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Longwave

For other uses, see Longwave (disambiguation).
File:Harumphy.radio dial.jpg
The tuning dial on a 1940s radio, showing longwave wavelengths between 800 and 2000 metres, corresponding to frequencies between 375 and 150 kHz

In radio, longwave refers to parts of the radio spectrum with relatively long wavelengths – typically kilometer-sized or greater. The term is a historic one dating from the early 20th century, when the radio spectrum was considered to consist of long, medium and short wavelengths. Most modern radio systems and devices use wavelengths which would then have been considered 'ultra-short'.

In contemporary usage, the term longwave is not defined precisely and its meaning varies across the world. The most common definition is the radio band with wavelengths greater than 1000 meters (frequencies less than 300 kHz),[1][2][3] which would include the ITUs low frequency (LF) (30–300 kHz) and very low frequency (VLF) (3–30 kHz) bands, but sometimes part of the medium frequency (MF) band (300–3000 kHz) is included.[4] In all cases it includes the entire LF band.

In Europe, Africa and large parts of Asia (ITU Region 1), where a range of frequencies between 148.5 and 283.5 kHz is used for AM broadcasting (in addition to the medium wave band), the term longwave usually refers specifically to this broadcasting band.

The Region 1 longwave broadcast band falls wholly within the low frequency band of the radio spectrum (30–300 kHz). Broader definitions of longwave may extend below and/or above it. In the US, the Longwave Club of America is interested in "frequencies below the AM broadcast band",[5] i.e., all frequencies below 535 kHz. (Lower frequencies correspond to longer wavelengths.)

Non-broadcast use

Non-directional beacons

Non-directional beacons transmit continuously for the benefit of radio direction finders in marine and aeronautical navigation. They identify themselves by a callsign in Morse code. They can occupy any frequency in the range 190–1750 kHz. In North America they occupy 190–535 kHz. In ITU Region 1 the lower limit is 280 kHz.

Time signals

There are stations in the range 40–80 kHz that transmit time signals to radio clocks. For example:

Radio controlled clocks receive their time calibrations signal with built-in longwave receivers. They use longwave, rather than shortwave or mediumwave, because the accuracy of the clocks is not affected by changes in the time signal's travel from the transmitter to the ionosphere and to the receiver; as longwave travels by groundwave, rather than skywave, the propagation time does not vary.

Military communication

The United Kingdom, Russian Federation, United States, Germany, and Sweden use frequencies below 50 kHz to communicate with their submarines.

LowFER

In North America during the 1970s the frequencies 167, 179 and 191 kHz were assigned to the short-lived Public Emergency Radio of the United States. Nowadays the 160–190 kHz range is used in the United States for Part 15 LowFER amateur and experimental stations, and the 190–435 kHz band is used for navigational beacons.

Historic

Swedish station SAQ, located at the Varberg Radio Station facility in Grimeton, is the last remaining operational Alexanderson alternator transmitter. Although the station ended regular service in 1996, it has been maintained as a World Heritage Site and makes at least two demonstration transmissions yearly, on 17.2 kHz.[6]

Broadcasting

Longwave is used for broadcasting only within ITU Region 1. The longwave broadcasters are located in west, north, central and southeast Europe, the former Soviet Union, Mongolia, Algeria and Morocco.

Typically, a larger area can be covered by a longwave broadcast transmitter than a medium-wave one. This is because ground-wave propagation suffers less attenuation due to limited ground conductivity at lower frequencies.[7]

Carrier frequencies

Carrier frequencies are exact multiples of 9 kHz ranging from 153 to 279 kHz, except for a French language station in Germany and five Mongolian transmitters.

Until the 1970s, some longwave stations in northern and eastern Europe and the Soviet Union operated on frequencies as high as 433 kHz.[8]

Some stations, for instance Droitwich in the UK, derive their carrier frequencies from an atomic clock. They can be therefore used as frequency standards. Droitwich also broadcasts a low bit-rate data channel, using narrow-shift phase-shift keying of the carrier, for Radio Teleswitch Services.

In January 2014 Russia closed all of its LW transmitters except for one in Caucasus.[9]

List of longwave broadcasting transmitters

List of stations currently operating:

  Denotes non-standard frequency (not divisible by 9)

[10] [11] [12] [13]

Freq. kHz Station name Country Location Aerial type Power kW Coordinates Remarks
153 Radio Antena Satelor 23x15px Romania Brașov T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts with a height of 250 metres. 200 45|22.27|N|25|36|26.77|E|type:landmark name=Bod Transmitter, Mast 1

}} ; 45°45′13.16″N 25°36′25.15″E / 45.7536556°N 25.6069861°E / 45.7536556; 25.6069861 (Bod Transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:45|45|13.16|N|25|36|25.15|E|type:landmark

name=Bod Transmitter, Mast 2

}}

 
NRK P1 23x15px Norway Ingøy Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 362 m height, fed at the top, ex-Omega equipment. 100 4|17|N|24|5|14|E|type:landmark name=Ingøy longwave transmitter

}}

The transmitter is important for the fishing fleet in the Barents Sea.
Chaîne 1 23x15px Algeria Kenadsa 2000 low power estimated <10 kw and low modulation
162 France Inter 23x15px France Allouis Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 350 m, fed on the top. 1000/2000 10|10.45|N|2|12|16.75|E|type:landmark name=Allouis transmitter, Mast 1

}} ; 47°10′25.34″N 2°12′16.81″E / 47.1737056°N 2.2046694°E / 47.1737056; 2.2046694 (Allouis transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:47|10|25.34|N|2|12|16.81|E|type:landmark

name=Allouis transmitter, Mast 2

}}

Time signal phase-modulated.
164 MNB Radio 1 23x15px Mongolia Ulan Bator (Khonkhor) 259 metres high cable-stayed steel truss mast.[14] 500 47|54.67|N|107|11|14.7|E|type:landmark name=Ulan-Bator transmitter

}}

Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
171 Médi 1 23x15px Morocco Nador Directional aerial consisting of three guyed steel lattice masts, 380 metres tall. 1600 02|50.65|N|2|55|22.81|W|type:landmark name=Nador transmitter, Mast 1

}}; 35°02′30.27″N 2°55′16.16″W / 35.0417417°N 2.9211556°W / 35.0417417; -2.9211556 (Nador transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:35|02|30.27|N|2|55|16.16|W|type:landmark

name=Nador transmitter, Mast 2

}} ; 35°02′9.89″N 2°55′9.52″W / 35.0360806°N 2.9193111°W / 35.0360806; -2.9193111 (Nador transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:35|02|9.89|N|2|55|9.52|W|type:landmark

name=Nador transmitter, Mast 2

}}

 
183 Europe 1 23x15px Germany Felsberg-Berus Directional aerial, four ground insulated steel lattice masts. Heights of 270 m, 276 m, 280 m and 282 m. Spare aerial: two ground insulated steel lattice masts of 234 m height. 2000 17|4.2|N|6|40|57.73|E|type:landmark name=Europe 1 Radio Mast 1

}} ; 49°16′55.86″N 6°40′46.16″E / 49.2821833°N 6.6794889°E / 49.2821833; 6.6794889 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 2){{#coordinates:49|16|55.86|N|6|40|46.16|E|type:landmark

name=Europe 1 Radio Mast 2

}} ; 49°16′47.55″N 6°40′34.48″E / 49.2798750°N 6.6762444°E / 49.2798750; 6.6762444 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 3){{#coordinates:49|16|47.55|N|6|40|34.48|E|type:landmark

name=Europe 1 Radio Mast 3

}} ; 49°16′39.18″N 6°40′22.72″E / 49.2775500°N 6.6729778°E / 49.2775500; 6.6729778 (Europe 1 Radio Mast 4){{#coordinates:49|16|39.18|N|6|40|22.72|E|type:landmark

name=Europe 1 Radio Mast 4

}}, Spare antenna: 49°17′8.93″N 6°39′31.71″E / 49.2858139°N 6.6588083°E / 49.2858139; 6.6588083 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1){{#coordinates:49|17|8.93|N|6|39|31.71|E|type:landmark

name=Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 1

}} ; 49°17′1.54″N 6°39′23.6″E / 49.2837611°N 6.656556°E / 49.2837611; 6.656556 (Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2){{#coordinates:49|17|1.54|N|6|39|23.6|E|type:landmark

name=Europe 1 transmitter, backup antenna, mast 2

}}

French language channel. The most powerful longwave transmitter in Germany; DRM test after 00:00 UTC.
189 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Template:Country data Iceland Gufuskalar near Hellissandur Slight oval bi-directivity aerial, top loaded parallel connected triangular loops, mast as a common member, all guys insulated except two radiating diametrically opposed grounded top guys, loops closed by copper straps in the ground from two conducting guy grounding points to base of the guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 412m. 300 54|26|N|23|55|19.5|W|type:landmark name=Hellissandur Longwave Mast

}}

198 BBC Radio 4 23x15px United Kingdom Droitwich (SFN) T-aerial on 2 guyed steel lattice masts insulated against ground with a height of 213 metres. 500 17|46.9|N|2|6|24.32|W|type:landmark name=Droitwich Mast 1

}} ; 52°17′40.4″N 2°6′20.62″W / 52.294556°N 2.1057278°W / 52.294556; -2.1057278 (Droitwich Mast 2){{#coordinates:52|17|40.4|N|2|6|20.62|W|type:landmark

name=Droitwich Mast 2

}}

All three transmitters carry Radio teleswitch PSK data. Droitwich relays BBC World Service from 01:00 to 05:20 UTC.
Burghead (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 154 m. 50 41|57.9|N|3|28|4.78|W|type:landmark name=Burghead Transmitter, Main Mast

}}

Westerglen (SFN) Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 152 m. 58|33|N|3|48|58.8|W|type:landmark name=Westerglen Mast

}}

Chaîne 1 23x15px Algeria Berkaoui 2000 low power estimated <10 kw and low modulation
207 RÚV Rás 1/RÚV Rás 2 Template:Country data Iceland Eiðar near Egilsstaðir Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 221 m. 100 22|22.93|N|14|20|27.29|W|type:landmark name=Eiðar Longwave Mast

}}

RTM A 23x15px Morocco Azilal Demnate 304.8 metres tall guyed mast 400
209 MNB Radio 1 23x15px Mongolia Choibalsan Cable-stayed steel truss mast, height: 275.84 metres 75 00|17.27|N|114|27|17.6|E|type:landmark name=Choibalsan transmitter

}}

Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
Dalanzadgad 31|54.43|N|104|24|41.4|E|type:landmark name=Dalanzadgad transmitter

}}

Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
Olgii Omnidirectional antenna, 352.5 metres high guyed mast 30 57|24.52|N|89|58|13.15|E|type:landmark name=Olgii transmitter

}}

Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
216 Radio Monte Carlo 23x15px Monaco Roumoules Directional aerial, 3 300 metre high guyed steel lattice masts, 330 metre high guyed steel lattice mast as backup aerial. 700/1400 47|41.45|N|6|8|48.41|E|type:landmark name=Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 1

}} ; 43°47′34.56″N 6°8′59.09″E / 43.7929333°N 6.1497472°E / 43.7929333; 6.1497472 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:43|47|34.56|N|6|8|59.09|E|type:landmark

name=Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 2

}}; 43°47′27.7″N 6°9′9.85″E / 43.791028°N 6.1527361°E / 43.791028; 6.1527361 (Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 3){{#coordinates:43|47|27.7|N|6|9|9.85|E|type:landmark

name=Roumoules Longwave Transmitter, Mast 3

}}, Backup antenna: 43°47′36.29″N 6°9′30.61″E / 43.7934139°N 6.1585028°E / 43.7934139; 6.1585028 (Roumoules transmitter, longwave backup mast){{#coordinates:43|47|36.29|N|6|9|30.61|E|type:landmark

name=Roumoules transmitter, longwave backup mast

}}

Transmitter located in France. In operation from 5:30 to 23:00 CET.
225 Polskie Radio 1 23x15px Poland Solec Kujawski Directional aerial, 2 guyed radio masts fed on the top, heights 330 m and 289 m. 1000 1|21.01|N|18|15|32.63|E|type:landmark name=Solec Kujawski transmitter, 330 metres tall mast

}} 53°1′12.83″N 18°15′44.06″E / 53.0202306°N 18.2622389°E / 53.0202306; 18.2622389 (Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast){{#coordinates:53|1|12.83|N|18|15|44.06|E|type:landmark

name=Solec Kujawski transmitter, 289 metres tall mast

}}

Earlier Konstantynów was used ( 52°22′3.91″N 19°48′7.04″E / 52.3677528°N 19.8019556°E / 52.3677528; 19.8019556 (Konstantynów Radio Mast ( destroyed)){{#coordinates:52|22|3.91|N|19|48|7.04|E|type:landmark name=Konstantynów Radio Mast ( destroyed)

}} )

227 MNB Radio 1 23x15px Mongolia Altai Cable-stayed steel truss mast. 75 19|25.52|N|96|15|31.2|E|type:landmark name=Altai transmitter

}}

Broadcasts from 21:00 to 14:00 UTC.
234 RTL 23x15px Luxembourg Beidweiler Directional aerial, 3 guyed grounded steel lattice masts, 290 m high, with vertical cage aerials. 1500/2000 43|42.57|N|6|19|4.29|E|type:landmark name=Beidweiler Radio Mast

}} ; 49°43′49.2″N 6°19′15.02″E / 49.730333°N 6.3208389°E / 49.730333; 6.3208389 (Beidweiler Radio Mast){{#coordinates:49|43|49.2|N|6|19|15.02|E|type:landmark

name=Beidweiler Radio Mast

}} ; 49°43′55.81″N 6°19′25.67″E / 49.7321694°N 6.3237972°E / 49.7321694; 6.3237972 (Beidweiler Radio Mast){{#coordinates:49|43|55.81|N|6|19|25.67|E|type:landmark

name=Beidweiler Radio Mast

}}

Spare transmitter site Junglinster ( 49°43′0.35″N 6°15′28.9″E / 49.7167639°N 6.258028°E / 49.7167639; 6.258028 (Junglinster Radio Tower){{#coordinates:49|43|0.35|N|6|15|28.9|E|type:landmark name=Junglinster Radio Tower

}} ; 49°43′6.56″N 6°15′40.27″E / 49.7184889°N 6.2611861°E / 49.7184889; 6.2611861 (Junglinster Radio Tower){{#coordinates:49|43|6.56|N|6|15|40.27|E|type:landmark

name=Junglinster Radio Tower

}} ; 49°43′12.75″N 6°15′51.44″E / 49.7202083°N 6.2642889°E / 49.7202083; 6.2642889 (Junglinster Radio Tower){{#coordinates:49|43|12.75|N|6|15|51.44|E|type:landmark

name=Junglinster Radio Tower

}} )

243 DR P1/DR P2 23x15px Denmark Kalundborg Semi-directional Alexanderson antenna 153/333 degrees, two grounded 118 m steel lattice radiating towers with interconnecting top wire capacitance. 50 40|39.27|N|11|4|8.6|E|type:landmark name=Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 1

}} ; 55°40′32.91″N 11°4′14.33″E / 55.6758083°N 11.0706472°E / 55.6758083; 11.0706472 (Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 2){{#coordinates:55|40|32.91|N|11|4|14.33|E|type:landmark

name=Kalundborg Transmitter Longwave Tower 2

}}

Transmitting in time slots only.
252 Chaîne 3 23x15px Algeria Tipaza Omnidirectional aerial, single guyed lattice steel mast, height 355 m. 750/1500 33|58.14|N|2|28|50.3|E|type:landmark name=Tipaza Longwave transmitter

}}

French language channel; during night-time half transmitter power.
RTÉ Radio 1 23x15px Ireland Clarkstown Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, insulated against ground, height 248 m. 100/300 27|46|N|6|40|39|W|type:landmark name=Clarkstown longwave mast

}}

The only AM transmitter for RTÉ Radio 1. Power is decreased at night to 100 kW. Transmitter will cease broadcasting on May 1st 2017.[15]
270 Czech Radio 1 23x15px Czech Republic Topolná Directional aerial (maximum of radiation in East-West direction), two grounded 257 m high guyed steel lattice mast with cage aerials. 50 7|32.88|N|17|30|45.97|E|type:landmark name=Topolná transmitter, Mast 1

}} ; 49°7′18.85″N 17°30′41.78″E / 49.1219028°N 17.5116056°E / 49.1219028; 17.5116056 (Topolná transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:49|7|18.85|N|17|30|41.78|E|type:landmark

name=Topolná transmitter, Mast 2

}}

Broadcast from Monday to Friday 5:00-24:00 CET and 6:00-24:00 CET at weekends.
279 Belaruskaje Radyjo 1 23x15px Belarus Sasnovy 500 24|31|N|28|31|57|E|type:landmark name=Sasnovy transmitter

}}

 
Turkmen Radio 1 23x15px Turkmenistan Ashgabat (Kartamak) Cable-stayed steel truss mast 150 51|14.89|N|58|21|57.99|E|type:landmark name=Ashgabat transmitter

}}

 

List of stations that have closed or are otherwise inactive:

  Closed
Freq. kHz Station name Country Location Aerial type Power kW Coordinates Remarks
153
Deutschlandfunk 23x15px Germany Donebach Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 363 m high, fed at the top 500 33|40.25|N|9|10|22.76|E|type:landmark name=Donebach transmitter, Mast 1

}}  ; 49°33′33.53″N 9°10′50.82″E / 49.5593139°N 9.1807833°E / 49.5593139; 9.1807833 (Donebach transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:49|33|33.53|N|9|10|50.82|E|type:landmark

name=Donebach transmitter, Mast 2

}}

closed
Radio Mayak 23x15px Turkmenistan Ashgabat 650 closed
YuFM 23x15px Russia Taldom transmitter Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 257 m height 300 45|30.04|N|37|37|12.17|E|type:landmark name=Taldom longwave transmitter, 153 kHz-mast

}}

closed
Radio Rossii Popova near Komsomolsk-na-Amure 1200 39|16.75|N|136|54|46.9|E|type:landmark name=Popova longwave transmitter

}}

closed
162 TRT Radyo 4 23x15px Turkey Agri Two guyed lattice steel masts, height 250 m 1000 46|23.11|N|43|02|14.55|E|type:landmark name=Agri transmitter, Mast 1

}} ; 39°46′25.86″N 43°02′33.32″E / 39.7738500°N 43.0425889°E / 39.7738500; 43.0425889 (Agri transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:39|46|25.86|N|43|02|33.32|E|type:landmark

name=Agri transmitter, Mast 2

}}

inactive
Radio Tashkent 1 23x15px Uzbekistan Tashkent 150 closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Norilsk Omnidirectional antenna, 205 m high antenna 150 22|46|N|87|6|26|E|type:landmark name=Norilsk transmitter

}} ?

closed
Radio Yuldash, Radio Rossii Ufa 46|19.73|N|56|0|17.02|E|type:landmark name=Ufa Radio Majak transmitter

}}

closed
171
23x15px Netherlands Lopik 500 closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Bolshakovo near Kaliningrad Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 54|42.62|N|21|43|2.32|E|type:landmark name=Bolshakovo longwave transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Ukraine 1 23x15px Ukraine Krasne near Lwów Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150/75 54|12.85|N|24|41|15.22|E|type:landmark name=Krasne longwave transmitter

}}

inactive
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Raduga Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 250 29|16|N|83|41|28|E|type:landmark name=Raduga longwave transmitter

}}

closed
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Murmansk Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 00|59.07|N|32|55|57.17|E|type:landmark name=Murmansk longwave transmitter

}}

closed
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Noginsk Omnidirectional antenna, 242 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 50|0.89|N|38|20|35.18|E|type:landmark name=Noginsk longwave transmitter

}}

closed
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Ezhva near Syktyvkar Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 49|09.34|N|50|41|26.42|E|type:landmark name=Zelenets longwave transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Tulagino near Yakutsk Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 6 ring masts 150 14|15.01|N|129|48|10.4|E|type:landmark name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, central mast

}} ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′0.85″E / 62.2396722°N 129.8002361°E / 62.2396722; 129.8002361 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast){{#coordinates:62|14|22.82|N|129|48|0.85|E|type:landmark

name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast

}} ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°47′51.2″E / 62.2375167°N 129.797556°E / 62.2375167; 129.797556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast){{#coordinates:62|14|15.06|N|129|47|51.2|E|type:landmark

name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast

}} ; 62°14′7.27″N 129°48′0.82″E / 62.2353528°N 129.8002278°E / 62.2353528; 129.8002278 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast){{#coordinates:62|14|7.27|N|129|48|0.82|E|type:landmark

name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast

}} ; 62°14′7.31″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2353639°N 129.80556°E / 62.2353639; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast){{#coordinates:62|14|7.31|N|129|48|20|E|type:landmark

name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast

}} ; 62°14′15.06″N 129°48′29.7″E / 62.2375167°N 129.808250°E / 62.2375167; 129.808250 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast){{#coordinates:62|14|15.06|N|129|48|29.7|E|type:landmark

name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast

}} ; 62°14′22.82″N 129°48′20″E / 62.2396722°N 129.80556°E / 62.2396722; 129.80556 (Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast){{#coordinates:62|14|22.82|N|129|48|20|E|type:landmark

name=Syrdakh longwave transmitter, ring mast

}}

closed
177 Deutschlandradio Kultur 23x15px Germany Zehlendorf near Oranienburg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial mounted on 359.7 m high guyed mast, triangle aerial on 3 150 m high guyed steel lattice masts 500 47|41.87|N|13|23|9.5|E|type:landmark name=Zehlendorf Longwave Mast

}}

closed
180 TRT Radyo 2 23x15px Turkey Polatli Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed latice steel mast 1200 45|22.46|N|32|25|6.24|E|type:landmark name=Polatli Longwave Mast

}}

inactive
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Yelizovo near Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy Omnidirectional antenna, 255 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 11|4.92|N|158|24|2.24|E|type:landmark name=Yelizovo Longwave Mast

}}

closed
Radio Mayak 23x15px Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, 200 m high guyed lattice steel mast 150 50|22.5|N|113|44|8.9|E|type:landmark name=Chita Longwave Mast

}}

inactive
Kazakh Radio 1 Template:Country data Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 250 closed
Radio Mayak Template:Country data Kazakhstan Aktyubinsk 150 closed
Template:Country data Kazakhstan Chimkent 50 closed
189 Rai Radio 1 23x15px Italy Caltanissetta Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast, height 282 m 10 29|53.05|N|14|04|04.08|E|type:landmark name=Caltanissetta transmitter

}}

closed
Sveriges Radio P1 23x15px Sweden Orlunda 300 25|37|N|14|58|38|E|type:landmark name=Orlunda radio transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Kostantinogradovka near Blagoveshchensk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1200 30|23.58|N|128|18|32.9|E|type:landmark name=Blagoveschensk transmitter

}}

closed
Sakartvelos Radio 23x15px Georgia Dusheti 250 03|1.76|N|44|40|37.56|E|type:landmark name=Dusheti transmitter

}}

inactive
198
Polskie Radio Parlament/Radio Polonia 23x15px Poland Raszyn Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast insulated against ground, 335 m high 200 4|21.72|N|20|53|2.15|E|type:landmark name=Raszyn Radio Mast

}}

closed[16]
Radio Mayak 23x15px Russia Saint Petersburg - Olgino Omnidirectional aerial, 205 m high guyed steel lattice mast 150 59|30.01|N|30|07|38.81|E|type:landmark name=Olgino Radio Mast

}}

inactive
Radio Mayak 23x15px Russia Angarsk Before 2001: T-antenna spun between 2 205 m tall guyed steel lattice mast 250 31|51.95|N|103|52|9.46|E|type:landmark name=Angarsk Radio Mast

}}, possibly 52°26′10.17″N 103°41′1.05″E / 52.4361583°N 103.6836250°E / 52.4361583; 103.6836250 (Irkutsk Radio Mast){{#coordinates:52|26|10.17|N|103|41|1.05|E|type:landmark

name=Irkutsk Radio Mast

}}

closed
Radio Mayak 23x15px Russia Avsyunino Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 150 35|13.75|N|39|09|57.84|E|type:landmark name=Avsyunino Radio Mast

}}

inactive
Radio Mayak 23x15px Russia Ufa 150 46|19.73|N|56|0|17.02|E|type:landmark name=Ufa Radio Majak transmitter

}}

closed
Template:Country data Kyrgyzstan Krasnaya Rechka near Bishkek 150 52|51.9|N|74|59|43.79|E|type:landmark name=Krasnorechenka transmitter

}}

closed
207
RNE Radio 5 23x15px Spain Logroño Directional antenna, 300 metres tall. >100 closed
Radio Ukraine 1 23x15px Ukraine Brovary Omnidirectional antenna, 259.6 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 600 29|48.8|N|30|48|9.2|E|type:landmark name=Brovary Longwave Mast

}}

closed
Jordan Radio Template:Country data Jordan Al Karanah  ? 45|55.47|N|36|28|44.97|E|type:landmark name=Al Karanah Longwave Mast

}} ; 31°45′29.66″N 36°28′59.11″E / 31.7582389°N 36.4830861°E / 31.7582389; 36.4830861 (Al Karanah Longwave Mast){{#coordinates:31|45|29.66|N|36|28|59.11|E|type:landmark

name=Al Karanah Longwave Mast

}}

closed
Radio Mayak 23x15px Russia Tynda Omnidirectional aerial, steel lattice mast insulated against ground, height 244 m 150 05|19.31|N|124|43|9.7|E|type:landmark name=Tynda Longwave Mast

}}

closed
Deutschlandfunk 23x15px Germany Aholming Directional aerial, two guyed steel lattice masts, 265 m high, fed at the top 500 43|50.55|N|12|55|47.04|E|type:landmark name=Aholming transmitter, Mast 1

}}  ; 48°43′38.46″N 12°56′2.06″E / 48.7273500°N 12.9339056°E / 48.7273500; 12.9339056 (Aholming transmitter, Mast 2){{#coordinates:48|43|38.46|N|12|56|2.06|E|type:landmark

name=Aholming transmitter, Mast 2

}}

closed
216
NRK P1 23x15px Norway Lambertseter near Oslo 200 closed
Azerbaijan Radio 23x15px Azerbaijan Baku 500 closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Krasnoyarsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 210 m tall 150 02|02.97|N|92|45|32.31|E|type:landmark name=Krasnoyarsk Longwave Transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Atamanovka Directional antenna 150 50|02|N|113|43|10|E|type:landmark name=Atamanovka Longwave Transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Birobidzhan 2 guyed masts, 260 m high 30 44|19.37|N|132|48|3.95|E|type:landmark name=Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter

}} ; 48°44′14.71″N 132°48′32.6″E / 48.7374194°N 132.809056°E / 48.7374194; 132.809056 (Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter){{#coordinates:48|44|14.71|N|132|48|32.6|E|type:landmark

name=Birobidzhan Longwave Transmitter

}}

closed
225 TRT GAP 23x15px Turkey Van Omnidirectional antenna, 250 m high guyed lattice steel mast 600 35|11.47|N|43|15|59.17|E|type:landmark name=Van transmitter

}}

inactive
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Surgut Omnidirectional antenna, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 23|35|N|72|53|20|E|type:landmark name=Surgut transmitter

}}

closed
234
Radio Moldova 23x15px Moldova Grigoriopol 1000 closed
23x15px Libya Yafran near Tripoli 1000 closed
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Krasny Bor transmitter near Sankt-Peterburg Omnidirectional aerial, 271.5 metres tall guyed mast with cage antenna 1200 39|12.32|N|30|41|50.12|E|type:landmark name=Krasny Bor transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Koskovo near Murmansk Omnidirectional aerial, 210 m tall guyed mast 250 21|35.83|N|41|23|4.01|E|type:landmark name=Koskovo transmitter

}}

inactive
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Novosemeykino near Samara Four 205 metres tall towers insulated against ground arranged in a square 2000 22|59.44|N|50|20|13.84|E|type:landmark name=Novosemeykino transmitter

}} ; 53°22′59.53″N 50°20′19.23″E / 53.3832028°N 50.3386750°E / 53.3832028; 50.3386750 (Novosemeykino transmitter){{#coordinates:53|22|59.53|N|50|20|19.23|E|type:landmark

name=Novosemeykino transmitter

}} ; 53°22′56.2″N 50°20′13.94″E / 53.382278°N 50.3372056°E / 53.382278; 50.3372056 (Novosemeykino transmitter){{#coordinates:53|22|56.2|N|50|20|13.94|E|type:landmark

name=Novosemeykino transmitter

}} ; 53°22′56.31″N 50°20′19.32″E / 53.3823083°N 50.3387000°E / 53.3823083; 50.3387000 (Novosemeykino transmitter){{#coordinates:53|22|56.31|N|50|20|19.32|E|type:landmark

name=Novosemeykino transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Raduzhnyy near Magadan Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 42|51.14|N|150|11|29.9|E|type:landmark name=Raduzhnyy transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Odinsk near Irkutsk Omnidirectional aerial, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 24|57.43|N|103|42|0.29|E|type:landmark name=Odinsk transmitter

}}

closed
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Koskovo near Arkhangelsk Omnidirectional aerial, 257 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 500 21|50.92|N|41|24|41.8|E|type:landmark name=Koskovo transmitter

}}

closed
243 TRT Radyo 4 23x15px Turkey Erzurum Omnidirectional antenna, 185 m high guyed lattice steel mast 200 59|53.59|N|41|06|40.95|E|type:landmark name=Erzurum Transmitter

}}

inactive
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Razdolnoye near Ussuriysk Omnidirectional antenna, 259 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 1000 32|18|N|131|55|46|E|type:landmark name=Razdoly'ne Transmitter

}}

closed
Kazakh Radio 1 Template:Country data Kazakhstan Karaganda Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 254 m height 1000 47|32.45|N|73|01|40.15|E|type:landmark name=Karaganda Transmitter

}}

closed
Kazakh Radio 2 Template:Country data Kazakhstan Alma-Ata 1000 closed
252
Yle Radio 1 23x15px Finland Lahti 200 N|25.644195|E|type:landmark name=Lahti longwave transmitter

}}, 60°58′43″N 25°38′57″E / 60.978747°N 25.649155°E / 60.978747; 25.649155 (Lahti longwave transmitter){{#coordinates:60.978747|N|25.649155|E|type:landmark||||

name=Lahti longwave transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Kazan Omnidirectional aerial, 152 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna ( ARRT-antenna) 100 49|6.3|N|49|10|24.64|E|type:landmark name=Kazan longwave mast

}}

closed
261 Radioropa Info 23x15px Germany Burg Omnidirectional aerial, cage aerial on 324 m high guyed, grounded steel lattice mast, 210 m high steel tube mast, insulated against ground 200 17|12.93|N|11|53|50.52|E|type:landmark name=Burg transmitter, main mast

}}

inactive
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Taldom Omnidirectional antenna, circle antenna with 1 central and 5 ring masts, height of central mast 275 m 2500 43|59.86|N|37|39|47.51|E|type:landmark name=Taldom transmitter, Central Mast

}} ; 56°44′10.32″N 37°39′46.53″E / 56.7362000°N 37.6629250°E / 56.7362000; 37.6629250 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast){{#coordinates:56|44|10.32|N|37|39|46.53|E|type:landmark

name=Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast

}} ; 56°44′2.54″N 37°39′29.17″E / 56.7340389°N 37.6581028°E / 56.7340389; 37.6581028 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast){{#coordinates:56|44|2.54|N|37|39|29.17|E|type:landmark

name=Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast

}} ; 56°43′51.09″N 37°39′37.2″E / 56.7308583°N 37.660333°E / 56.7308583; 37.660333 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast){{#coordinates:56|43|51.09|N|37|39|37.2|E|type:landmark

name=Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast

}} ; 56°43′51.76″N 37°39′59.6″E / 56.7310444°N 37.666556°E / 56.7310444; 37.666556 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast){{#coordinates:56|43|51.76|N|37|39|59.6|E|type:landmark

name=Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast

}} ; 56°44′3.64″N 37°40′5.34″E / 56.7343444°N 37.6681500°E / 56.7343444; 37.6681500 (Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast){{#coordinates:56|44|3.64|N|37|40|5.34|E|type:landmark

name=Taldom transmitter, Ring Mast

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Kruchina near Chita Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 260 m high 150 50|22.5|N|113|44|8.9|E|type:landmark name=Chita Longwave Mast

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Tyumen Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 150 closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Vorkuta Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 220 m high 50 closed
Radio Horizont 23x15px Bulgaria Vakarel One of the few Blaw-Knox Towers in Europe, 215 m high 75 34|35.18|N|23|41|55.52|E|type:landmark name=Vakarel Transmitter

}}

closed
270
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Orenburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 137 m height 25 46|44.37|N|55|06|23.01|E|type:landmark name=Orenburg transmitter

}}

closed
Radio 1 23x15px Russia Khabarovsk 2 guyed steel lattice masts, height: 164 m 150 30|43.48|N|135|07|02.24|E|type:landmark name=Chabarovsk transmitter

}} ; 48°30′48.75″N 135°07′18.15″E / 48.5135417°N 135.1217083°E / 48.5135417; 135.1217083 (Chabarovsk transmitter){{#coordinates:48|30|48.75|N|135|07|18.15|E|type:landmark

name=Chabarovsk transmitter

}}

closed
279
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Gorno-Altaisk Omnidirectional antenna, 143m high guyed lattice steel mast 50 58|1.12|N|85|54|54.68|E|type:landmark name=Gorno-Altaisk transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Selenginsk Omnidirectional aerial, 260 m high guyed lattice steel mast with cage antenna (ARRT-antenna) 150 02|17.52|N|106|56|25.6|E|type:landmark name=Selenginsk transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Vestochka near Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Omnidirectional antenna, guyed lattice steel mast, 258 m high 1000 50|35|N|142|53|44|E|type:landmark name=Vestochka transmitter

}}

closed
Radio Rossii 23x15px Russia Yekaterinburg Omnidirectional aerial, guyed steel lattice mast of 256 m height, fed at the top 150 53|22.46|N|60|41|30.22|E|type:landmark name=Yekaterinburg longwave transmitter

}}

closed

<div class="thumb tnone" style="margin-left: auto; margin-right:auto; width:99%; max-width:Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character "[".px;">

Height diagram of the antenna towers and antenna masts of longwave broadcasting stations
</div>


See also

Notes and references

  1. "long wave". Cambridge Online Dictionary. Cambridge Univ. Press, UK. 2011. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  2. "long wave". MacMillan Online Dictionary. MacMillan Publishers. 2009. Retrieved December 29, 2012. 
  3. Graf, Rudolf F. Graf (1999). Modern Dictionary of Electronics, 7th Ed. US: Newnes. p. 437. ISBN 0750698667. 
  4. The World Book Dictionary. US: World Book, Inc. 2003. p. 1232. ISBN 0716602997. 
  5. "About LWCA". Longwave Club of America. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  6. SAQ Transmission.Radiostation Grimeton SAQ. Retrieved April 5, 2015.
  7. Ground-wave propagation curves for frequencies between 10 kHz and 30 MHz. ITU-R Recommendation P.368-9
  8. Guide to Broadcasting Stations (17th ed.). Butterworth. 1973. p. 18. ISBN 0-592-00081-8. 
  9. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/blogs-news-from-elsewhere-25683656
  10. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Langwellenrundfunk
  11. World Radio TV Handbook
  12. [1]
  13. [2]
  14. http://structurae.net/structures/ulan-bator-longwave-transmission-mast
  15. http://www.irishpost.co.uk/news/rte-radio-postpones-longwave-radio-closure-until-2017
  16. http://www.wiadomosci24.pl/artykul/bez_radia_w_raszynie_105054.html

External links

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