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Lithium bromide

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Lithium bromide
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IUPAC name
Lithium bromide
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7550-35-8 7pxY
ChemSpider 74049 7pxY
EC number 231-439-8
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem Template:Chembox PubChem/format
RTECS number OJ5755000
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LiBr
Molar mass 86.845(3) g/mol
Appearance White solid
hygroscopic
Density 3.464 g/cm3
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143 g/100 mL (0 °C)
166.7 g/100 mL (20 °C)
266 g/100 mL (100 °C)
Solubility soluble in methanol, ethanol, ether, acetone
slightly soluble in pyridine
1.784
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51.88 J/mol K
66.9 J/mol K
-350.3 kJ/mol
-338.9 kJ/mol
-157 kJ/mol
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EU Index Not listed
NFPA 704

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0
2
0
Flash point Not-flammable
1800 mg/kg (oral, rat)[1]
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Other anions
Lithium fluoride
Lithium chloride
Lithium iodide
Other cations
Sodium bromide
Potassium bromide
Rubidium bromide
Caesium bromide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Lithium bromide, or LiBr is a chemical compound of lithium and bromine. Its extreme hygroscopic character makes LiBr useful as a desiccant in certain air conditioning systems.[2]

Production and properties

LiBr is prepared by treatment of lithium carbonate with hydrobromic acid. The salt forms several crystalline hydrates, unlike the other alkali metal bromides.[3] The anhydrous salt forms cubic crystals similar to common salt (sodium chloride).

Lithium hydroxide and hydrobromic acid (aqueous solution of hydrogen bromide) will precipitate lithium bromide in the presence of water.

LiOH + HBr → LiBr + H2O

Uses

Lithium bromide is used in air-conditioning systems as desiccant.
Lithium bromide is used as a salt in absorption chilling along with water (see absorption refrigerator). Otherwise the salt is useful as a reagent in organic synthesis. For example it reversibly forms adducts with some pharmaceuticals.[2]

Medical applications

Lithium bromide was used as a sedative, beginning in the early 1900s, but it fell into disfavor in the 1940s when some heart patients died after using it as a salt substitute.[4]
Like lithium carbonate and lithium chloride, it was used as treatment for bipolar disorder.

Doses as low as 225 mg/day of LiBr can lead to bromism.

Hazards

Lithium salts are psychoactive and somewhat corrosive. When lithium bromide is dissolved into water, the reaction is very exothermic.

References

  1. ^ http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/7550-35-8
  2. ^ a b Ulrich Wietelmann, Richard J. Bauer "Lithium and Lithium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry 2005, Wiley-VCH: Weinheim.
  3. ^ Holleman, A. F.; Wiberg, E. (2001), Inorganic Chemistry, San Diego: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-352651-5 
  4. ^ Bipolar disorder

External links

Template:Lithium compounds

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