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List of sovereign states

"List of nations" and "List of countries" redirect here. For other country lists, see Lists of countries and territories. For non-sovereign dependencies, see Dependent territory.

This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.

Membership within the United Nations system divides the 206 listed states into three categories: 193 member states,[1] two observer states, and 11 other states. The sovereignty dispute column indicates states whose sovereignty is undisputed (190 states) and states whose sovereignty is disputed (16 states).

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below. The list is intended to include entities that have been recognized to have de facto status as sovereign states, and inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms.

List of states

Short and formal names Membership within the UN System [Note 1] Sovereignty dispute [Note 2] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 4]
A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZUN member states or observer states A AAA ZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → Abkhazia A UN member state A None
23x15px Afghanistan – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan A UN member state A None
23x15px Albania – Republic of Albania A UN member state A None
23x15px Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria A UN member state A None
23x15px Andorra – Principality of Andorra A UN member state A None Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[2] who himself is appointed by the Holy See.
23x15px Angola – Republic of Angola A UN member state A None
23x15px Antigua and Barbuda A UN member state A None Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 6][3]
23x15px Argentina – Argentine Republic[Note 7] A UN member state A None Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city.
23x15px Armenia – Republic of Armenia A UN member state Not recognized by Pakistan[4][5][6]
23x15px Australia – Commonwealth of Australia A UN member state A None Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of six states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
23x15px Austria – Republic of Austria A UN member state A None Member of the European Union.[Note 3] Austria is a federation of nine states (Bundesländer).
23x15px Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan A UN member state A None Azerbaijan contains two autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 6] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.
23x15px Bahamas, The – Commonwealth of the Bahamas A UN member state A None The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Bahrain – Kingdom of Bahrain A UN member state A None
23x15px Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh A UN member state A None
23x15px Barbados A UN member state A None Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Belarus – Republic of Belarus A UN member state A None
23x15px Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
23x15px Belize A UN member state A None Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Benin – Republic of Benin[Note 8] A UN member state A None
23x15px Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan A UN member state A None
23x15px Bolivia – Plurinational State of Bolivia A UN member state A None
23x15px Bosnia and Herzegovina A UN member state A None Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of two constituent units:

and Brčko District, a self-governing administrative unit.[Note 9]

23x15px Botswana – Republic of Botswana A UN member state A None
23x15px Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil A UN member state A None Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
23x15px Brunei – Brunei Darussalam A UN member state A None
23x15px Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Burkina Faso[Note 10] A UN member state A None
23x15px Burma – Republic of the Union of Myanmar[Note 11][8] A UN member state A None
23x15px Burundi – Republic of Burundi A UN member state A None
23x15px Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia A UN member state A None
23x15px Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon A UN member state A None
23x15px Canada[Note 12] A UN member state A None Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and three territories.
23x15px Cape Verde – Republic of Cabo Verde A UN member state A None
23x15px Central African Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px Chad – Republic of Chad A UN member state A None
23x15px Chile – Republic of Chile A UN member state A None Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region.
23x15px China – People's Republic of China[Note 13] A UN member state Partially unrecognized. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

China is not recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise Taiwan (the Republic of China).[Note 14]

China claims, but does not control, Taiwan which is governed by a rival administration.[Note 15]

China, Republic of → Taiwan A UN member state A None
23x15px Colombia – Republic of Colombia A UN member state A None
23x15px Comoros – Union of the Comoros A UN member state A None Comoros is a federation of 3 islands.[Note 16][9]
23x15px Congo, Democratic Republic of the[Note 17] A UN member state A None
23x15px Congo, Republic of the[Note 18] A UN member state A None
ZZZCook Islands → Cook Islands A UN member state A None
23x15px Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica A UN member state A None
Côte d'Ivoire → Ivory Coast A UN member state A None
23x15px Croatia – Republic of Croatia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Cuba – Republic of Cuba A UN member state A None
23x15px Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus A UN member state Not recognised by Turkey[10] Member of the EU.[Note 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of Southern Cyprus".[11]
23x15px Czech Republic[Note 19] A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
Democratic People's Republic of Korea → Korea, North A UN member state A None
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the A UN member state A None
23x15px Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]

The Danish Realm includes two self-governing territories:

23x15px Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti A UN member state A None
23x15px Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica A UN member state A None
23x15px Dominican Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px East Timor – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[Note 20] A UN member state A None
23x15px Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador A UN member state A None
23x15px Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt A UN member state A None
23x15px El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador A UN member state A None
23x15px Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea A UN member state A None
23x15px Eritrea – State of Eritrea A UN member state A None
23x15px Estonia – Republic of Estonia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia A UN member state A None Ethiopia is a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.
23x15px Fiji – Republic of Fiji A UN member state A None Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 6][12][13]
23x15px Finland – Republic of Finland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px France – French Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] France contains five overseas regions/departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Réunion. France also includes the overseas territories of:
23x15px Gabon – Gabonese Republic A UN member state A None
Gambia 23x15px Gambia, The – Republic of the Gambia A UN member state A None
23x15px Georgia A UN member state A None Georgia contains two autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
23x15px Germany – Federal Republic of Germany A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
23x15px Ghana – Republic of Ghana A UN member state A None
23x15px Greece – Hellenic Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[14]
23x15px Grenada A UN member state A None Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala A UN member state A None
23x15px Guinea – Republic of Guinea[Note 22] A UN member state A None
23x15px Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau A UN member state A None
23x15px Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Haiti – Republic of Haiti A UN member state A None
Holy See → Vatican City A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Honduras – Republic of Honduras A UN member state A None
23x15px Hungary A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
Template:Country data Iceland – Republic of Iceland A UN member state A None
Template:Country data India – Republic of India A UN member state A None India is a federation of 29 states and seven union territories.
Template:Country data Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia A UN member state A None Indonesia has five provinces with official special autonomy status: Aceh, Jakarta SCR, Yogyakarta SR, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 6]
Template:Country data Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Iraq – Republic of Iraq A UN member state A None Iraq is a federation[Note 16][15] of 18 governorates, three of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 6]
23x15px Ireland[Note 23] A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
Template:Country data Israel – State of Israel A UN member state Partially unrecognized Israel exerts strong control over the territory claimed by Palestine. Israel annexed East Jerusalem,[16] an annexation not recognised by the international community.[17] Israel maintains varying levels of control over the rest of the West Bank, and although Israel no longer has a permanent civilian or military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, it is still considered by some to be the occupying power under international law.[18][19][20][21][22] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
23x15px Italy – Italian Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Italy has five autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 6]
23x15px Ivory Coast – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Jamaica A UN member state A None Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
Template:Country data Japan A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Kenya – Republic of Kenya A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati A UN member state A None
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data North Korea – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 24][23]
  1. REDIRECT Template:Country data South Korea – Republic of Korea
A UN member state B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 6][24] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 24]
ZZZKosovo → Kosovo A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Kuwait – State of Kuwait A UN member state A None
Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px Latvia – Republic of Latvia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Lebanon – Lebanese Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho A UN member state A None
23x15px Liberia – Republic of Liberia A UN member state A None
23x15px Libya – State of Libya A UN member state A None Libya has one self-declared autonomous region:[25]
23x15px Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein A UN member state A None
23x15px Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia A UN member state A None Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
23x15px Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar A UN member state A None
23x15px Malawi – Republic of Malawi A UN member state A None
23x15px Malaysia A UN member state A None Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and three federal territories.
23x15px Maldives – Republic of Maldives A UN member state A None
23x15px Mali – Republic of Mali A UN member state A None
23x15px Malta – Republic of Malta A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
23x15px Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania A UN member state A None
23x15px Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius A UN member state A None Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 6]
23x15px Mexico – United Mexican States A UN member state A None Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
23x15px Micronesia, Federated States of A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of four states.
23x15px Moldova – Republic of Moldova A UN member state A None Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
23x15px Monaco – Principality of Monaco A UN member state A None
23x15px Mongolia A UN member state A None
23x15px Montenegro A UN member state A None
23x15px Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco A UN member state A None Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.
23x15px Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique A UN member state A None
Myanmar → Burma A UN member state A None
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-Karabakh A UN member state A None
23x15px Namibia – Republic of Namibia A UN member state A None
23x15px Nauru – Republic of Nauru A UN member state A None
File:Flag of Nepal.svg   Nepal – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal A UN member state A None Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
23x15px Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and his ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of its constituent country, the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer either to one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g. in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

23x15px New Zealand A UN member state A None New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm,[Note 5] and has the dependent territories of:

New Zealand has responsibilities for (but no rights of control over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 39 and 11 UN members respectively.[26][27][28] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[29] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

23x15px Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua A UN member state A None Nicaragua contains two autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 6]
23x15px Niger – Republic of Niger A UN member state A None
23x15px Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria A UN member state A None Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → Niue A UN member state A None
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus A UN member state A None
North Korea → Korea, North A UN member state A None
23x15px Norway – Kingdom of Norway A UN member state A None

Norway has the dependent territories of:

23x15px Oman – Sultanate of Oman A UN member state A None
23x15px Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan A UN member state A None Pakistan is a federation of four provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[30][31] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[32][33] The portions that it controls are divided into two territories, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 25]

Azad Kashmir describes itself as a "self-governing state under Pakistani control", while Gilgit-Baltistan is described in its governance order as a group of "areas" with self-government.[34][35] These territories are not usually regarded as sovereign, as they do not fulfill the criteria set out by the declarative theory of statehood (for example, their current laws do not allow them to engage independently in relations with other states). Several state functions of these territories (such as foreign affairs and defence) are performed by Pakistan on their behalf.[35][36][37]

23x15px Palau – Republic of Palau A UN member state A None Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
23x15px Palestine – State of Palestine A UN observer state; member of one UN specialized agency Partially unrecognized. B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 135 states.[38] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on much of the territory that it proclaimed.[39] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization.[40] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO,[41] and an observer state in the UN.
23x15px Panama – Republic of Panama A UN member state A None
23x15px Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea A UN member state A None Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 6]
23x15px Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay A UN member state A None
23x15px Peru – Republic of Peru A UN member state A None
23x15px Philippines – Republic of the Philippines A UN member state A None The Philippines contains one autonomous region, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.[Note 6]
23x15px Poland – Republic of Poland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Portugal – Portuguese Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Portugal contains two autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 6]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistria A UN member state A None
23x15px Qatar – State of Qatar A UN member state A None
Republic of Korea → Korea, South A UN member state A None
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the A UN member state A None
23x15px Romania A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Russia – Russian Federation A UN member state A None Russia is officially a federation of 85 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 6]
23x15px Rwanda – Republic of Rwanda A UN member state A None
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Christopher and Nevis A UN member state A None Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and is a federation[Note 16] of 14 parishes.
23x15px Saint Lucia A UN member state A None Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Saint Vincent and the Grenadines A UN member state A None Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Samoa – Independent State of Samoa A UN member state A None
23x15px San Marino – Republic of San Marino A UN member state A None
23x15px São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe A UN member state A None São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 6]
23x15px Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia A UN member state A None
23x15px Senegal – Republic of Senegal A UN member state A None
23x15px Serbia – Republic of Serbia A UN member state A None Serbia contains two autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 6] The latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
23x15px Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles A UN member state A None
23x15px Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone A UN member state A None
23x15px Singapore – Republic of Singapore A UN member state A None
23x15px Slovakia – Slovak Republic A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x15px Solomon Islands A UN member state A None The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Somalia – Federal Republic of Somalia A UN member state A None Somalia is presently divided with the official Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the FGS does not recognise),[42][need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → Somaliland A UN member state A None
23x15px South Africa – Republic of South Africa A UN member state A None
South Korea → Korea, South A UN member state A None
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South Ossetia A UN member state A None
23x15px South Sudan – Republic of South Sudan A UN member state A None South Sudan is a federation of 10 states.
23x15px Spain – Kingdom of Spain A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] Spain is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 special autonomous cities.[Note 6]
23x15px Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka A UN member state A None Formerly known as Ceylon.
23x15px Sudan – Republic of the Sudan A UN member state A None Sudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.
ZZZSudan, South → South Sudan A UN member state A None
23x15px Suriname – Republic of Suriname A UN member state A None
23x15px Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland A UN member state A None
23x15px Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3]
23x16px  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation A UN member state A None Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
23x15px Syria – Syrian Arab Republic A UN member state A None The Syrian National Coalition, which is recognized as the legitimate representative of the Syrian people by 20 UN members, has established an interim government to rule rebel controlled territory during the Syrian civil war.

Syria has one self-declared autonomous region:

ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan A UN member state A None
23x15px Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan A UN member state A None Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 6]
23x15px Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania A UN member state A None Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 6]
23x15px Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand A UN member state A None
Timor-Leste → East Timor A UN member state A None
23x15px Togo – Togolese Republic A UN member state A None
23x15px Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga A UN member state A None
ZZZTransnistria → Transnistria A UN member state A None
23x15px Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago A UN member state A None Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 6]
23x15px Tunisia – Republic of Tunisia A UN member state A None
23x15px Turkey – Republic of Turkey A UN member state A None
23x15px Turkmenistan A UN member state A None
23x15px Tuvalu A UN member state A None Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
23x15px Uganda – Republic of Uganda A UN member state A None
23x15px Ukraine A UN member state A None
23x15px United Arab Emirates A UN member state A None The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates.
23x15px United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland A UN member state A None Member of the EU.[Note 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] consisting of four constituent countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

23x15px United States – United States of America A UN member state A None The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

It also has sovereignty over several uninhabited territories:

Three sovereign states have become associated states of the United States under the Compact of Free Association:

It also disputes sovereignty over the following territories:

23x15px Uruguay – Oriental Republic of Uruguay A UN member state A None
23x15px Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan A UN member state A None Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 6]
23x15px Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu A UN member state A None
23x16px  Vatican City – Vatican City State A UN observer state under the designation of "Holy See"; member of three UN specialized agencies and the IAEA A None Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 180 states.[43] The Holy See is a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO and a permanent observer of the UN (in the category of "Non-member State")[40] and multiple other UN System organizations. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Diocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City.
23x15px Venezuela – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela A UN member state A None Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
23x15px Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam A UN member state A None
23x15px Yemen – Republic of Yemen A UN member state A None
23x15px Zambia – Republic of Zambia A UN member state A None
23x15px Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe A UN member state A None
ZZZUN member states and observer states A ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZ AB B
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓ D AAA ZZZ
23x15px Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Venezuela,[44] Nagorno-Karabakh, South Ossetia and Transnistria.[45] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
23x15px Cook Islands D Member of seven UN specialized agencies A None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, the Cook Islands has relations with 41 other states. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[29] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
23x15px Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo D Member of two UN specialized agencies B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo was placed under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo in 1999.[46] Kosovo declared independence in 2008, and it has received diplomatic recognition from 108 UN member states and the Republic of China. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
23x15px Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic[Note 26] D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[47][48][49] recognised only by Abkhazia,[50] South Ossetia[50] and Transnistria.[50][51] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[52]
23x15px Niue D Member of five UN specialized agencies A None
(See political status)
A state in free association with New Zealand, Niue has relations with 12 other states. Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[29] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
23x15px Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus D No membership Claimed by Cyprus Recognised only by Turkey. Under the name "Turkish Cypriot State", it is an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[53]
23x15px Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Recognised at some stage by 84 UN member states, 39 of which have since withdrawn or frozen their recognition. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
23x15px Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[47][54][55][56][57] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Federal Republic of Somalia.[58]
23x15px South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[59] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[44] Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and Transnistria.[45] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[60]
23x15px Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 13] D Observer in one UN specialized agency under the name "Chinese Taipei" B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 27] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[61] The Republic of China is recognised by 21 UN member states and the Holy See as of 2013. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 15] The Republic of China participates in international organizations under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei" and in the WTO it has full membership. The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.
23x15px Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[47] recognised only by Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, and South Ossetia.[45] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Transnistria autonomous territorial unit.[62]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑ D ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZZ ZZZZ ZZZZ
Legend "Membership within the UN system" column
  UN Member states
  UN Observer states
  Member of a UN Specialized Agency
  Observer in a UN Specialized Agency
  No membership in the UN system
Legend "Sovereignty dispute" column
  Undisputed sovereignty
  Sovereignty disputed

Criteria for inclusion

The dominant[citation needed] customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) a capacity to enter into relations with the other states" so long as it was not "obtained by force whether this consists in the employment of arms, in threatening diplomatic representations, or in any other effective coercive measure".

Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) consider themselves sovereign (through a declaration of independence or some other means) and are often regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood, or
  • (b) are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member state

Note that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[63][Note 28]

  • 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  • One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: Somaliland

See also

Notes

  1. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[1] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. ^ This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranational union. The EU has 28 member states.[7]
  4. ^ Information is included on:
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  7. ^ The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  8. ^ Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  9. ^ For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  10. ^ Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  11. ^ Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  12. ^ The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  13. ^ a b The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  14. ^ See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  15. ^ a b In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  16. ^ a b c More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  17. ^ Also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  18. ^ Also known as Congo-Brazzaville.
  19. ^ A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  20. ^ The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  21. ^ Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  22. ^ Also known as Guinea-Conakry.
  23. ^ The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  24. ^ a b Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  25. ^ Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  26. ^ The Constitution of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic (Art. 1.2) recognizes "Artsakh Republic" as an alternative denomination.
  27. ^ The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  28. ^ The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is not included, as despite being a sovereign entity it lacks territory and doesn't claim statehood. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

References

  1. ^ a b Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006). "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 28 February 2011. 
  2. ^ "Andorra country profile". BBC News. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  3. ^ Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act" (PDF). Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  4. ^ Pakistan Worldview – Report 21 – Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008[dead link]
  5. ^ Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] – Today.Az
  6. ^ "Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy". News.Az. February 5, 2014. Retrieved February 17, 2014. We are the only country not recognizing Armenia as a state. 
  7. ^ Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  8. ^ "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. Retrieved 22 October 2010. 
  9. ^ Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  10. ^ Andreas S. Kakouris (July 9, 2010). "Cyprus is not at peace with Turkey". CNN. Retrieved May 17, 2014. Turkey stands alone in violation of the will of the international community. It is the only country to recognize the "TRNC" and is the only country that does not recognize the Republic of Cyprus and its government. 
  11. ^ See Republic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  12. ^ "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 ed.). Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. Retrieved 2010-07-10. [dead link]
  13. ^ Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  14. ^ Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  15. ^ Source: Iraqi constitution
  16. ^ Knesset website, Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel
  17. ^ "Disputes – International". CIA World Factbook. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  18. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  19. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  20. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  21. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza's Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  22. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  23. ^ "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". Retrieved 2008-10-27. 
  24. ^ Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. Retrieved 2010-11-10. 
  25. ^ "East Libya declares self-government". Al Jazeera. November 3, 2013. Retrieved November 5, 2013. 
  26. ^ Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. Retrieved 2010-07-16.  For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  27. ^ China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  28. ^ Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  29. ^ a b c http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  30. ^ Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  31. ^ Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). 
  32. ^ Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9. 
  33. ^ Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9. 
  34. ^ http://home.ajk.gov.pk/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=72&catid=14
  35. ^ a b http://gbtribune.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/self-governance-order-2009.pdf
  36. ^ Political Handbook of the World 2014. Retrieved 5 October 2014. 
  37. ^ http://www.ajkassembly.gok.pk/AJK_Interim_Constitution_Act_1974.pdf
  38. ^ Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. Retrieved 2011-07-28. 
  39. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  40. ^ a b "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. Retrieved 30 August 2010. 
  41. ^ United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. Retrieved 3 December 2011. 
  42. ^ Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0. 
  43. ^ "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. Retrieved 2012-06-05. 
  44. ^ a b "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. Retrieved 5 June 2011. 
  45. ^ a b c Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же (in Russian). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  46. ^ "United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo". UN. Retrieved 8 January 2015. 
  47. ^ a b c Ker-Lindsay, James (2012). The Foreign Policy of Counter Secession: Preventing the Recognition of Contested States. Oxford University Press. p. 53. ...there are three other territories that have unilaterally declared independence and are generally regarded as having met the Montevideo criteria for statehood but have not been recognized by any states: Transnistria, Nagorny Karabakh, and Somaliland. 
  48. ^ Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9. 
  49. ^ Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). Retrieved 2011-04-17. 
  50. ^ a b c Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", – сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." – сказал он."
  51. ^ "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  52. ^ See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  53. ^ See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  54. ^ "Self-Determination, Sovereignty, and the Failure of States: Somaliland and the Case for Justified Secession" (PDF). Minnesota Journal of International Law 19:2: 380–381. 2010. Considering each of these factors, Somaliland has a colorable argument that it meets the theoretical requirements of statehood. ... On these bases, Somaliland appears to have a strong claim to statehood. 
  55. ^ International Crisis Group (23 May 2006). "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership" (PDF). Africa Report (110): 10–13. Retrieved 2011-04-19 
  56. ^ Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland" (PDF). ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8. Retrieved 2011-04-19 
  57. ^ Arieff, Alexis. "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland" (PDF). Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008). Retrieved 2011-04-17 
  58. ^ See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  59. ^ Jansen, Dinah (2009). "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm" (PDF). Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242. ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3 
  60. ^ "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. Retrieved 2008-08-26. 
  61. ^ "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. 
  62. ^ 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  63. ^ The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

Bibliography

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