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List of premiers of Alberta

The list of premiers of Alberta consists of the seventeen leaders of government of the Canadian province of Alberta since it was created in 1905. Three were Liberal, three were United Farmers of Alberta, three were Social Credit and seven have been Progressive Conservative. The currently elected and serving premier is New Democratic.

Alberta uses a unicameral Westminster-style parliamentary government, in which the premier is the leader of the party that controls the most seats in the Legislative Assembly. The premier is Alberta's head of government, while the Queen of Canada in right of Alberta is its head of state and is represented by the Lieutenant Governor of Alberta. The premier picks a cabinet, usually from the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, to form the Executive Council of Alberta, and presides over that body.

Members are elected to the legislature during general elections or by-elections. Barring special legislation occasioned by a war or an emergency (which has never happened in Alberta's history, although it has federally), general elections must be called by the Lieutenant-Governor, at the Premier's advice, no later than five years after the previous election, but the premier may ask (and almost always has asked) for dissolution of the legislative assembly and a subsequent election earlier than that. And in fact under current fixed-election legislation, a general election will be held on a day (by custom, a Monday) between March 1 and May 31, 2016, and in the same three-month period in every fourth calendar year thereafter.

An election may also happen if the governing party loses the confidence of the legislature, by the defeat of a supply bill or tabling of a confidence motion, but in Alberta's history of massive majorities in the assembly, this has not happened yet in the province's history.

A leader of a party is chosen by the party, following an internal constitution unique to each party that comprises a framework to elect or appoint a leader. The leader, if he or she does not already have a seat, must then win a seat in a by-election or general election to sit in the Assembly. If a leader of a party does not have a seat, he or she must sit in the legislature gallery. While sitting in the gallery a premier cannot exercise any legislative powers.

Prior to 1905, Alberta was part of the North-West Territories and was governed by the Lieutenant-Governors of the North-West Territories until 1897, and the Premier of the North-West Territories from 1897 to 1905. Since 1905, Alberta has had four political party dynasties.

History

Liberal Party 1905–1921

The Liberal party got its start in power in Alberta when Prime Minister Wilfrid Laurier appointed Alexander Rutherford, a prominent liberal and former elected NWT Assembly member, as interim premier in 1905. He and other Liberals organized the province's first election.

Rutherford's Liberal party was elected, with a majority of the popular vote and a majority of seats in the Legislative Assembly in the province's first election, the 1905 Alberta election. The north-central constituency boundaries radiated out from Edmonton and some say this was a case of gerrymandered electoral boundaries.[1] Rutherford emerged from the March 1909 election leading another formidable majority, that clearly reflected the broad popular support he and his government enjoyed. He would resign as premier 14 months later, in May 1910, after his government was implicated in the Alberta and Great Waterways Railway scandal.[2]

Arthur Sifton replaced Rutherford as premier. Shortly before the 1913 election Sifton's Liberals jammed through a controversial bill greatly expanding the size of the legislative assembly. The bill was once again said to gerrymander boundaries in Liberals' favor, although the Liberals again received more votes than any other party in the 1913 election.[3][4] The press and opposition would term his reign as premier "Siftonism" implying that his reign was a disease on Alberta.[5] Sifton only lasted one term as premier as he left to pursue a career in federal politics.[6]

Charles Stewart replaced Sifton and held the Liberal government through the lackluster 1917 election which 11 MLAs serving in the armed forces were automatically re-elected. The opposition was the strongest so far in the province's 12-year history. The Conservatives, which formed the official opposition with 19 seats, slightly more than one-third of the seats in the Assembly, expressed hopes they had the upper hand on the waning Liberal government. Both would be surprised by the United Farmers who routed the Liberals and Conservatives in rural areas to form the government in the 1921 election.

United Farmers 1921–1935

Alberta's second dynasty was the United Farmers of Alberta, a farmers' movement organization, formed in 1909 as a lobby group, whose political wing rose from a minor party named the Alberta Non-Partisan League, formed in 1916. Henry Wise Wood led the party at the time of the 1921 election, although he did not run himself. The loosely organized farmer candidates running in rural constituencies captured a majority of the seats. The party was allied with Labour candidates, so it did not contest urban ridings, aside from one in Edmonton. Wood did not want the job as premier so the farmers were forced to shop around. UFA lawyer John Brownlee was asked first but declined. UFA executive member Herbert Greenfield, the second choice, became the new premier, although he too had not run in the election so had to await success in a by-election to take his seat.[7] Greenfield resigned four years later because he was often absent due to illness and lost much of his energy due to the death of his wife shortly after the election.

John Brownlee, who had previously been offered the job, succeeded Greenfield. Brownlee's reign as government leader was troubled by the onset of the Great Depression. He resigned in scandal after he was accused of sexual acts with a minor in the Attorney General's office. This and another scandalous divorce by UFA MLA Oran McPherson, speaker of the Legislative Assembly, gave the United Farmers an image of moral decay.[8] In 1934 Richard Reid replaced Brownlee but served as premier for less than two years, leading the United Farmers government into total defeat at the hands of the new Social Credit party.

Social Credit 1935–1971

Albertans turned away from the United Farmers government and began to follow evangelical radio preacher William Aberhart, known as Bible Bill. The Social Credit party had been founded in 1932. Voters flocked to the radical monetary reforms proposed by Aberhart and British SC theorist Clifford Douglas, looking for an escape to the Great Depression. Social Credit was elected with a majority (54 percent of the vote) in the 1935 election completely wiping out the United Farmers representation (although the UFA did receive 11 percent of the vote). Aberhart had difficulty implementing the Social Credit theory and his popularity began to decline. His government almost fell during a 1936 caucus rebellion and it barely survived the 1940 election.[9] Aberhart passed away in 1943; he is the only premier to die in office in Alberta's history.

Ernest Manning succeeded Aberhart as premier. Under Manning, Social Credit moved away from the monetary theory of Douglas and towards traditional conservatism. Manning lead the party through seven-straight massive majorities until he resigned in 1967.

Harry Strom, a long time cabinet minister, replaced Manning and lead the party to defeat in the 1971 election at the hands of the Progressive Conservatives under Peter Lougheed. Strom and his government looked old and tired and out of touch compared to the new Progressive Conservatives.

Progressive Conservative 1971–2015

The current government of Alberta was first led by Peter Lougheed, defeating the 36-year reign of Social Credit in 1971.

Peter Lougheed served as premier, winning four elections, until 1985 when he retired from public office. Some of Lougheed's notable accomplishments were the limited Alberta Bill of Rights, and the Heritage Trust Fund.[10]

Don Getty, one of Lougheed’s long-time cabinet ministers, returned to politics to win the leadership of the party. Getty's premiership was endorsed by a win in the 1986 general election that saw the NDP climb to 16 seats as the official opposition. Getty's reign became very unpopular as he led Alberta into large deficit spending, and marked an era of big government that, some said, the province could not afford. In the 1989 election he was defeated in his Edmonton-Whitemud riding, while his party still won a majority. He sat in the gallery as an unelected Premier until he won a seat in a by-election in Stettler.[11] His refusal to leave as premier helped Laurence Decore's Liberals skyrocket in popularity. Getty resigned and was replaced in a bitter leadership battle by Ralph Klein.[12]

Ralph Klein, the former mayor of Calgary, led the party into the 1993 election, promising a new era of debt reduction and fiscal accountability. He walked away with a slim majority. Ralph Klein's folksy appeal helped the Progressive Conservatives renew themselves. He led the party through two elections, gaining in popularity each time. The price of oil rebounded and the government, despite low rates of taxes on the wealthy and corporations, was showing a surplus of $3 billion every year. In early 2004, Klein announced that the Alberta debt had been paid in full.[13] He was rewarded by voters in the 2004 election, despite running a campaign with no new policies. His party lost a number of seats, and during the campaign he stated this would be his last election. In 2006 at a Progressive Conservative convention delegates forced him to pick a retirement date by giving him relatively low numbers in a leadership review.[14]

Ed Stelmach succeeded Klein as premier, following his win of the leadership of the Alberta Progressive Conservative party in 2006. He won the 2008 provincial election, but, troubled by dissension within his party, resigned as the party celebrated its 40 years in power in 2011.

Alison Redford subsequently was elected party leader and became the first female Premier of Alberta. Despite strong opposition from the Wildrose Party that most polls and media predicted would end the PC's 41-year dynasty, Redford and the PC party won re-election in April 2012, making Redford Alberta's first elected female premier. Due to a steep decline in approval ratings and a spending controversy,[15] Alison Redford announced her resignation on March 19, 2014, as premier of Alberta, effective March 23.[16]

Alberta Deputy Premier Dave Hancock was selected as interim party leader by the Progressive Conservative caucus on March 20, 2014,[17] and became interim premier on March 23, 2014.

Jim Prentice was elected as the permanent leader of the PC Party on September 6, 2014 and succeeded Hancock as premier on September 15, 2014. He turned the government around on a number of crucial issues, cancelling the closure of the Michener Centre, for example. He was elected to a seat in an October 27, 2014 by-election. The Prentice Conservatives won the four by-elections held that day while the rival Wildrose Party did very poorly. Less than two months later, much of the Wildrose Party caucus crossed the floor to sit with the Conservatives. On May 5, 2015, Jim Prentice and his party were crushed, losing 60 seats in the Legislature. Jim Prentice then resigned as PC Party leader and resigned his seat in the constituency of Calgary-Foothills, leaving the PC Party with only 9 seats.

NDP 2015–present

Rachel Notley was appointed and sworn in as premier on May 24, 2015, following her party's having won a majority in the 2015 general election, with 54 out of 87 seats in the Legislature. On May 22, 2015, Rachel Notley suspended a caucus member, leaving them with 53 out of 87 seats, still enough to form a strong majority.

List of Premiers

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
District
Term of office[18][19] Electoral mandates (Assembly) Political party

Premiers of the North-West Territories

1 Sir Frederick W. A. G. Haultain
(1857–1942)
MLA for Macleod
7 October
1897
1 September
1905

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Named leader in 1897

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Led negotiations for provincial status for Alberta and Saskatchewan.

Premiers of Alberta

1 Alexander Cameron Rutherford
(1857–1941)
MLA for Strathcona
2 September
1905
26 May
1910

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Named leader in 1905

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Organization of administration for new province; incorporation of Lethbridge, Medicine Hat and Westaskiwin; establishment of court system; establishment of University of Alberta and of school system; creation of Alberta Government Telephones.
2 Arthur Sifton
(1856–1921)
MLA for Vermilion
26 May
1910
30 October
1917

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Named leader in 1910

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Instituting prohibition; establishment of agricultural colleges.
3 Charles Stewart
(1868–1946)
MLA for Sedgewick
30 October
1917
13 August
1921

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Named leader in 1917

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4 Herbert Greenfield
(1869–1949)
MLA for Peace River
13 August
1921
23 November
1925

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Named leader in 1921

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Creation of Alberta Wheat Pool; repeal of Prohibition and creation of government-owned liquor stores
5 John Edward Brownlee
(1883–1961)
MLA for Ponoka
23 November
1925
10 July
1934

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Named leader in 1925

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Sexual Sterilization Act of Alberta; elimination of Alberta Provincial Police; creation of provincial income tax.
6 Richard Gavin Reid
(1879–1980)
MLA for Vermilion
10 July
1934
3 September
1935

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Named leader in 1934

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government purchase of cattle from farmers who could no longer afford feed; cost-sharing agreement with federal government and railways to relocate farmers fleeing the Dust Belt
7 William Aberhart
(1878–1943)
MLA for Okotoks-High River (until 1940)
MLA for Calgary (from 1940)
3 September
1935
23 May
1943

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Named leader in 1935

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Attempts to implement social credit economic theory; issuance of prosperity certificates; public works and debt relief programs to aid victims of the Depression; creation of Alberta Treasury Branches financial services institution.
8 Ernest Manning
(1908–1996)
MLA for Edmonton (until 1959)
MLA for Strathcona East (from 1959)
31 May
1943
12 December
1968

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Named leader in 1943

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Abandonment of social credit economic theory; exploitation of Leduc oil fields; expansion of educational, health and transportation facilities
9 Harry Strom
(1914–1984)
MLA for Cypress
12 December
1968
10 September
1971

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Named leader in 1968

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Alberta Service Corps; introduction of kindergarten; creation of Athabasca University and Grant MacEwan College
10 Peter Lougheed
(1928–2012)
MLA for Calgary-West
10 September
1971
1 November
1985

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Named leader in 1965

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Creation of Alberta Heritage Savings Trust Fund; Syncrude; 1981 Energy Pricing Agreement with Ottawa; provincial control of natural resources
11 Don Getty
(b. 1933)
MLA for Edmonton-Whitemud (until 1989)
MLA for Stettler (from 1989)
1 November
1985
13 December
1992

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Named leader in 1985

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Senate elections; failure to settle land settlement dispute with Lubicon Cree and Metis; creation of Family Day
12 Ralph Klein
(1942–2013)
MLA for Calgary-Elbow
14 December
1992
14 December
2006

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Named leader in 1992

</tr>

Privatization of Alberta Government Telephones; opposition to Kyoto Protocol; elimination of public debt; introduction of the flat tax on personal income
13 Ed Stelmach
(b. 1951)
MLA for Fort Saskatchewan-Vegreville
14 December
2006
7 October
2011

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Named leader in 2006

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20% increase on royalties charged to oil companies; further development of Athabasca oil sands; removal of health care premiums;
14 Alison Redford
(b. 1965)
MLA for Calgary-Elbow
7 October
2011
23 March
2014

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Named leader in 2011

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Fixed election period; creation of Department of Human Services
15 Dave Hancock
(b. 1955)
MLA for Edmonton-Whitemud
23 March
2014
15 September
2014

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Named leader in 2014 (interim)

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Interim leader during leadership election.
16 Jim Prentice
(b. 1956)
MLA for Calgary-Foothills
15 September
2014
24 May
2015

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Named leader in 2014

</tr>

17 Rachel Notley
(b. 1964)
MLA for Edmonton-Strathcona
24 May
2015

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Named leader in 2014

</tr>

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  1. The United Farmers of Alberta won the 1921 election without a party leader, but Greenfield was made Premier immediately after it.
  2. Because Aberhart died unexpectedly, the Social Credit Caucus did not choose a leader for a full week. Manning was appointed Premier by Lieutenant-Governor John C. Bowen the same day.[19]

Graphical representation

<timeline>
  1. Premiers of Alberta

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Colors =

 id:L     value:rgb(0.941,0.502,0.502)
 id:UF     value:rgb(0.4,0.8,0)
 id:SC     value:rgb(0.565,0.933,0.565)
 id:PC     value:rgb(0,0.2,0.4)
 id:NDP    value:rgb(0.957,0.643,0.376)

DateFormat = mm/dd/yyyy Period = from:1905 till:2016 TimeAxis = orientation:vertical ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:5 start:1905 ScaleMinor = unit:year increment:1 start:1905

Define $dx = 25

PlotData=

 bar:PRMs color:red width:25 mark:(line,white) align:left fontsize:S
 from:09/02/1905   till:05/26/1910   shift:(14,-9)   color:L   text:Alexander Rutherford
 from:05/26/1910   till:10/30/1917   shift:(15,-9)   color:L   text:Arthur Sifton
 from:10/30/1917   till:08/13/1921   shift:(15,-9)    color:L   text:Charles Stewart
 from:08/13/1921   till:11/23/1925   shift:(15,-9)    color:UF   text:Herbert Greenfield
 from:11/23/1925   till:07/10/1934   shift:(15,-9)    color:UF   text:John Brownlee
 from:07/10/1934   till:09/03/1935   shift:(15,-5)    color:UF   text:Richard Reid
 from:09/03/1935   till:05/23/1943   shift:(15,-9)    color:SC   text:William Aberhart
 from:05/31/1943   till:12/12/1968   shift:(15,-9)    color:SC   text:Ernest Manning
 from:12/12/1968   till:09/10/1971   shift:(15,-9)    color:SC   text:Harry Strom
 from:09/10/1971   till:11/01/1985   shift:(15,-9)    color:PC   text:Peter Lougheed
 from:11/01/1985   till:12/13/1992   shift:(15,-9)    color:PC   text:Don Getty
 from:12/14/1992   till:12/14/2006   shift:(15,-9)   color:PC   text:Ralph Klein
 from:12/14/2006   till:10/07/2011   shift:(15,-9)    color:PC   text:Ed Stelmach
 from:10/07/2011   till:03/23/2014   shift:(15,-9)    color:PC   text:Alison Redford
 from:03/23/2014   till:09/15/2014   shift:(15,-9)    color:PC   text:Dave Hancock
 from:09/15/2014   till:05/24/2015   shift:(15,-3)    color:PC   text:Jim Prentice
 from:05/24/2015   till:end   shift:(15,0)    color:NDP   text:Rachel Notley

</timeline>

Longest and Shortest Terms

Ernest Manning is the longest serving Premier at 25 years and 7 months. Dave Hancock served the shortest term with just short of 6 months in office as Premier.

Living former premiers

As of May 2015, four former premiers are alive, the oldest being Don Getty (1985–1992, born 1933). The most recently serving former premier to die was Ralph Klein (1992–2006, 1942–2013), on March 29, 2013.

Name Term Date of birth
Don Getty 1985–1992 (1933-08-30) August 30, 1933 (age 82)
Ed Stelmach 2006–2011 (1951-05-11) May 11, 1951 (age 64)
Alison Redford 2011–2014 (1965-03-07) March 7, 1965 (age 50)
Dave Hancock 2014 (1955-08-10) August 10, 1955 (age 60)
Jim Prentice 2014–2015 (1956-07-20) July 20, 1956 (age 59)

See also

References

External links

Order of precedence
Preceded by
Norman Kwong, Former Lieutenant Governor of Alberta
Order of precedence in Alberta
as of 2013
Succeeded by
Gene Zwozdesky, Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of Alberta