Macedonia naming dispute
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The following international organisations use the reference adopted by the UN – "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (or a variant thereof) in their official proceedings:
- United Nations
- European Union
- NATO with a footnote in all referring documents that Turkey recognises the country as Macedonia
- International Monetary Fund
- OECD and DAC–OECD (Development Co-operation Directorate),
- World Trade Organization
- International Olympic Committee
- World Bank
- Council of Europe
- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
- Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
- Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
- International Mathematics Olympiad
- Association of Tennis Professionals
The constitutional name of the country "Republic of Macedonia" and the short name "Macedonia" when referring to the country, can be considered offensive by most Greeks, especially inhabitants of the Greek region of Macedonia. The Greek government officially uses the United Nations' provisional reference for the country ("the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia") and by the main international organisations, including the United Nations. The official reasons for this, as described by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, are:
The FYROM name issue is not simply a dispute over historical facts and symbols. It is a problem with regional and international dimensions, given that FYROM is exercising a policy of irredentism and territorial claims fuelled by the falsification of history and the usurpation of Greece's historical and national heritage. In its current form, the FYROM name issue arose in 1991, when FYROM declared its independence under the name Republic of Macedonia. Historically, the Greek name Macedonia refers to the state and civilisation of the ancient Macedonians, which beyond doubt is part of Greece's national and historical heritage and bears no relation whatsoever with the residents of FYROM, who are Slavs by descent and arrived in region of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia at a much later stage. Geographically, the term Macedonia refers to a broader region that includes portions of the territories of various Balkan countries (mainly Greece, FYROM and Bulgaria). However, the greater part of geographical Macedonia coincides with the area covered by the ancient Greek Macedonia, which lies within the boundaries of modern Greece. Some 2.5 million Greek citizens currently live in the Greek part of Macedonia, whose inhabitants have called and considered themselves Macedonians since time immemorial. The name issue originated in the aftermath of the Second World War, when Josip Broz Tito separated the area then known as Vardar Banovina (now FYROM) from Serbia, granting it the status of a Republic within the new federal Yugoslavia, under the name Socialist Republic of Macedonia, concurrently promoting the doctrine of a separate Macedonian Nation. Obviously, the most important reason for opting to promote the doctrine of Macedonianism at clear variance with the geographical reality of the broader region of Macedonia was his desire to gain access to the Aegean Sea by cultivating the notion of reunification of all Macedonian territories...
The Greek side calls for:
- the adoption of a definitive composite name with geographical qualification of the term Macedonia, for all purposes (erga omnes) and for all uses, so as to avoid confusion with Greek Macedonia and to put an end to the irredentist policy and territorial aspirations of FYROM,
- that FYROM genuinely renounces the usurpation of historical and national heritage of the Greek people,
- Endorsement of the definitive solution by the UN Security Council, so as to ensure respect for its implementation.
The former Prime Minister and leader of the governing party, PASOK, George Papandreou has stated that "in January 2002, when he was Minister for Foreign Affairs, was next to a deal with Skopje leadership about using the name "Горна Македонија" ("Gorna Makedonija" - "Upper Macedonia" in Slavic). The other parties and the President of the Republic, he said, were informed but the solution process didn't work, because the Tetovo crisis broke out." The Academy of Athens concludes:
The adoption of a compound name with a geographic content and with respect for the distinction between ancient Macedonia and the state of FYROM, would serve both the truth and the present-day needs of the geographic region and of the larger area surrounding it. The Greek interest does indicate the concern of public opinion in the face of intransigent provocations on the part of Skopje that tend — as is evident even in the school textbooks — not only to appropriate but even to monopolise the history, the cultural achievements, the symbols — including the ancient ones —, the monuments, and the personalities that were active in the Macedonian area in the past. It is self-evident that the expression of good will on the part of any Greek government is not sufficient to overcome the fact or the effects of nationalist excesses similar to those that were artfully cultivated during the post-war period.
The Greek concerns can be analyzed as follows:
According to historian Eugene Borza, the ethnic Macedonians, being "a newly emergent people in search of a past to help legitimise their precarious present" whose ethnicity developed in the twentieth century, had no history and needed one.
Greeks argue that the name Macedonia is historically inseparably associated with Greek culture, ever since the ancient kingdom of Macedonia and the ancient Macedonians. They therefore consider that only Greeks have a historical right to use the name today, since the modern southern Slavs arrived 1,000 years after that kingdom, lacking any relation to ancient Macedonia or its Greek culture. Efforts by ethnic Macedonians to construct a narrative of ethnic continuity linking them to the ancient Macedonians in various ways and symbolic actions underlining such claims, such as the public use of the Vergina sun symbol as a flag of the Republic of Macedonia, or the renaming of Skopje Airport to "Alexander the Great Airport" meet strong criticism from the Greek side, much of the international media that report on the issue, and even from moderate political views in the Republic of Macedonia itself.
A 22-meter tall statue, "Man on a Horse," depicting Alexander the Great was erected in 2011 in Skopje, the capital city of the Republic of Macedonia, as part of a historical public arts building campaign. Greece scornfully characterised the effort, with the foreign ministry commenting on the size of the statue as "inversely proportional to seriousness and historical truth". The project received criticism by the European Union, calling it "not helpful" as well as by Skopje architects and ethnic Macedonian academics and politicians commenting on the aesthetic outcome and the semantics of such a move.
Some Greek historians emphasise the late emergence of a "Macedonian" nation, often pointing to 1944 as the date of its "artificial" creation under Josip Broz Tito, discounting earlier roots in the 19th and early 20th century.
The Greek view also stresses that the name Macedonia as a geographical term historically used to refer typically to the southern, Greek parts of the region (including the capital of the ancient kingdom, Pella), and not or only marginally to the territory of today's Republic. They also note that the territory was not called Macedonia as a political entity until 1944.
- Map Macedonia province.png
Roman province of Macedonia (146 BC – 4th century AD)
Modern region of Macedonia in Greece
During the Greek Civil War, in 1947 the Greek Ministry of Press and Information published a book, Ἡ ἐναντίον τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἐπιβουλή (Designs on Greece), including documents and speeches on the ongoing Macedonian issue, many translations from Yugoslav officials. It reports Josip Broz Tito using the term "Aegean Macedonia" on 11 October 1945 in the buildup to the Greek Civil War; the original document is archived in ‘GFM A/24581/G2/1945’. For Athens in 1947, the “new term, Aegean Macedonia”, (also “Pirin Macedonia”), was introduced by Yugoslavs. Contextually, this observation indicates this was part of the Yugoslav offensive against Greece, laying claim to Greek Macedonia, but Athens does not seem to take issue with the term itself. The 1945 date concurs with Bulgarian sources.
Tito's wartime representative to Macedonia, General Tempo (Svetozar Vukmanovic), is credited with promoting the usage of the new regional names of the Macedonian region for irredentist purposes. Concerns over territorial implications of the usage of the term "Macedonian" were expressed as early as 1944 by US diplomats.
Greece suspects that the Republic of Macedonia has territorial ambitions in the northern Greek provinces of Macedonia. This has been a Greek concern for decades; as far back as 1957, the Greek government expressed concern about reported Yugoslav ambitions to create an "independent" People's Republic of Macedonia with the Greek city of Thessaloniki as its capital, ambitions that now exist amongst citizens of the Republic of Macedonia.
Loring M. Danforth ascribes the goal of a "free, united, and independent Macedonia" including "liberated" Bulgarian and Greek territory to a fraction of extreme Macedonian nationalists, whereas more moderate ethnic Macedonians recognise the inviolability of the borders but regard the presence of ethnic Macedonians in the neighbouring countries as an issue of minority protection.
Greek analysts and politicians have expressed concerns that overseas observers tend to overlook or not to understand the severity of the perceived territorial threat and tend to misunderstand the conflict as a trivial issue over just a name.
The concerns are further reinforced by the fact that extremist ethnic Macedonian nationalists of the "United Macedonia" movement have expressed irredentist claims to what they refer to as "Aegean Macedonia" (in Greece), "Pirin Macedonia" (in Bulgaria), "Mala Prespa and Golo Brdo" (in Albania), and "Gora and Prohor Pchinski" (in Serbia).
Greek Macedonians, Bulgarians, Albanians and Serbs form the overwhelming majority of the population of each part of the region respectively.
In April 2008, Foreign Minister of Greece Dora Bakoyannis complained about the prime minister of the Republic of Macedonia Nikola Gruevski appearing in a photograph, by a map of "Greater Macedonia". The complaint was made inside an article published at Wall Street Journal, regarding the NATO ascension talks.
According to both the official Greek position and various public demonstrations in Greece and the Greek diaspora, the Greek Macedonians feel that their right to self-determination is violated by what they regard as the monopolisation of their name by a neighbouring country.
The strong regional identity of the Macedonians was emphasised by the Prime Minister of Greece, Kostas Karamanlis, who in January 2007 during a meeting of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg declared that:
I am a Macedonian, just like two and a half million Greeks.
In Greece, the extreme position on the issue suggests that there must be "no Macedonia in the title" of a neighbouring country.
Professor Danforth reports:
From the Greek nationalist perspective, then, the use of the name "Macedonian" by the "Slavs of Skopje" constitutes a "felony", an "act of plagiarism" against the Greek people. By calling themselves "Macedonians" the Slavs are "stealing" a Greek name; they are "embezzling" Greek cultural heritage; they are "falsifying" Greek history. As Evangelos Kofos, a historian employed by the Greek Foreign Ministry told a foreign reporter, "It is as if a robber came into my house and stole my most precious jewels — my history, my culture, my identity".
More moderate positions suggest that a disambiguating element should be added to the name of the neighbouring state and its people (such as Vardar or New ), so as to illustrate the distinction between not just the two, but all groups of self-identifying Macedonians.
c. 5 million
|All inhabitants of the region, irrespective of ethnicity|
c. 1.3 million plus diaspora
|A contemporary ethnic group, also referred to as Slavomacedonians or Macedonian Slavs|
c. 2.0 million
|Citizens of the Republic of Macedonia irrespective of ethnicity|
c. 2.6 million plus diaspora
|An ethnic Greek regional group, also referred to as Greek Macedonians.|
|A group of antiquity|
|A Bulgarian regional group; also referred to as Piriners.|
c. 0.3 million*
|An alternative name for Aromanians, who sometimes call themselves Makedonji|
The contemporary region of Macedonia is a wider region in the Balkan peninsula that spans across several modern states, mainly Greece (Aegean Macedonia), Bulgaria (Blagoevgrad province), the Republic of Macedonia, and Albania (around Lake Ohrid). The definite borders of the region are vague, but most contemporary geographers agree on its general location. There are several ethnic groups in this region, mostly living within their respective states, all of which are technically "Macedonians" in the regional sense. The Republic itself, has a substantial minority (25.2%) of ethnic Albanians who are "Macedonians" both in the regional sense, and as legal citizens of the Republic. However, in a Balkans where ethnicity rather than nationhood defines peoples' identity, Albanians are never referred to (or refer to themselves) as Macedonians.
The Greek position suggests that the monopolisation of the name by the Republic and its citizens creates semiological confusion, as it becomes increasingly difficult to disambiguate which "Macedonia", which "Macedonians" and what "Macedonian language" are referred to in each occasion.
According to a source Bulgarians living in Blagoevgrad province (Bulgarian Macedonia) are reported to not identify themselves with their regional term "Macedonians" (Macedonian Bulgarians), so as not to be confused with the ethnic Macedonians. According to other sources the traditional use of the term "Macedonians" in Bulgaria as a regional designation continues.
Ethnic Macedonian position
Self-determination and self-identification
Skopje rejects many of Athens' objections due to what it sees as several errors in the Greek claims.
According to the government in Skopje, the preservation of the constitutional name both for domestic and international use is of utmost importance. The country asserts that it does not lay exclusive claim to the term Macedonia either in the geographic or the historic sense. Various demonstrations and protests in the Republic of Macedonia and the ethnic Macedonian diaspora, were held to support their view that their right to self-determination is violated by what they regard as the rejection of the name from the international community. The Macedonian Academy of Arts and Sciences suggests:
And today Slavs have been living there (Macedonia) for a period of 1,400 years. What is more natural than that the Balkanised Slavs who have lived so long and continuously in Macedonia should be called Macedonians and their language Macedonian"
Ethnic Macedonians state they are descendants of the local inhabitants of Macedonia which existed before the Slavic invasions, and the Slavic peoples who invaded the region in the 6th-8th century A.D., mixing both cultures and traditions.
From a historical perspective, scholars in the Republic of Macedonia blame Greece for claiming ownership over an ancient kingdom which, in their unique and — in terms of internationally acclaimed academic scholarship — isolated view, was not Greek, claiming historical studies propose there was a considerable degree of political and cultural distance between ancient Greeks and Macedonians. This view contrasts sharply with that of Greek and international authors and scholars, who point to historical data seen as evidence that ancient Macedonians identified as Greeks and spoke Greek. Officially, the ethnic Macedonian claim to continuity with ancient Macedonia is based on Macedonia's population having mixed with the Slavic newcomers after their arrival in the 6th and 7th century, but having retained the Macedonian name, and elements of their traditions and culture. The name Macedonia continued in use as a geographical and political term throughout the Ancient, Roman, Medieval and Modern eras. The argument of legitimacy also extends to the view that much of today's Greek Macedonia was only fully Hellenised by political and military means in modern times. Since the division of Macedonia in 1913, Greece has carried out a policy of Hellenisation of the local population, forcing name changes, religious affiliation, and writings of church, frescoes and graves to Greek. During the Ioannis Metaxas era, Macedonians were deported or tortured for speaking or claiming to be Macedonian. Slavic-speaking Macedonians argue that they have a more legitimate claim to the name Macedonia to many Greek Macedonians, who are descendants of Greek immigrants and refugees that were settled in Macedonia from regions such as Anatolia, Epirus and Thrace during the early twentieth century.
Ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece
In the 6th and 7th centuries AD, Slavic people invaded northern Greece and competed with the Greek ethnic population of Macedonia, although over time adopting the Christian Orthodox religion and Cyrillic script from Greek Macedonians. and Slavic languages have been spoken in the area alongside Greek in the region ever since. In parts of northern Greece, in the regions of Macedonia (Μακεδονία) and Thrace (Θράκη), Slavic languages continue to be spoken by people with a wide range of self-identifications. The actual linguistic classification of these dialects is unclear, although most linguists will classify them as either Bulgarian or Macedonian Slavic taking into account numerous factors, including the resemblance and mutual intelligibility of each dialect to the standard languages (abstand), and the self-identification of the speakers themselves. As however the vast majority of these people have a Greek national identity, linguists will make their decisions based on abstand alone. The Slavic-speaking minority of northern Greece can be divided in two main groups: Orthodox Christians and Muslims, primarily the Pomaks of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace. The latter has no reported connection to ethnic Macedonians.
The Christian portion of Greece's Slavic-speaking minority are commonly referred to as Slavophones (from the Greek Σλαβόφωνοι - Slavophōnoi, lit. "Slavic-speakers") or Dopii, which means "locals" in Greek (from Ancient Greek ἐντόπιος - entopios, "local"). The vast majority of them espouse a Greek national identity and are bilingual in Greek. They live mostly in the Periphery of Western Macedonia and belong to the Greek Orthodox Church, which in conjunction with the millet system of the Ottoman Empire which occupied the region until 1913, may explain their self-identification as Greeks. In the 1951 census, 41,017 people claimed to speak the Slavic language. One unofficial estimate for 2000 puts their number at 1.8% of the Greek population, that is c.200,000.
This group has received some attention in recent years due to claims from the Republic of Macedonia that these people form an ethnic Macedonian minority in Greece. Some organisations and academics have stated that there is a minority within the Slavophone community in Greece which self-identifies as ethnic Macedonian.
There is a dispute over the size of this alleged minority, with some Greeks denying it outright, and most ethnic Macedonians inflating the numbers substantially. The Greek Helsinki Monitor reports that, "difficult and therefore risky it is to declare a Macedonian minority identity in such an extremely hostile if not aggressive environment in Greece". There are no official statistics to confirm or deny either claims. The Greek government has thus far refused on the basis that there is no significant such community and that the idea of minority status is not popular amongst the (Greek identifying) linguistic community of northern Greece as it would have the effect of them being marginalised.
Professor Danforth reports:
...Finally, the Greek government denies the existence of a Macedonian minority in northern Greece, claiming that there exists only a small group of "Slavophone Hellenes" or "bilingual Greeks," who speak Greek and "a local Slavic dialect" but have a "Greek national consciousness".
A political party promoting this line and claiming rights of what they describe as the "Macedonian minority in Greece" — the Rainbow (Виножито) — was founded in September 1998; it received a minimal support of 2,955 votes in the region of Macedonia in the latest elections (2004).
Macedonian, language and dialect
Macedonian language (modern)
The name of the modern Macedonian language, as used by its speakers and defined in the constitution of the Republic of Macedonia is "Makedonski jazik" (Macedonian Cyrillic: Mакедонски јазик). The term "Macedonian language" is used by several international bodies, such as the United Nations and the World Health Organisation. It is also used by convention in the field of Slavic Studies.
However, because this language is a South Slavic Indo-European language, and not descended from Ancient Macedonian, which was a Hellenic Indo-European language, several other terms remain in use. Some of the names use the family to which the language belongs to disambiguate it from ancient Macedonian, or from the homonymous dialect of modern Greek; sometimes the autonym "Makedonski" is used in English for the modern Slavic language, with "Macedonian" being reserved for the ancient language.
Affirmation of the classification of Macedonian as a separate language is an important issue for the ethnic Macedonian self-view. Critics often treat it as a dialect of Bulgarian, due to their close structural affinity and mutual intelligibility in both written and spoken forms; they also point to Macedonian's recent emergence as a separate standard language, and the political motivation behind its promotion in the mid-20th century.
Macedonian dialect (modern, Greek)
The origins of the ancient Macedonian language are currently debated. It is as yet undetermined whether it was a Greek dialect which was part of or closely related to the Doric and/or Aeolic dialects, a sibling language of ancient Greek forming a Hellenic (i.e. Greco-Macedonian) supergroup, or an Indo-European language which was a close cousin to Greek and also related to Thracian and Phrygian languages. The scientific community generally agrees that, although some sources are available (e.g. Hesychius' lexicon, Pella curse tablet) there is no decisive evidence for supporting either hypothesis. Nevertheless, Attic Greek, a form of the Greek language, eventually supplanted it entirely in Macedonia from the 5th Century BC, and ancient Macedonian became extinct during the first few centuries AD. Attic Greek evolved into Koine Greek and in turn into Byzantine and modern Greek.
- Macedonia (region)
- Macedonia (terminology)
- Macedonian Question
- List of homonymous states and regions
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Only a few weeks ago, the country's prime minister was photographed laying a wreath on a monument to which a map of the so-called "Greater Macedonia" was attached; the map incorporated a considerable part of Northern Greece, including Greece's second-largest city, Thessaloniki.
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China’s recognition and establishment of diplomatic relations with our country under our constitutional name[dead link]
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- "Ministarstvo vanjsklh poslova I europsklh integracija". Republika Makedonija — Uspostava diplomatskih odnosa: 30.3.1992. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
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- European Foundation Several states (Turkey, Austria, USA and Slovenia) have now recognised Macedonia by the name it uses, Republic of Macedonia.' (Page 4)
- Voice of America - Macedonian 'Австрија се надева дека билатералниот спор за уставното име меѓу Македонија и Грција наскоро ќе се реши, бидејќи Австрија е една од 100-тината земји во светот која ја признаваат и комуницираат со Македонија под уставното име.'
- A1 Television 'Тоа веќе започнаа да го прават и претставници на ОБСЕ од Азербејџан, држава со која имаме воспоставено дипломатски односи од '95-та под уставното име.'
- Utrinski Vesnik newspaper 'Од реакциите во Грција деновиве станува јасно дека во тамошната јавност е созреано сознанието дека времето работеше за Македонија и дека не е шокантно само признавањето на името од страна на САД, туку и од стотина други земји што Атина, исто така, ги преспа изминатата деценија. Иако тој список се третира како строго доверлив во Македонија, грчките медиуми вчера го објавија, констатирајќи дека меѓу тие земји има и такви кои се добри пријатели на Грција. Притоа се спомнати Оман, Камбоџа, Лаос, Бангладеш, Бахреин, Катар, Таџикистан, Туркменистан, Ел Салвадор, Костарика, Судан, Руанда, Никарагва, Хондурас, Кувајт, Мозамбик, Танзанија, Џибути, Гвинеја, Непал, Конго, Тајван, Чад, Куба, Бурунди, Уганда, Кина, Хаити, Гватемала, Мексико, Маврициус, Ирак, Јамајка, Нигерија и Источен Тимор , не спомнувајќи дека и во ЕУ има една таква — Словенија.'
- "70 countries have recognised FYROM as Republic of Macedonia". Athens News Agency. 2004-11-15.
- "Macedonia establishes diplomatic relations with Botswana under constitutional name". MIA. Archived from the original on 2011-11-04.
Botswana, the biggest diamond exporter, located at the south of Africa, is the 126th country that Macedonia has established diplomatic relations under its constitutional name.
- Macedonian MfA[dead link]
- A1 TV[dead link]
- "Bolivia recognizes Macedonia under its constitutional name". Kanal5.com.mk. 2011-01-18. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- MIA 'Зимбабве е 130. држава што ја призна Република Македонија под уставното име. Признавањето следува по воспоставувањето дипломатски односи исто така под уставното име со Сириската Арапска Република во септември 2010 година и со Боцвана во септември 2009 година. Претходно тоа го направија и Чиле во септември 2008., а во 2007. и Канада, Парагвај, Брунеи, Кралството Свазиленд и Суринам.'
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Cambodia". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
Cambodia established diplomatic relations with FYROM under its constitutional name on 2nd October 1996
- Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada, Country and Regional Information: Macedonia, Retrieved on 2007-09-20
- "Канада ја призна Македонија под уставното име". A1 News (in Macedonian). Retrieved 2007-09-20.
- "Canada recognizes Macedonia under disputed name". Macedonian Human Rights Movement International. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
- "Macedonia establishes diplomatic relations with Chile under constitutional name". Government of the Republic of Macedonia. 2008-09-18. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- "Foreign Ministry Special Representative tours Latin American countries to brief local governments on the FYROM name issue". Embassy of Greece in Washington D.C. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia 'He expressed appreciation for the fact that the Czech Republic has been using our constitutional name in our bilateral relations.'
- "Estonia supports Macedonia's EU, NATO bid — minister". Macedonian Information Agency. 2005-04-12.
- "Грција повторно на грб". Večer (in Macedonian). 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2009-05-21.
- Mr. Miloshovski's speech about the foreign policy of the Macedonian Parliament[dead link]
- "Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia". Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Hungary strongly supports Macedonia on name, visa liberalization issues". Macedonian Information Agency. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- FREE TRADE AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE EFTA STATES AND THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: "The Republic of Iceland, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Kingdom of Norway, the Swiss Confederation (hereinafter called the EFTA States) and the Republic of Macedonia (hereinafter called Macedonia)"
- "India uses constitutional name of the Republic of Macedonia in bilateral communication". Macedonian Information Agency. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- Indonesian Embassy Budapest, accredited to Macedonia Hence, considering the support of Macedonia toward Indonesian foreign policy, since August 2006, the Government of the Republic Indonesia could acknowledge the designation’s name of Republic of Macedonia for conducting the bilateral relation.
- Utrinski Vesnik 'Шефот на државата на средбата со Мозафари изрази висока почит кон Иран и неговиот народ поради тоа што оваа земја е една од највлијателните на Блискиот Исток, а воспостави дипломатски односи со Македонија под нејзиното уставно име.'
- "President's meeting with the new ambassadors of Iran, Malaysia, Afghanistan and Iceland". Web site of the President of Macedonia.
Iran is among the most influential countries in the region of the Near East, and a country that established diplomatic relations with the Republic of Macedonia under its constitutional name
- A1 TV 'На докторската конференција во Брисел во 2005, Ирак, Македонија ја призна под уставно име.'
- Government of the Republic of Macedonia 'Ireland, which has recognised Macedonia's constitutional name, also offers its endorsement for start of membership negotiations in 2010.'
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Ireland". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Ireland recently decided to use FYROMs constitutional name exclusively for bilateral relations
- "Macedonian premier, new Israeli envoy note "excellent" ties". Macedonian Information Agency. 2007-03-13.
- "President Branko Crvenkovski received the letters of credence from the new Ambassadors of Kuwait, Estonia and Portugal". Web site of President of the Republic of Macedonia.
Kuwait was among the first countries from the Gulf to have established diplomatic relations with the Republic of Macedonia under its constitutional name
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Laos". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Laos established diplomatic relations with FYROM under its constitutional name on 6 March 1996
- Idividi 'Значајно е, нагласува Министерството, што Спогодбата е склучена со земја членка на Европската унија под уставното име на нашата држава.'
- "Macedonia now only to open ties with countries recognizing its name". Macedonian Information Agency. 2001-02-02.
Republic of Macedonia has established diplomatic relations with the Republic of Seychelles and Mauritius, which have recognized our country under its constitutional name.
- "Romania and Moldavia recognize Macedonia". Retrieved 2010-09-28.
- MIA 'I take this opportunity to emphasise that Macedonia highly appreciates Morocco's position on the use of country's constitutional name.'
- "Macedonian president receives newly appointed Moroccan ambassador". MIA. 2004-01-21.
- "Newly-nominated ambassadors to Macedonia to present credentials to President Branko Crvenkovski". President of the Republic of Macedonia. 2009-03-05. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
We appreciate Morroco’s unfaltering position to use Macedonias constitutional name[dead link]
-  Macedonian President Ivanov meets Prince Albert
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Burma". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
Burma has established diplomatic relations with FYROM under its constitutional name
- "Macedonia establishes diplomatic ties with Namibia under its constitutional name". Makfax. December 21, 2011. Retrieved 22 December 2011.
- Utrinski Vesnik 'Петнаесет години по независноста, Македонија се' уште не успева да воспостави дипломатски односи со Јужна Кореја, но нема таков проблем со Северна Кореја, и тоа под уставното име.'
- "Macedonia and North Korea establish diplomatic ties". Tanjug. 1993-11-05.
The DPRK has recognized the Republic of Macedonia under its constitutional name — the Republic of Macedonia.
- "Интервју со Карл Виби, амбасадор на Кралството Норвешка". House of Immigrants of Macedonia.
Ставот на Норвешка во однос на името е јасен. Ние го користиме уставното име на Македонија во билатералната комуникација од 2002 година.
- "Macedonian president welcomes Pakistani ambassador". Macedonian Information Agency. 2003-06-04.
- "Macedonia established diplomatic relations with Paraguay under its official name". Macedonian Information Agency. 2007-10-31.
The Republic of Macedonia established diplomatic relations with the Republic of Paraguay under its official name. ... Paraguay is the third country with which diplomatic relations were established under the constitutional name in the last three months. Before Paraguay this was done with Suriname and Swaziland ...
- Собрание на Република Македонија 'Во исто време тој нагласи дека Република Перу ја поддржува во целост Република Македонија на меѓународен план како и по прашањето на уставното име.'
- Форум 'Во исто време тој нагласи дека Република Перу ја поддржува во целост Република Македонија на меѓународен план како и по прашањето на уставното име.'
- MINA 'Some countries like Peru, Paraguay, or Suriname have had the courage to recognize Macedonia under its constitutional name.'
- Important historical events on mia.com.mk
- Government of the Republic of Macedonia 'Poland uses the constitutional name in bilateral relations. I hope both sides involved in the name dispute will reach an agreement which will allow Macedonia to integrate into Euro-Atlantic structures, FM Sikorski said.'
- "Poland won't change position on name, supports Macedonia for NATO and EU". Government site of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- Idividi Macedonia and Qatar established diplomatic relations on June 1996. Qatar recognises Macedonia under its constitutional name.'
- "Crvenkovski: Macedonia ready for Qatar investments". Macedonian Information Agency. 2008-01-28.
Macedonia and Qatar established diplomatic relations on [in] June 1996. Qatar recognizes Macedonia under its constitutional name.
- "Romania backs Greece in name row". Makfax Independent News Agency. Retrieved 2009-05-27.
The statement of the Romanian head of state comes as a surprise, given the following facts: official Bucharest recognized Macedonia under its constitutional name[dead link]
- MIA 'He also extended gratitude to Saudi Arabi on its support of Macedonia's constitutional name at international level, the President's Cabinet said in a press release.'
- "Newly-nominated Saudi ambassador presents his credentials to President Crvenkovski". President of the Republic of Macedonia. 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
I would like to use this opportunity and thank you for Saudi Arabia’s continued support regarding the use of our country’s constitutional name,” the President said.[dead link]
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Singapore". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
On 8 May 1995 Singapore established diplomatic relations with FYROM under its constitutional name
- A1 TV web site 'Словачка во билатералната комуникација ја ословува Македонија под уставното име.'
- A1 Television
- "Macedonian, Swedish Speakers discuss EU bid, name dispute, Kosovo status". Macedonian Information Agency. 2007-05-04.
- "Om Makedonien". Sveriges ambassad Skopje (in Swedish). Retrieved 2009-05-21. Automatic translation into English.
- "Assembly of Macedonia". Sobranie.mk. 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- A1 TV 'Сирија ја призна Македонија под уставното име'
- "France 24 News". France24.com. 2010-09-24. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Thailand". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
On 23 January 2005 Thailand established diplomatic relations with FYROM under its constitutional name
- "NATO Update — Week of 9–15 June 1999". Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- "Turkey's Political Relations with Republic of Macedonia". Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-01. [ ]
- "Tuvalu recognizes Macedonia under its constitutional name". Netpress.com.mk. 2011-06-30. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Web-Portal of Ukrainian Government "We are also grateful to Ukraine's position on recognizing the constitutional name of our country — Macedonia — not only in bilateral relations, but also on the international scene"
- "Ukraine in principle supports Macedonia's constitutional name". Government site of the Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- Maced. Inf. Agency 'He expressed content with the ongoing Macedonian-Ukrainian cooperation in international organisations, noting that the country had recognised Macedonia under its constitutional name in bilateral ties.'
- MFA of Macedonia[dead link]
- "VISITA DEL PRESIDENTE BATLLE A MONTERREY". Presidencia de la República Oriental del Uruguay.
Audiencia del señor Presidente de la República, Dr. Jorge Batlle con el señor Presidente de la República de Macedonia, Boris Trajkowski.
- "Cultural chronicle". Idividi. Retrieved 2009-11-25.
Uruguay is one of 120 countries that have recognized Macedonia under its constitutional name.
- Dnevnik 'Уругвај е една од 120-те земји што ја признаваат Македонија под уставното име.'
- "Macedonia: Celebra jornada electoral en calma". Government of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. Retrieved 2010-10-10.
- "Vietnam-Macedonia relations". Vietnamese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- "Bilateral relations between Greece and Vietnam". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
On 10 June 1994, Vietnam established diplomatic links with FYROM under its constitutional name
- Sky.mk 'На средбата со новоименуваниот амбасадор на Република Замбија г-дин Чицинга, Претседателот Иванов изразувајќи благодарност за принципиелниот став и употребата на уставното име на Република Македонија, посочи на потребата за понатамошно интензивирање и унапредување на односите и соработката со Република Замбија во сите сфери од заеднички интерес како на билатерален така и на мултилатерален план.'
- Курир 'На средбата со новоименуваниот амбасадор на Република Замбија г-дин Чицинга, Претседателот Иванов изразувајќи благодарност за принципиелниот став и употребата на уставното име на Република Македонија, посочи на потребата за понатамошно интензивирање и унапредување на односите и соработката со Република Замбија во сите сфери од заеднички интерес како на билатерален така и на мултилатерален план.'
- MIA 'Zimbabwe is the 130th country which has recognized the Republic of Macedonia under the constitutional name.'
- "Australian Consulate in Skopje, Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of". Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 10 April 2007.
- "Addresses of Belgian Embassies and Consulates abroad — Services — Homepage — Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation". Diplomatie.belgium.be. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Greece, Cyprus abandon US conference". Fox News. 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Danforth p.151
- "MIA Agency". Mia.com.mk. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Base Pacte. "Agreement by exchange of letters establishing diplomatic relations between the Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Republic of Macedonia" (PDF). Archives of the French Republic. 4 April 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2011.
- "Macedonia (FYROM)". France-Diplomatie (French Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- "Mazedonien, ehemalige jugoslawische Republik" (in German). Federal Foreign Office (German Ministry of Foreign Affairs). Retrieved 15 April 2008.
- "FM Milososki: Name not Greece's goal, but undermining of Macedonian identity". Government of the Republic of Macedonia. 2009-01-14. Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- Ministry of foreign Affairs of Japan MOFA: Japan-Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Relations,http://www.mofa.go.jp/region/europe/macedonia/index.html
- "Latvijas un Bijušās Dienvidslāvijas Republikas Maķedonijas attiecības". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia (in Latvian). Retrieved 2009-05-04.
- "Announcement regarding attempts by FYROM's Foreign Ministry to disseminate misinformation regarding Panama, Mexico and Congo’s stance on the name issue". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-10-21.
- "REACTION TO THE GREEK SPECULATIONS REGARDING THE USE OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL NAME OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA BY THIRD COUNTRIES". Republic of Macedonia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-10-22.
- "Encuentro entre el Subsecretario Juan Manuel Gómez Robledo y el Sr. Yannis Valinakis, Viceministro de Asuntos Exteriores de Grecia" (in Spanish). México — Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores. 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2008-10-22.: "México se refiere provisionalmente a ese Estado como “La Ex República Yugoslava de Macedonia”, de conformidad con las resoluciones relevantes del Consejo de Seguridad 817 (1993) y 845 (1993), para todo propósito de índole internacional o bilateral."
- "Mexico withdraws recognition of constitutional name". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 24 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
- "New Zealand". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 2008-10-24.
...regarding the name of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia it recognizes Skopje under the name accepted in recent years by the United Nations.
- "Governo de Portugal". Mne.gov.pt. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "FYROM (Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia)". Department of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 15 February 2008.
- "South African Representation Abroad". Department of Foreign Affairs. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- "Sovereign Order of Malta — Official site". Orderofmalta.int. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Ministerio de Astuntos Exteriores y de Cooperación, Nota país Macedonia". Maec.es. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Agreement of free trade between the Republic of Macedonia and the Republic of Albania" (PDF). Stability Pact for Southeast Europe. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
- "Diplomatic List" (PDF). Retrieved 5 July 2012.
Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia
- Marini, M. (2005-01-12). "Albania recognises constitutional name of Republic of Macedonia — PM Nano". Albanian Telegraphic Agency.
- "Përfaqësitë Diplomatike Shqiptare në Botë". Retrieved 29 February 2012.
Ambasada e Republikes se Shqiperise ne ish Republiken Jugosllave te Maqedonise
- "keshilliministrave.al".[dead link]
- According to Greek sources, Congo announced on 18 October 2008 that it would use the term Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ("Announcement regarding attempts by FYROM's Foreign Ministry to disseminate misinformation regarding Panama, Mexico and Congo’s stance on the name issue". Hellenic Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-10-21.). Macedonian sources denied the statement, citing a Congolese statement that Congo's position had remained unchanged ("Congo: the Latest in Macedonia Name Row". Balkaninsight. Retrieved 2008-10-24.[dead link], "DR Congo doesn’t change position on using Macedonia’s constitutional name". MIA. Retrieved 2008-10-24.), "Greek Government caught lying to their public, again". MINA. Retrieved 2008-10-24.)
- "Ex Repubblica Jugoslava di Macedonia". Ministero degli Affari Esteri. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "Macedonia, ex Rep. Jugoslava di". Viaggiare Sicuri. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
- "Home Page". Ambasciata d'Italia a Skopje. Retrieved 11 February 2013.
L'ingresso nel territorio della Repubblica di Macedonia e' consentito ai titolari di passaporto italiano con validita' residua di almeno 3 mesi o di carta di identita' valida per l'espatrio.
- During the period 1999–2001, Macedonia had diplomatic relations with the RoC. (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of China)
- . May 2008
- . May 2009
- . May 2007
- List of countries with which Republic of Macedonia have bilateral relations[dead link]
- "United Nations". Admission of the State whose application is contained in document A/47/876-S/25147 to membership in the United Nations. Retrieved 17 July 2006.
- "European Union". European Commission, Enlargement, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved September 5, 2006.
- "NATO". Enlargement. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "Enough is Enough". Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "International Monetary Fund". former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and the IMF. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "Key Information on the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". Support for Improvement in Government and Management. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
*"Information by Country". Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- "World Trade Organization". Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) and the WTO. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- "International Olympic Committee". Olympic Committee of the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "World Bank". Countries & Regions. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "Statute of the Council of Europe". Council of Europe. 5 May 1949. Retrieved 5 August 2008. Uses "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia" (including quotation marks).
- "European Bank for Reconstruction and Development". ebrd and fyr Macedonia. Archived from the original on March 16, 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe". Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia admitted to OSCE. Retrieved 18 July 2006.
- "FIFA Organisation". FYR Macedonia. Archived from the original on July 14, 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- "UEFAOrganisation". FYR Macedonia. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- "FIBA Organisation". FYR Macedonia. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- "Agreement between the Former Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and CERN". Cdsweb.cern.ch. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "CERN Relations with the Non-Member States". Nms.web.cern.ch. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "EBU organisation". FYR Macedonia. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- ""Former YUG Rep of Macedonia" ("Federations Ranking")". Ratings.fide.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- "Ex-République yougoslave de Macédoine". Francophonie.org. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- International Mathematical Olympiad. Imo-official.org. Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
- Tennis - ATP World Tour - Singles Rankings. ATP World Tour. Retrieved on 2010-08-14.
- "The Academy of Athens public position on the Macedonian Issue". Academyofathens.gr. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Titchener, Frances B.; Moorton, Richard F. (1999). The eye expanded: life and the arts in Greco-Roman antiquity. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-520-21029-5.
On the other hand, the Macedonians are a newly emergent people in search of a past to help legitimize their precarious present as they attempt to establish their singular identity in a Slavic world dominated historically by Serbs and Bulgarians. One need understand only a single geopolitical fact: As one measures conflicting Serb and Bulgarian claims over the past nine centuries, they intersect in Macedonia. Macedonia is where the historical Serb thrust to the south and the historical Bulgarian thrust to the west meet. This is not to say that present Serb and Bulgarian ambitions will follow their historical antecedents. But this is the Balkans, where the past has precedence over the present and the future. The twentieth-century development of a Macedonian ethnicity, and its recent evolution into independent statehood following the collapse of the Yugoslav state in 1991, has followed a rocky road. In order to survive the vicissitudes of Balkan history and politics, the Macedonians, who have had no history, need one.
- "Official site of the Embassy of the Republic of Macedonia in London". An outline of Macedonian history from Ancient times to 1991. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
- "Kathimerini". A stir over name of Skopje’s airport. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- Kiro Gligorov, first president of the Republic of Macedonia: "We are Slavs who came to this area in the sixth century ... we are not descendants of the ancient Macedonians". (Foreign Information Service Daily Report, Eastern Europe, 26 February 1992, p. 35) - "We are Macedonians but we are Slav Macedonians. That's who we are! We have no connection to Alexander the Greek and his Macedonia ... Our ancestors came here in the 5th and 6th century (AD)". (Toronto Star, 15 March 1992
- Gyordan Veselinov, diplomat of the Republic of Macedonia: "We are not related to the northern Greeks who produced leaders like Philip and Alexander the Great. We are a Slav people and our language is closely related to Bulgarian ... There is some confusion about the identity of the people of my country". (Ottawa Citizen, 24 February 1999)
- Denko Maleski, foreign minister of the Republic of Macedonia from 1991 to 1993, and ambassador to the United Nations from 1993 to 1997: "The idea that Alexander the Great belong to us, was at the mind of some outsider political groups only! These groups were insignificant the first years of our independence but the big problem is that the old Balkan nations have been learned to legitimate themselves through their history. In Balkans, if you want to be recognised as a nation, you need to have history of 3000 years old. So since you made us to invent a history, we invent it! ... You forced us to the arms of the extreme nationalists who today claim that we are direct descendants of Alexander the Great!" (In an interview for Greek TV channel Mega, November 2006)
- Smith, Helena (2011-08-14). "Macedonia statue: Alexander the Great or a warrior on a horse?". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-05-24.
- Kakissis, Joanna (2015-05-24). "To Build Up Its Historical Image, Macedonia Is Going Baroque". NPR. Retrieved 2015-05-24.
- Konstantin Testorides and Elena Becatoros. "Alexander the Great's statue stirs Balkan passions". Associated Press.
- Jasmina Mironski. "Macedonia's great Alexander statue vexes Greece". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Loring Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, p. 56
- Athens News Agency, Scholars dismiss Skopje claims as 'silliness' in letter to Obama
- Note: referring to this Invitation to Classical Scholars
- U.S STATE DEPARTMENT, Foreign Relations Vol. VIII Washington D.C. Circular Airgram (868.014/ 26 December 1944):
U.S. Secretary of State Edward Stettinius to US Missions<p> (Washington, Dec.26, 1944)<p> The Secretary of State to Certain Diplomatic and Consular Officers<p> The following is for your information and general guidance, but not for any positive action at this time.<p> The Department has noted with considerable apprehension increasing propaganda rumours and semi-official statements in favour of an "autonomous Macedonia", emanating principally from Bulgaria, but also from Yugoslav Partisan and other sources, with the implication that Greek territory would be included in the projected state.<p> This Government considers talk of Macedonian "nation", Macedonian "Fatherland", or Macedonia "national consciousness" to be unjustified demagoguery representing no ethnic or political reality, and sees in its present revival a possible cloak for aggressive intentions against Greece.<p> The approved policy of this Government is to oppose any revival of the Macedonian issue as related to Greece. The Greek section of Macedonia is largely inhabited by Greeks, and the Greek people are almost unanimously opposed to the creation of a Macedonian state. Allegations of serious Greek participation in any such agitation can be assumed to be false. This Government would regard as responsible any Government or group of Governments tolerating or encouraging menacing or aggressive acts of "Macedonian Forces" against Greece. The Department would appreciate any information pertinent to this subject which may come to your attention.<p> Stettinius</span> </li>
- Greek Macedonia "not a problem", The Times (London), 5 August 1957
- A large assembly of people during the inauguration of the Statue of Alexander the Great in Skopje on YouTube, the players of the national basketball team of the Republic of Macedonia during the European Basketball Championship in Lithuania on YouTube, and a little girl on YouTube, singing a nationalistic tune called Izlezi Momče (Излези момче, "Get out boy"). Translation from Macedonian:<p>"Get out, boy, straight on the terrace<p> And salute Goce's race<p> Raise your hands up high<p> Ours will be Thessaloniki's area."
- Danforth, Loring M. How can a woman give birth to one Greek and one Macedonian?. The construction of national identity among immigrants to Australia from Northern Greece. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- Floudas, Demetrius Andreas; "Pardon? A Name for a Conflict? FYROM's Dispute with Greece Revisited" (PDF). in: Kourvetaris et al. (eds.), The New Balkans, East European Monographs: Columbia University Press, 2002, p. 85.
- Dora Bakoyannis, Macedonia and NATO: The View from Athens, International Herald Tribune, 31 March 2008.
- Patrides, Greek Magazine of Toronto, September — October, 1988, p. 3.
- Simons, Marlise (3 February 1992). "As Republic Flexes, Greeks Tense Up". New York Times.
- Lenkova, M.; Dimitras, P., Papanikolatos, N., Law, C. (eds) (1999). "Greek Helsinki Monitor: Macedonians of Bulgaria" (PDF). Minorities in Southeast Europe. Greek Helsinki Monitor, Center for Documentation and Information on Minorities in Europe — Southeast Europe. Retrieved 24 July 2006.
- "Rainbow — Vinozhito political party". The Macedonian minority in Albania. Archived from the original on February 20, 2006. Retrieved 22 July 2006.
- "Makedonija — General Information". Retrieved 22 July 2006.
- MIA (Macedonian Information Agency), Macedonia marks 30th anniversary of Dimitar Mitrev's death, Skopje, 24 February 2006
- The Macedonian Times, semi-governmental monthly periodical, Issue number 23, July–August 1996:14, Leading article: Bishop Tsarknjas
- Facts About the Republic of Macedonia - annual booklets since 1992, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia Secretariat of Information, Second edition, 1997, ISBN 9989-42-044-0. p.14. 2 August 1944.
- Liotta, P. H. and Simons, A. Thicker than Water? Kin, Religion, and Conflict in the Balkans, from Parameters, Winter 1998, pp. 11-27.
- ERT online Stark message to Skopje, 2007-01-24. Retrieved on 2007-01-25
- "Ελληνικές Γραμμές (Hellenic lines — official site of the LA.O.S. party)". Η Μακεδονία είναι μόνο Ελληνική (Macedonia is only Greek). Retrieved 27 December 2006.
- "State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia" (PDF). 2002 census. p. 34. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
- "Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia". MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2006.
- "General Secretariat of National Statistical Service of Greece". 2001 census (in Ελληνικά). Archived from the original (ZIP XLS) on September 10, 2006. Retrieved 21 July 2006.
- Official state number
- "Ethnologue". Report for Macedo-Romanian language. Retrieved August 3, 2006.
*The figure includes Aromanians in all countries.
- Wilkinson, H. R. (1951). Maps and Politics; a review of the ethnographic cartography of Macedonia. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. pp. 1–4. LCC DR701.M3 W5.
- "International Constitutional Law". Macedonia — Constitution. Archived from the original on 16 June 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2006.
- Eastern Europe. Tom Masters, Lonely Planet Publications, 2007. ISBN 1-74104-476-6. Page 472
- Иванов, Любомир. Размисли за българите в Република Македония (Ivanov, Lubomir. Reflections on the Bulgarians in Republic of Macedonia) Invalid language code.
- An interview with Angel Dimitrov, former Bulgarian ambassador in Skopie, Macedonian Tribune Invalid language code.
- "Eurominority". Macedonians protest Council of Europe decision on their Country's name. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- Council for Research into South-Eastern Europe of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, 1993
- Macedonia and the Macedonians: a history — Andrew Rossos — Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Cowan (, p. 5)
- Macedonia. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 16 June 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Premium Service: 
- ἐντόπιος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus
- Encyclopædia Britannica, World Data Greece. Called "Macedonians" in this source.
- "Greek Helsinki Monitor" (PDF). Greece against its Macedonian minority The "Rainbow" trial. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- Hill, P. (1999) "Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A Comparative study of recent developments". Nationalities Papers Volume 27, Number 1, 1 March 1999, pp. 17-30(14)
- "Eurominority". Macedonians in Greece. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
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- "Rainbow — Vinozhito political party". Greek Diplomats and Members of the Greek Parliament Lie to the Council of Europe. Archived from the original on January 3, 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-02.
- "Ministry of Interiors, Greece". 2004 Election results (in Greek). Retrieved 2007-01-03.
- "Republic of Macedonia — Constitution". Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights - FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION - OSCE/ODIHR Election Observation Mission - Final Report
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- Joseph, B. (1999) Romanian and the Balkans: Some Comparative Perspectives In S. Embleton, J. Joseph, & H.-J. Niederehe (eds.) The Emergence of the Modern Language Sciences. Studies on the Transition from Historical-Comparative to Structural Linguistics in Honour of E.F.K. Koerner. Volume 2: Methodological Perspectives and Applications. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (1999), pp. 218-235
- Ανδριώτης (Andriotis), Νικόλαος Π. (Nikolaos P.) (1995). Ιστορία της ελληνικής γλώσσας: (τέσσερις μελέτες) (History of the Greek language: four studies) (in Greek). Θεσσαλονίκη (Thessaloniki): Ίδρυμα Τριανταφυλλίδη. ISBN 960-231-058-8.
- Vitti, Mario (2001). Storia della letteratura neogreca. Roma: Carocci. ISBN 88-430-1680-6.
- Masson, Olivier (2003) . S. Hornblower and A. Spawforth (eds.), ed. The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905–906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
- Hammond, N.G.L. (1989). The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History. Oxford University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
- Ahrens, Franz Heinrich Ludolf (1843). De Graecae linguae dialectis (in German). Göttingen, 1839-1843.
- Hoffmann, O. (1906). Die Makedonen. Ihre Sprache und ihr Volkstum (in German). Göttingen.
- Joseph, B. (2001). "Ancient Greek". In In: J. Garry et al. (eds.). Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present.
- Mallory, J.P. and Adams, D.Q. (eds.) (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture. Taylor & Francis Inc. p. 361. ISBN 1-884964-98-2.
- Dubois L. (1995). Une tablette de malédiction de Pella: s'agit-il du premier texte macédonien? Revue des Études Grecques (REG) (in French). pp. 108:190–197.
- Brixhe C., Panayotou A. (1994). Bader, ed. Le Macédonien in: Langues indo-européennes (in French). Paris. pp. 205–220.
- Brian D. Joseph. "Greek, Modern". Ohio State University, Department of Linguistics.</ol>
Notice: Hyperlinks and emphasis in the quotations appearing in this article were not in the original source being quoted, but are merely used for disambiguation purposes.