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M72 LAW

Template:Infobox Weapon

External images
1960s Weapons Similar to M72
16px SARPAC top, M72 LAW middle, MINIMAN bottom

The M72 LAW (Light Anti-Tank Weapon, also referred to as the Light Anti-Armor Weapon or LAW as well as LAWS Light Anti-Armor Weapons System) is a portable one-shot 66 mm unguided anti-tank weapon. The solid rocket propulsion unit was developed in the newly formed Rohm and Haas research laboratory at Redstone Arsenal in 1959,[1] then the full system was designed by Paul V. Choate, Charles B. Weeks, Frank A. Spinale, et al. at the Hesse-Eastern Division of Norris Thermadore. American production of the weapon began by Hesse-Eastern in 1963, and was terminated by 1983; currently it is produced by Nammo Raufoss AS in Norway and their subsidiary Nammo Talley, Inc. in Arizona.[2]

In early 1963, the M72 LAW was adopted by the U.S. Army and U.S. Marine Corps as their primary individual infantry anti-tank weapon, replacing the M31 HEAT rifle grenade and the M20A1 "Super Bazooka" in the U.S. Army. It was subsequently adopted by the U.S. Air Force to serve in an anti-emplacement/anti-armor role in Air Base Defense duties.[3][note 1]

It had been intended in the early 1980s that the M72 would be replaced by the FGR-17 Viper. However, this program was canceled by Congress and the M136 AT4 was introduced instead. At that time, its nearest equivalents were the Swedish Pskott m/68 (Miniman) and the French SARPAC.[note 2]

History

The increased importance of tanks and other armored vehicles in World War II caused a need for portable infantry weapons to deal with them. The first to be used (with limited success) were Molotov cocktails, flamethrowers, satchel charges, jury-rigged landmines, and specially designed magnetic hollow charges. All of these had to be used within a few meters of the target, which was difficult and dangerous.

The U.S. Army introduced the bazooka, the first rocket-propelled grenade launcher. Despite early problems, it was a success and was copied by other countries.

However, the bazooka had its drawbacks. Large and easily damaged, it required a well trained two-man crew. Germany developed a one man alternative, the Panzerfaust. The one-shot launchers were cheap and required no special training. As a result, they were regularly issued to Volkssturm home guard regiments. They were very efficient against tanks during the last days World War II. However, the Panzerfaust was not rocket launchers but instead a recoilless rifle.

The M72 LAW is a combination of the two World War II weapons. The basic principle is a miniaturized bazooka, while its light weight and cheapness is similar to the Panzerfaust.

Description

File:LAW-1961.jpg
1961 LAW prototype, showing the rejected front sight that also served as the front cover

The weapon consists of a rocket packed inside of a launcher made up of two tubes, one inside the other. While closed, the outer assembly acts as a watertight container for the rocket and the percussion cap-type firing mechanism that activates the rocket. The outer tube contains the trigger, the arming handle, front and rear sights, and the rear cover. The inner tube contains the channel assembly, which houses the firing pin assembly, including the detent lever. When extended, the inner tube telescopes outward toward the rear, guided by the channel assembly, which rides in an alignment slot in the outer tube's trigger housing assembly. This causes the detent lever to move under the trigger assembly in the outer tube, both locking the inner tube in the extended position and cocking the weapon. Once armed, the weapon is no longer watertight, even if the launcher is collapsed into its original configuration.

When fired, the striker in the rear tube impacts a primer, which ignites a small amount of powder that "flashes" down a tube to the rear of the rocket igniting the propellant in the rocket motor. The rocket motor burns completely before leaving the mouth of the launcher, producing gases around Script error: No such module "convert".. The rocket propels the 66 mm warhead forward without significant recoil. As the warhead emerges from the launcher, six fins spring out from the base of the rocket tube, stabilizing the warhead's flight.[note 3] The early LAW warhead, developed from the M31 HEAT rifle grenade warhead, uses a simple, but extremely safe and reliable, piezoelectric fuze system. On impact with the target, the front of the nose section is crushed causing a micro-second electric current to be generated, which detonates the warhead. The fuse then detonates a booster charge located in the base of the warhead, which sets off the main warhead charge. The force of the main charge forces the copper liner into a directional particle jet that, in relation to the size of the warhead, is capable of a massive amount of penetration.

A unique mechanical set-back safety on the base of the detonator grounds the circuit until the missile has accelerated out of the tube. The acceleration causes the three disks in the safety mechanism to rotate 90 degrees in succession, ungrounding the circuit; the circuit from the nose to the base of the detonator is then completed when the piezo-electric crystal is crushed on impact.

Ammunition

File:M72 1.gif
M72 LAW's rocket
File:Law ftbenning 1960 04.jpg
M72 demonstration at Fort Benning, Georgia in the 1960s. Note the M1 rifle slung over the soldier's back.

The M72A2 LAW was issued as a prepackaged round of ammunition. Improvements to the launcher and differences in the ammunition were differentiated by a single designation. The most common M72A2 LAWs came prepacked with a rocket containing a 66 mm HEAT warhead which is attached to the inside of the launcher by the igniter. The standard M72A2 anti-armor HEAT warhead has an official stated penetration in 1977 of up to 20 cm/8 inches of steel plate, Script error: No such module "convert". of reinforced concrete, or Script error: No such module "convert". of soil.[4][note 4]

A training variant of the M72 LAW, designated the M190, also exists. This weapon is reloadable and uses the 35 mm M73 training rocket. A subcaliber training device that uses a special tracer cartridge also exists for the M72. A training variant used by the Finnish armed forces fires 7.62 mm tracer rounds.

The US Army tested other 66 mm rockets based on the M54 rocket motor used for the M72. The M74 TPA (Thickened Pyrophoric Agent) had an Incendiary warhead filled with TEA (triethylaluminium); this was used in the M202A1 FLASH (FLame Assault SHoulder weapon) 4-tube launcher. The XM96 RCR (Riot Control Rocket) had a CS gas-filled warhead for crowd control and was used with the XM191 quadruple-tube launcher.

Once fired in combat, the launcher is required to be destroyed to prevent its use by the enemy as a booby-trap; the enemy could collapse the launcher to its original configuration, fill it with explosives, and rig it to explode if moved by a soldier believing it to be unused. Due to the single use nature of the weapon, it was issued as what is called a "wooden-round"[5] of ammunition by the Canadian Army and the United States Army, requiring no checks or maintenance, just as small arms ammunition can be stored in the same manner for years without any problems.

Service history

Australia

The M72 rocket has been in Australian service since the Vietnam War.[6][7] Currently, the Australian Defence Force uses the M72A6 variant[8] as an anti-structure and secondary anti-armor weapon. The weapon is used by ordinary troops at the section (squad) level and complements the heavier 84 mm Carl Gustav recoilless rifle and Javelin missile; which are generally utilized by specialized fire support and anti-armor troops.[9]

Republic of China

The Republic of China Army (Taiwan) uses the M72 as a secondary anti-armor weapon. It is used primarily as a backup to the Javelin and M136 (AT4) anti-tank weapons.[citation needed] The weapon is known in Taiwan as Type 66 rocket launcher due to its caliber.

File:M72A2 LAW 1969.jpg
Packing crates are used to demonstrate the danger of the M72 back blast

Finland

The M72 LAW is used in the Finnish Army (some 70,000 pieces), where it is known under the designations 66 KES 75 (M72A2, no longer in service) and 66 KES 88 (M72A5). In accordance with the weapon's known limitations, a pair of "tank buster" troops crawl to a firing position some 50 to 150 meters away from the target, bringing with them four to six LAWs, which are then used in rapid succession until the target is destroyed or incapacitated. Due to its low penetration capability, it's mostly used against light armored targets. The M72 is the most common AT weapon in the Finnish Army.[citation needed] Finland has recently upgraded its stocks to the M72 EC LAW Mk.I version. It is designated 66 KES 12.[10] It also fields the bunker buster version, named M72 ASM RC, and locally designated 66 KES 12 RAK. The oldest version 66 KES 75 is now retired.

Turkey

The Turkish Army uses a locally-built version by Makina ve Kimya Endustrisi Kurumu, called HAR-66 (Hafif Antitank Roketi, Light Antitank Rocket), which has the performance and characteristics of a mix of M72A2 and A3. Turkey also indigenously developed an anti-personnel warhead version of HAR-66 AP and called it "Eşek Arısı" (Wasp).[11]

United Kingdom

The British Army had previously used the NAMMO M72 under the designation "Rocket 66 mm HEAT L1A1" but was replaced by the LAW 80 during the 1980s.[12] The M72 rocket was reintroduced into British service under the Urgent Operational Requirement program, with the M72A9 variant being designated the Light Anti-Structure Munition (LASM).[13][14][15]

United States

M72 as used in Vietnam, 1968.
Modern M72 in use in Afghanistan with U.S. Marines, 2008.

During the Vietnam and post-Vietnam periods, all issued LAWs were recalled due to instances of the warhead exploding in flight, sometimes injuring the operator. After safety improvements, part of the training and firing drills included the requirement to ensure the words "w/coupler" were included in the text description stenciled on the launcher, which indicated the launcher had the required safety modification(s).[citation needed][note 5]

With the failure of the M72 replacement the Viper, Congress in late 1982 ordered the US Army to test off-the-shelf light antitank weapons and report back by the end of 1983. In partnership with Raufoss AS, Talley Defense offered the M72E5, which offered increased range, penetration and better sights, which was tested along with five other light anti-armor weapons in 1983. Despite the improvements the M72E5 offered, the AT4 was chosen to replace the M72.[16][note 6]

Although generally thought of as a Vietnam War era weapon that has been superseded by the more powerful AT4, the M72 LAW found a new lease of life in the operations by the U.S. Army, the U.S. Marine Corps, and Canadian Army in Iraq and Afghanistan. The lower cost and lighter weight of the LAW, combined with a lack of modern heavy armored targets and the need for an individual assault vs an individual antiarmor weapon, made it ideal for the type of urban combat seen in Iraq and mountain warfare seen in Afghanistan. In addition, a soldier can can two LAWS on a mission as opposed to only one AT4.[17]

The U.S. Marine Corps Systems Command at Quantico, Virginia placed a 15.5 million dollar fixed contract order with Talley Defense for 7,750 M72A7s, with delivery to be completed in April 2011.[18][19] The M72A7 LAW is an improvement on its previous versions. It includes an improved rocket motor for a higher velocity to accurately engage targets past 200 meters, an insensitive munitions warhead to reduce the chance of an accidental explosion, and a picatinny rail to mount laser pointers and night sights. The LAW is useful in Afghanistan as a small and light rocket system for use against short and medium-range targets by foot patrols in the difficult terrain and high elevations of the country.[20] The U.S. military is still purchasing LAW rockets as of January 2015.[21]

The Philippines

The Philippine Army uses an unknown number of M72 LAWs.

Variants

File:Defense.gov photo essay 080620-F-9876D-219.jpg
Exposed M72A6 rockets (lower right) alongside M72A6 tubes and ammunition for 84 mm Carl Gustav recoilless rifles; awaiting destruction.

US variants

Designation Description
M72 66 mm Talley single shot disposable rocket launcher; pre-loaded with HEAT rocket
M72A1 M72 variant; improved rocket motor
M72A2 M72 variant; improved rocket motor
M72A3 M72A1/A2 variant; safety upgrades
M72A4 M72 variant; rocket optimised for high-penetration; uses improved launcher assembly
M72A5 M72A3; uses improved launcher assembly
M72A6 M72 variant; rocket with low penetration, improved blast effect; uses improved launcher assembly
M72A7 M72A6 variant; US Army M72A6 variant for US Navy
M72E8 M72A7 variant; Fire-From-Enclosure (FFE) capable rocket motor; uses improved launcher assembly
M72E9 M72 variant; rocket with improved anti-armor capability; uses improved launcher assembly
M72E10 M72 variant; HE-Frag rocket; uses improved launcher assembly
M72AS 21 mm reusable trainer
External images
M72 Enhancements Early 1980s
16px M72E4, M72E5, M72E6 – Talley brochure
16px Pop-up "Rifle Sights" adopted from canceled Viper – Talley brochure

International versions

Designation Description
M72 EC LAW Mk.I M72 variant (Enhanced Capacity); rocket with improved anti-armor capability; uses improved launcher assembly
M72 ASM RC M72 variant (Anti Structure Munition-Reduced Caliber); HE-Frag rocket; uses improved launcher assembly

International designations

Designation Nation Description
66 KES 75 Finland Designation for the M72A2
66 KES 88 Finland Designation for the M72A5
66 KES 12 Finland Designation for the M72 EC LAW Mk.I
66 KES 12 RAK Finland Designation for the M72 ASM RC
HAR-66 Turkey Turkish variant incorporating M72A2 rocket improvements and M72A3 safety improvements
Rocket 66 mm HEAT L1A1 United Kingdom Designation for the M72
Light Anti-Structures Missile (LASM) United Kingdom Designation for the M72A9

Specifications (M72A2 and M72A3)

Launcher

  • Length:
    • Extended: less than Script error: No such module "convert"..
    • Closed: Script error: No such module "convert"..
  • Weight:
    • Complete M72A2: Script error: No such module "convert"..
    • Complete M72A3: Script error: No such module "convert"..
  • Firing mechanism: Percussion.
  • Front sight: reticle graduated in 25 m range increments.
  • Rear sight: peep sight adjusts automatically to temperature change.

Rocket

  • Caliber: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Length: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Weight: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Muzzle velocity: 145 m/s (475 ft/s)
  • Minimum range (combat): Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Minimum arming range: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Maximum range: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Penetration: Script error: No such module "convert".[4]

Maximum effective ranges

  • Stationary target: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Moving target: Script error: No such module "convert".
  • Beyond these ranges there is less than a 50% chance of hitting the target.

Users

Former users

See also

Similar weapons

Notes

  1. ^ The U.S. Army partially replaced the Super Bazooka not only with the M72 LAW, but also M67 recoilless rifle and U.S. Marines kept the Super Bazooka in service till the late 1960s
  2. ^ SARPAC was never adopted by the French Army – export only
  3. ^ note – no matter what you see in the movies, training films show that there is no "Whoosh!" on launch – ie more of a loud "BANG!!" or a "BLOOP!" for the training versions – and there is no smoke trail behind the rocket as it heads towards the target
  4. ^ Note – before the publication of FM-7 September 1977, various penetration specifications were given for the M72A2 and the M31 HEAT. Anywhere from 250 mm to 305 mm. In the mid-1970s, the US Army decided to determine the armor penetration under battlefield conditions again Soviet-made tanks captured in 1973. The result was 20 cm/8 inches; the proceeding penetration specification is stated as it appears in FM-7 1977.
  5. ^ Some reports state it was over water in the flash tube causing dangerous misfires and unproven rumors of possible sabotage at the manufacturing plant during the Vietnam War
  6. ^ Various reports in 1983 stated that during the Congressional mandated tests the first M72E5 tested had an accuracy problem, because of its larger-diameter rocket motor, interfered with the deployment of all the stabilizing fins after leaving the launcher. The manufactures have since made modifications that have worked that problem out.

References

  1. ^ E. T. DeRieux et al "Final Report – Development of LAW Propulsion Unit," R&H RARD, Technical Report No. S-12, December 1959
  2. ^ "M72 products". Nammo Talley, Inc. Retrieved September 25, 2014.
  3. ^ Mary T. Cagle "History of the TOW Missile System" page 10, U.S. Army 1977 Redstone Arsenal Pdf file of official TOW history that discussed the new family of antitank weapons, the M72 LAW, the Dragon and the TOW
  4. ^ a b US Army publication September 30, 1977 "FM-7 The Mechanized Infantry Platoon/Squad Section B-21"
  5. ^ "Space and Electronic Warfare Lexicon". Retrieved 30 October 2010. 
  6. ^ REL22751 – M72 (L1A2F1) Rocket LauncherAustralian War Memorial. Accessed December 2010.
  7. ^ Weapons Used by Infantry Rifle Sectionsdiggerhistory.info. Accessed December 2010.
  8. ^ "Air Force technology: Equipment – Defence Jobs Australia". Defencejobs.gov.au. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  9. ^ [1][dead link]
  10. ^ Ruotuväki 5/2013
  11. ^ "MKEK Makina ve Kimya Endüstrisi Kurumu / Mechanical and Chemical Industry Corporation". Mkek.gov.tr. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  12. ^ "Jane's Infantry Weapons 1995–1996" page 686
  13. ^ "LASM – British Army Website". Army.mod.uk. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  14. ^ Oh, the Horror, the Horror at the Wayback Machine (archived March 26, 2008)
  15. ^ "M72 Light Anti-tank (sic) Weapon System (LAW)". Gary's U.S. Infantry Weapons Reference Guide. 
  16. ^ D. Kyle, Armed Forces Journal International/November 1983 "Viper Dead, Army Picks AT-4 Antitank Missile" page 21
  17. ^ "Marines Fought the LAW, and the LAW Won". Defenseindustrydaily.com. 2005-03-10. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  18. ^ John Antal "Packing a Punch: America's Man-Portable Antitank Weapons" page 88 Military Technology 3/2010 ISSN 0722-3226
  19. ^ "Light Assault Weapon (LAW)". FBO.gov. 
  20. ^ Modernizing and equipping the force (Part 1) – Army.mil, 30 December 2010
  21. ^ Nammo awarded contract to supply M72 Lightweight Assault Weapon variants to the U.S. DoD - Armyrecognition.com, 6 January 2015
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (January 27, 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
  23. ^ "El Salvador". Military Technology World Defence Almanac (Bonn : Wehr & Wissen): 60. 2005. ISSN 0722-3226. 
  24. ^ [2]
  25. ^ http://www.idf.il/1283-17900-EN/Dover.aspx
  26. ^ "Armament of the Georgian Army". Geo-army.ge. Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  27. ^ [3]
  28. ^ [4][dead link]
  29. ^ "M72 LAW". 
  30. ^ Owen, William F. (2007). "Light Anti-Armour Weapons: Anti-Everything?" (PDF). http://asianmilitaryreview.com – Asian Military Review. Retrieved 2010-05-12. 
  31. ^ "Same Difference – The 66 is Back". 
  32. ^ "David Thompkins Interview". GWU. 14 February 1999. Retrieved 17 October 2011. 

External links

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