexander VII
Papa ALEXANDER Septimus

Montium custos
("Mountain guardian")[21]

Fabio Chigi Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 56 / 68 Great-nephew of Paul V. Commissioned St. Peter's Square. Issued the constitution Sollicitudo Omnium Ecclesiarum that set the doctrine of the Immaculate Conception almost identical to that of Pius IX centuries later.
238100px 20 June 1667
– 9 December 1669
(2 years, 172 days)
100px Clement IX
Papa CLEMENS Nonus

Aliis non sibi Clemens
("Clement to others, not to himself")[22]

Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 67 / 69 Commissioned the colonnade of St. Peter's Square. Mediated in the peace of Aachen (1668).
239100px 29 April 1670
– 22 July 1676
(6 years, 84 days)
100px Clement X
Papa CLEMENS Decimus

Bonum auget malum minuit
("He increases good and diminishes evil")[23]

Emilio Bonaventura Altieri Rome, Lazio, Papal States 79 / 86 Canonized the first saint from the Americas: Saint Rose of Lima (1671). Decorated the bridge of Sant' Angelo with the ten statues of angels and the two fountains that adorn the piazza of St. Peter's. Established regulations for the removal of relics of saints from cemeteries.
240100px 21 September 1676
– 12 August 1689
(12 years, 325 days)
100px Bl. Innocent XI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Undecimus

Avarus non Implebitur
("The covetous man is not satisfied")[24]

Benedetto Odescalchi Como, Lombardy, Duchy of Milan 65 / 78 Condemned the doctrine of mental reservation (1679) and initiated the Holy League. Extended the Holy Name of Mary as a universal feast (1684). Admired for positive contributions to catechesis.
241100px 6 October 1689
– 1 February 1691
(1 year, 118 days)
100px Alexander VIII
Papa ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito Ottoboni Venice, Republic of Venice 79 / 80 Condemned the so-called philosophical sin (1690).
242100px 12 July 1691
– 27 September 1700
(9 years, 77 days)
100px Innocent XII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli, O.F.S Spinazzola, Apulia, Kingdom of Naples 76 / 85 Issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem to stop nepotism (1692). Erected various charitable and educational institutions.

18th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
243100px 23 November 1700
– 19 March 1721
(20 years, 116 days)
100px Clement XI
Papa CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco Albani Urbino, Marche, Papal States 51 / 71 The "Chinese Rites" controversy. The last pope with Albanian origin. Patronized the first archaeological excavations in the Roman catacombs and made the feast of the Immaculate Conception universal.[9]
244100px 8 May 1721
– 7 March 1724
(2 years, 304 days)
100px Innocent XIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo dei Conti Poli, Lazio, Papal States 65 / 68 Prohibited the Jesuits from prosecuting their mission in China ordering that no new members should be received into the order.
245100px 29 May 1724
– 21 February 1730
(5 years, 268 days)
100px Servant of God Benedict XIII
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius Decimus
Pietro Francesco Orsini, O.P. Gravina in Puglia, Bari, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81 Member of the Dominican Order; third and last member of the Orsini family to be pope. Originally called Benedict XIV due to the antipope but reverted to XIII. Repealed the worldwide tobacco smoking ban set by Urban VII and Urban VIII.
246100px 12 July 1730
– 6 February 1740
(9 years, 209 days)
100px Clement XII
Papa CLEMENS Duodecimus

Dabis discernere inter malum et bonum
("Distinguish between good and evil")[25]

Lorenzo Corsini, O.F.S Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87 Completed the new façade of the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran (1735). Commissioned the Trevi Fountain in Rome (1732). Condemned Freemasonry in In eminenti apostolatus (1738).
247100px 17 August 1740
– 3 May 1758
(17 years, 259 days)
100px Benedict XIV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus Decimus

Curabuntor omnes
("Will heal all")[26]

Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83 Reformed the education of priests and the calendar of feasts. Completed the Trevi Fountain and affirmed the teachings of Thomas Aquinas; founded academies of art, religion and science.
248100px 6 July 1758
– 2 February 1769
(10 years, 211 days)
100px Clement XIII
Papa CLEMENS Tertius Decimus

Rosa umbriæ
("Umbrian rose")[27]

Carlo della Torre di Rezzonico Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75 Provided the famous fig leaves on nude male statues in the Vatican. Defended the Society of Jesus in "Apostolicum pascendi" (1765).
249100px 19 May 1769
– 22 September 1774
(5 years, 126 days)
100px Clement XIV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus Decimus

Ursus velox
("Quick bear")[28]

Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli, O.F.M. Conv. Sant'Arcangelo di Romagna, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Society of Jesus in the brief "Dominus ac Redemptor" (1773).
250100px 15 February 1775
– 29 August 1799
(24 years, 195 days)
100px Pius VI
Papa PIUS Sextus

Floret in domo domini
("It blossoms in the house of God")[29]

Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Condemned the French Revolution; expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death. The last pope to be a patron of Renaissance art.
N/A 29 August 1799
–14 March 1800
30px Interregnum Six-month period without a valid pope elected. This was due to unique logistical problems (the old pope died a prisoner and the conclave was in Venice) and a deadlock among cardinals voting.

19th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
251100px 14 March 1800
– 20 August 1823
(23 years, 159 days)
100px Servant of God Pius VII
Papa PIUS Septimus

Aquila Rapax
("Rapacious eagle")[30]

Count Barnaba Niccolò Maria Luigi Chiaramonti, O.S.B. Cesena, Emilia-Romagna, Papal States 57 / 81 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Briefly expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
252100px 28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
(5 years, 135 days)
100px Leo XII
Papa LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Francesco Clemente Melchiore Girolamo Nicola Sermattei della Genga Genga, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Placed the Catholic educational system under the control of the Jesuits through Quod divina sapientia (1824). Condemned the Bible societies.
253100px 31 March 1829
– 30 November 1830
(1 year, 244 days)
100px Pius VIII
Papa PIUS Octavus
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Cingoli, Marche, Papal States 67 / 69 Accepted Louis Philippe I as King of the French. Condemned the masonic secret societies and modernist biblical translations in the brief Litteris altero (1830).
254100px 2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
(15 years, 119 days)
100px Gregory XVI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari, O.S.B. Cam. Belluno, Veneto, Republic of Venice 65 / 80 Member of the Camaldolese Order; last non-bishop to be elected to the papacy. Opposed democratic and modernising reforms in the Papal States.
255100px 16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
(31 years, 236 days)
100px Bl. Pius IX
Papa PIUS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti, O.F.S. Senigallia, Marche, Papal States 54 / 85 Opened the First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception and defined papal infallibility. Issued the controversial Syllabus of Errors. Longest serving pope in history.
256100px 20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
(25 years, 150 days)
100px Leo XIII
Papa LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci, O.F.S. Carpineto Romano, Lazio, Papal States 67 / 93 Issued the encyclical Rerum novarum; supported Christian democracy against Communism. Had the fourth-longest reign after Pius IX, Saint Peter and John Paul II. Promoted the rosary and the scapular and approved two new Marian scapulars; first pope to fully embrace the concept of Mary as mediatrix.

20th century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Motto
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
257100px 4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
(11 years, 16 days)
100px St Pius X
Papa PIUS Decimus

Instaurare Omnia in Christo
("Restore all things in Christ")

Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto, O.F.S. Riese, Treviso, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 68 / 79 Encouraged and expanded reception of the Eucharist. Combatted Modernism; issued the oath against it. Advocated the Gregorian Chant and reformed the Roman Breviary.
258100px 3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
(7 years, 141 days)
100px Benedict XV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus Decimus

In te, Domine, speravi:
non confundar in aeternum.

("In thee, o Lord, have I trusted: let me not be confounded for evermore.")

Giacomo Paolo Giovanni Battista Della Chiesa, O.F.S. Genoa, Pegli, Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia 59 / 67 Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. Issued the 1917 Code of Canon Law; supported the missionaries in Maximum Illud. Remembered by Benedict XVI as a "prophet of peace".
259100px 6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
(17 years, 4 days)
100px Pius XI
Papa PIUS Undecimus

Pax Christi in Regno Christi
("The Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ")

Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti, O.F.S. Desio, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 64 / 81 Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy (1929) establishing Vatican City as a sovereign state. Inaugurated Vatican Radio. Re-founded the Pontifical Academy of Sciences. Created the feast of Christ the King. Opposed Communism, Nazism and Fascism.
260100px 2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
(19 years, 221 days)
100px Ven. Pius XII
Papa PIUS Duodecimus

Opus Justitiae Pax
("The work of justice [shall be] peace")

Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, O.F.S. Rome, Lazio, Kingdom of Italy 63 / 82 Invoked papal infallibility in the encyclical Munificentissimus Deus; defined the dogma of the Assumption. Eliminated the Italian majority of cardinals. Credited with intervening for peace during World War II; controversial for his role in the Holocaust.
261100px 28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
(4 years, 218 days)
100px St John XXIII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius

Obedientia et Pax
("Obedience and peace")

Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, O.F.S. Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Kingdom of Italy 76 / 81 Opened the Second Vatican Council; called "Good Pope John". Issued the encyclical Pacem in terris (1963) on peace and nuclear disarmament; intervened for peace during the Cuban Missile Crisis (1962).
262100px 21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
(15 years, 46 days)
100px Bl. Paul VI
Papa PAULUS Sextus

Cum Ipso in Monte
("With Him on the mount")

Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini Concesio, Brescia, Kingdom of Italy 65 / 80 Last pope to be crowned in a coronation with the tiara. First pope to travel to the USA and Australia; first pope since 1809 to travel outside Italy. Closed the Second Vatican Council. Issued the encyclical Humanae vitae (1968) condemning artificial contraception.
263100px 26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
(33 days)
100px Servant of God John Paul I
Papa IOANNES PAULUS Primus

Humilitas
("Humility")

Albino Luciani Forno di Canale, Belluno, Veneto, Kingdom of Italy 65 / 65 Abolished the coronation opting for the Papal Inauguration. First pope to use 'the First' in papal name; first with two names for two immediate predecessors. Last pope to use the Sedia Gestatoria.
264100px 16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
(26 years, 168 days)
100px St John Paul II

Papa IOANNES PAULUS Secundus

Totus Tuus
("Totally yours")

Karol Józef Wojtyła Wadowice, 2nd Polish Republic 58 / 84 First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope since Adrian VI (1522–1523). Associated with the fall of Communism in Europe. Traveled extensively; first pope to travel to Canada. Third longest reign after Pius IX and Saint Peter. Founded World Youth Day (1984). Canonized more saints than all his predecessors.

21st century

Numerical order Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal
Motto
Latin (English)
Personal name Place of birth Age at start/end of papacy Notes
265100px 19 April 2005
– 28 February 2013
(7 years, 315 days)
100px Benedict XVI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus Decimus

Cooperatores Veritatis
("Cooperators of the truth")

Joseph Aloisius Ratzinger Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany 78 / 85 Oldest to become pope since Clement XII (1730). Elevated the Tridentine Mass to a more prominent position and promoted the use of Latin; re-introduced several disused papal garments. Established the Anglican Ordinariate. First pope to renounce the papacy on his own initiative since Celestine V (1294),[31] retaining regnal name with title of Pope Emeritus.[32]
266100px 13 March 2013
– present
(3 years, 0 days)
100px Francis
Papa FRANCISCUS

Miserando atque Eligendo
("Lowly but chosen" -- literally in Latin 'by having mercy, by choosing him') [33]

Jorge Mario Bergoglio, S.J. Flores, Buenos Aires, Argentina 76 / - First pope to be born outside Europe since Gregory III (731–741) and the first from the Americas; first pope from the Southern Hemisphere. First religious pope since Gregory XVI (1831–1846); first Jesuit pope. First to use a new and non-composed regnal name since Lando (913–914).

Religious orders

38 popes have been members of religious orders. These have included:

  • Benedictines (18):
    • Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, Sergius IV, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Gelasius II, Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, Pius VII
and including Camaldolese (1):
Gregory XVI
and including Canons Regulars (5):
Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Gregory VIII, Adrian IV
  • Dominicans (5):
    • Innocent V, Benedict XI, Nicholas V, Pius V, Benedict XIII
  • Franciscans (5):
    • Nicholas IV, Sixtus IV, Julius II
and including Conventual Franciscans (2):
Sixtus V, Clement XIV

12 popes have been members of third orders, also called "tertiaries" or "Third Order Secular," and all of them of the Secular Franciscans:

  • Gregory IX, Gregory X, Martin V, Innocent XII, Clement XII, Pius IX, Leo XIII, Pius X, Benedict XV, Pius XI, Pius XII, John XXIII

Notes on numbering of popes

A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation:

  • Felix II (356–357), Boniface VII (974, 984–985), John XVI (997–998), Benedict X (1058–1059) and Alexander V (1409–1410) are not listed because they are all considered antipopes.[34]
  • The numbering of popes named Felix has been amended to omit antipope Felix II; however, most lists still call the last two Felixes Felix III and Felix IV. Additionally, there was an antipope Felix V.[34]
  • There has never been a pope John XX as a result of confusion of the numbering system in the 11th century.[35]
  • Pope-elect Stephen, who died before being consecrated, has not been on the Vatican's official list of popes since 1961, but appears on lists dating from before 1960.[35] The numbering of following popes called Stephen are nowadays given as Pope Stephen II (752–757) to Pope Stephen IX (1057–1058), rather than Stephen III to Stephen X.
  • When Simon de Brion became pope in 1281, he chose to be called Martin. At that time, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and Martin III respectively, and so, erroneously, Simon de Brion became Pope Martin IV.[36]
  • Pope Donus II, said to have reigned about 974, never existed. The belief resulted from the confusion of the title dominus (lord) with a proper name.
  • Pope Joan also never existed; however, legends about her may have originated from stories about the pornocracy.[37]
  • The status of Antipope John XXIII was uncertain for hundreds of years, and was finally settled in 1958 when Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli announced his own name as John XXIII. Baldassare Cossa, who was Antipope John XXIII, served as a Cardinal of the reunited church before his death in 1419 and his remains are found in the Florence Baptistery.
  • Those who believe in Sedevacantism say that there have been no legitimate popes since Pius XII. This is because they consider all popes since the Second Vatican Council to be heretics.[38][39]

See also

References

Specific

  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2012 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2012 ISBN 978-88-209-8722-0), p. 12*
  2. ^ "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 5 June 2001. Retrieved 21 October 2008. 
  3. ^ "Papal Primacy of honour: titles and insignia". Newadvent.org. 1 June 1911. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  4. ^ a b Fahlbusch, Erwin (et al.); Bromiley (English translation), Geoffrey William, eds. (2005). "Pope, Papacy". Evangelisches Kirchenlexikon [The encyclopedia of Christianity] 4. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 272–282. ISBN 0-8028-2416-1. Retrieved 7 September 2011. 
  5. ^ The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  6. ^ Mcbrien, Richard P. (31 October 2006). The Pocket Guide to the Popes. HarperCollins. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-06-113773-0. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  7. ^ "The Chronography of 354 AD. Part 13: Bishops of Rome". pp. from Theosodr Mommsen, MGH Chronica Minora I (1892), pp.73–6. Retrieved 6 March 2012. 
  8. ^ "OCA - St Liberius the Pope of Rome". Ocafs.oca.org. Retrieved 2013-02-23. 
  9. ^ a b c "Papal Timeline". 2005. Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  10. ^ Deno John Geanakoplos (15 September 1989). Constantinople and the West: essays on the late Byzantine (Palaeologan) and Italian Renaissances and the Byzantine and Roman churches. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 263–. ISBN 978-0-299-11884-6. Retrieved 3 March 2012. 
  11. ^ For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211
  12. ^ Philip Hughes, "Innocent III & the Latin East," History of the Church, vol. 2, p. 371, Sheed & Ward, 1948.
  13. ^ "Pope Adrian VI (1522-1523)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  14. ^ "Pope Clement VII (1523-1534)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "Pope Paul IV (1555-1559)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  16. ^ "Pope Pius V (1566-1572)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  17. ^ "Pope Gregory XIII (1572-1585)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  18. ^ John Henry Blunt (1874). "Jansenists". Dictionary of Sects, Heresies, Ecclesiastical Parties, and Schools of Religious Thought. Rivingtons. pp. 234–240. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  19. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  20. ^ "Pope Innocent X (1644-1655)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  21. ^ "Pope Alexander VII (1655-1667)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
  22. ^ "Pope Clement IX (1667-1669)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  23. ^ "Pope Clement X (1670-1676)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  24. ^ "Pope Innocent XI (1676-1689)". Retrieved 3 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "Pope Clement XII (1730-1740)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  26. ^ "Pope Benedict XIV (1740-1758)". GCatholic. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
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  28. ^ "Pope Clement XIV (1769-1774)". GCatholic. Retrieved 1 April 2014. 
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General

  • The Early Papacy: To the Synod of Chalcedon in 451, Adrian Fortescue, Ignatius Press, 2008.
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, John N.D. Kelly, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • Catholicism, Henri de Lubac, Ignatius Press, 1988.
  • Rome and the Eastern Churches, Aidan Nichols, Ignatius Press, 2010.
  • I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.
  • Rome Sweet Home, Scott Hahn, Ignatius Press, 1993.
  • Enciclopedia dei Papi, AA.VV., Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000.

External links

nn:Pave#Liste over pavar