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Madrasa

Not to be confused with Madras or Madrassi.
"Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here. For the place in Afghanistan, see Madraseh, Badakhshan. For the village or grape variety in Azerbaijan, see Mədrəsə and Madrasa, respectively.

"Madrasa" (Arabic: مدرسة‎, madrasah, pl. مدارس, madāris, Turkish: Medrese) is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious (of any religion). Variously transliterations appear: madrasah, madarasaa, medresa, madrassa, madraza, medrese, etc. In the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied. Not all students in madrasas are Muslims; there is also a modern curriculum.[1]

In Bosnia the term is written medresa, and means islamic high school. In Bangladesh the term is written as "Madrasha" or "Madrasah" and refers to institutions that only admit Muslim students. In Bangladesh, there are two types of Madrasah namely, Kawmi Madrasah and Alia Madrasah.

Definition

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Madrasas in the Ottoman Empire

"The first Ottoman Medrese was created in İznik in 1331 and most Ottoman medreses followed the traditions of sunni Islam."[4] "When an Ottoman sultan established a new medrese, he would invite scholars from the Islamic world—for example, Murad II brought scholars from Persia, such as ʻAlāʼ al-Dīn and Fakhr al-Dīn who helped enhance the reputation of the Ottoman medrese".[4] This reveals that the Islamic world was interconnected in the early modern period as they travelled around to other Islamic states exchanging knowledge. This sense that the Ottoman Empire was becoming modernised through globalization is also recognised by Hamadeh who says: "Change in the eighteenth century as the beginning of a long and unilinear march toward westernisation reflects the two centuries of reformation in sovereign identity."[73] İnalcık also mentions that while scholars from for example Persia travelled to the Ottomans in order to share their knowledge, Ottomans travelled as well to receive education from scholars of these Islamic lands, such as Egypt, Persia and Turkestan.[4] Hence, this reveals that similar to today's modern world, individuals from the early modern society travelled abroad to receive education and share knowledge and that the world was more interconnected than it seems. Also, it reveals how the system of "schooling" was also similar to today's modern world where students travel abroad to different countries for studies. Examples of Ottoman madrasas are the ones built by Mehmed the Conqueror. He built eight madrasas that were built "on either side of the mosque where there were eight higher madrasas for specialised studies and eight lower medreses, which prepared students for these."[4] The fact that they were built around, or near mosques reveals the religious impulses behind madrasa building and it reveals the interconnectedness between institutions of learning and religion. The students who completed their education in the lower medreses became known as danismends[4] This reveals that similar to the education system today, the Ottomans had a similar kind of educational system in which there were different kinds of schools attached to different kinds of levels. For example, there were the lower madrasas and then the specialised ones and for one to get into the specialised area meant that they had to complete the classes in the lower one in order to adequately prepare themselves for higher learning.[4]

This is the rank of madrasas in the Ottoman Empire from the highest ranking to the lowest: (From İnalcık, 167).[4]

  1. Semniye
  2. Darulhadis
  3. Madrasas built by earlier sultans in Bursa.
  4. Madrasas endowed by great men of state.

Although Ottoman madrasas had a number of different branches of study, such as calligraphic sciences, oral sciences, and intellectual sciences they primarily served the function of an Islamic centre for spiritual learning. "The goal of all knowledge and in particular, of the spiritual sciences is knowledge of God."[4] Religion, for the most part, determines the significance and importance of each science. As İnalcık mentions: " Those which aid religion are good and sciences like astrology are bad."[4] However, even though mathematics, or studies in logic were part of the madrasa's curriculum, they were all centred around religion. Even mathematics had a religious impulse behind its teachings. "The Ulema of the Ottoman medreses held the view that hostility to logic and mathematics was futile since these accustomed the mind to correct thinking and thus helped to reveal divine truths"[4] – keyword being divine. İnalcık also mentions that even philosophy was only allowed to be studied so that it helped to confirm the doctrines of Islam."[4] Hence, madrasas – schools were basically religious centres for religious teachings and learning in the Ottoman world. Although scholars such as Goffman have argued that the Ottomans were highly tolerant and lived in a pluralistic society, it seems that schools that were the main centres for learning were in fact heftily religious and were not religiously pluralistic, but centred around Islam. Similarly, in Europe "Jewish children learned the Hebrew letters and texts of basic prayers at home, and then attended a school organised by the synagogue to study the Torah."[74] Wiesner-Hanks also goes on to mention that Protestants also wanted to teach "proper religious values."[74] This goes on to show that in the early modern period, Ottomans and Europeans were similar in their ideas about how schools should be managed and what they should be primarily focused on. Thus, Ottoman madrasas were very similar to present day schools in the sense that they offered a wide range of studies; however, the difference being that these studies, in its ultimate objective, aimed to further solidify and consolidate Islamic practices, and theories.

Curricula

As is previously mentioned, religion dominated much of the knowledge and teachings that were endowed upon students. "Religious learning as the only true science, whose sole aim was the understanding of God's word."[4] Thus, it is important to keep this impulse in mind when going over the curriculum that was taught.

The following is taken from İnalcık.[4]

Social life and the Medrese

As with any other country during the Early Modern Period, such as Italy and Spain in Europe, the Ottoman social life was also interconnected with the medrese. Medreses were built in as part of a Mosque complex where many programmes, such as aid to the poor through soup kitchens were held under the infrastructure of a mosque, which reveals the interconnectedness of religion and social life during this period. "The mosques to which medreses were attached, dominated the social life in Ottoman cities."[75] Social life was not dominated by religion only in the Muslim world of the Ottoman Empire; however, was also quite similar to the social life of Europe during this period. As Goffman says: "Just as mosques dominated social life for the Ottomans, churches and synagogues dominated life for the Christians and Jews as well."[75] Hence, social life and the medrese were closely linked, since medreses as is previously mentioned taught many curricula, such as religion, which highly governed social life in terms of establishing orthodoxy. "They tried moving their developing state toward Islamic orthodoxy."[75] Overall, the fact that mosques contained medreses comes to show the relevance of education to religion in the sense that education took place within the framework of religion and religion established social life by trying to create a common religious orthodoxy. Hence, medreses were simply part of the social life of society as students came to learn the fundamentals of their societal values and beliefs.

Madrasas in South Asia

Pakistan

Main article: Madrassas in Pakistan

The madaris rose as colleges of learning in the Islamic world in the 11th century, though there were institutions of learning earlier. They catered not only to the religious establishment, though that was the dominant influence over them, but also the secular one. To the latter they supplied physicians, administrative officials, judges and teachers.

India

File:Madrasah1.jpg
This is a madarasa of the Jamia Masjid mosque in Srirangapatna, India. This mosque dates back to the 1700s and is where Tipu Sultan used to pray.

In India the majority of these schools follow the Hanafi school of thought. The religious establishment forms part of the mainly two large divisions within the country, namely the Deobandis, who dominate in numbers (of whom the Darul Uloom Deoband constitutes one of the biggest madrasas) and the Barelvis, who also make up a sizeable portion (Sufi-oriented). Some notable establishments include: Al Jamiatul Ashrafia, Mubarakpur, Manzar Islam Bareilly, Jamia Nizamdina New Delhi, Jamia Nayeemia Muradabad which is one of the largest learning centres for the Barelvis. The HR[clarification needed] ministry of Government of India has recently[when?] declared that a Central Madrasa Board would be set up. This will enhance the education system of madrasas in India. Though the madrasas impart Quranic education mainly, efforts are on to include Mathematics, Computers and science in the curriculum.

Expansion

After the British occupation of India and the emergence of Darul Ulum Manazar-e Islam Bareilly Sharif, Indian Muslim Scholars left India to establish madrasas in other regions of the world. Some of the most notable of these madrasas are Darul Ulum Holocombe, which produced scholars such as Sheik Ibrahim Memon Madani, or Darul Uloom Al-Madania. These offshoot schools symbolise an emotional drive based upon both religion and patriotism that is not evident elsewhere.[citation needed]

Madrasas and Arabic Colleges in Kerala

The Arabic and Islamic educational system has also become a channel for employment in the Middle East in modern times in Kerala.[76] Originating in 8th century madrasas for primary children, Arabic and Islamic schooling in Kerala was patronised and funded by the British colonial government.

Today, the system of Arabic and Islamic education has grown and further integrated with Kerala government administration. In 2005, an estimated 6,000 Muslim Arabic teachers taught in Kerala government schools, with over 500,000 Muslim students. State-appointed committees, not private mosques or religious scholars outside the government, determine the curriculum and accreditation of new schools and colleges. Primary education in Arabic and Islamic studies is available to Kerala Muslims almost entirely in after-school madrasa programs - sharply unlike full-time madrasas common in north India, which may replace formal schooling. Arabic colleges (over eleven of which exist within the state-run University of Calicut and the Kannur University) provide B.A. and Masters' level degrees. At all levels, instruction is co-educational, with many women instructors and professors.[77] Islamic education boards are independently run by the following organizations, accredited by the Kerala state government: Samastha Kerala Islamic Education Board, Kerala Nadvathul Mujahideen, Jamaat-e-Islami Hind, and Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind.[78]

With Malayam rather than Urdu as the lingua franca of Kerala Muslims, these madrasas and colleges are relatively unknown and unlinked from Urdu-based madrasas in the rest of India, due to the linguistic barrier.[77]

Philippines

In 2004, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 Regions nationwide, primarily in Muslim-majority areas in Mindanao under the auspices of the Department of Education (DepEd). The DepEd adopted Department Order No. 51, which instituted Arabic-language and Islamic Values instruction for Muslim children in state schools, and authorised implementation of the Standard Madrasa Curriculum (SMC) in private-run madaris. While there are state-recognised Islamic schools, such as Ibn Siena Integrated School in the Islamic City of Marawi, Sarang Bangun LC in Zamboanga and SMIE in Jolo, their Islamic studies programmes initially varied in application and content.

Since 2005, the AusAID-funded DepEd project Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) has assisted a group of private madaris seeking a Permit To Operate from the government and implement the SMC. These private madaris are scattered throughout Regions XI, XII and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

Bangladesh

File:DarulUloom.jpg
Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam situated at Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh.

There are three different madrasa education systems in Bangladesh: The original darse nizami system, the redesigned nizami system, and the higher syllabus alia nisab. The first two categories are commonly called Qawmi or non-government madrasas.[79] Amongst them the most notable are Al-Jamiatul Ahlia Darul Ulum Moinul Islam in Hathazari, Al-Jamiah Al-Islamiah Patiya, in Patiya and Jamia Tawakkulia Renga Madrasah in Sylhet.

As of 2006, there were 15,000 registered Qawmi madrasas with the Befaqul Mudarressin of Bangladesh Qawmi Madrasah Education Board,[80] though the figure could be well over double that number if unregistered madrasas were counted.[81]

Madrasas in Southeast Asia

In Southeast Asia, Muslim students have a choice of attending a secular government or an Islamic school. Madrasas or Islamic schools are known as Sekolah Agama (Malay: religious school) in Malaysia and Indonesia, โรงเรียนศาสนาอิสลาม (Thai: school of Islam) in Thailand and madaris in the Philippines. In countries where Islam is not the majority or state religion, Islamic schools are found in regions such as southern Thailand (near the Thai-Malaysian border) and the southern Philippines in Mindanao, where a significant Muslim population can be found.

In Singapore, Madrasahs are private schools which are overseen by Majlis Ugama Islam Singapura (MUIS, English: Islamic Religious Council of Singapore). There are six Madrasahs in Singapore, catering to students from Primary 1 to Secondary 4.[82] Four Madrasahs are coeducational and two are for girls.[83] Students take a range of Islamic Studies subjects in addition to mainstream MOE curriculum subjects and sit for the PSLE and GCE 'O' Levels like their peers. In 2009, MUIS introduced the "Joint Madrasah System" (JMS), a joint collaboration of Madrasah Al-Irsyad Al-Islamiah primary school and secondary schools Madrasah Aljunied Al-Islamiah (offering the ukhrawi, or religious stream) and Madrasah Al-Arabiah Al-Islamiah (offering the academic stream).[84] The JMS aims to introduce the International Baccalaureate (IB) programme into the Madrasah Al-Arabiah Al-Islamiah by 2019.[85] Students attending a madrasah are required to wear the traditional Malay attire, including the songkok for boys and tudong for girls, in contrast to mainstream government schools which ban religious headgear as Singapore is officially a secular state.

South Africa

In South Africa, the madrasas also play a social and cultural role in giving after-school religious instruction to children of Muslims who attend government or private non-religious schools. However, increasing numbers of more affluent Muslims' children attend fully-fledged private Islamic schools, which combine secular and religious education. Among Muslims of Indian origin, madrasas also used to provide instruction in Urdu, although this is far less common today than it used to be.

Canada

The first Madressa established in North America, Al-Rashid Islamic Institute, was established in Cornwall, Ontario in 1983 and has graduates that are Hafiz_(Quran) and Ulama. The Seminary was established by Mazhar Alam under the direction of his teacher the leading Indian Tablighi scholar Muhammad Zakariya Kandhlawi and focuses on the traditional Hanafi school of thought and shuns Salafist / Wahabi teachings. Due to its proximity to the US border city of Messina the school has historically had a high ratio of US students. Their most prominent graduate Shaykh Muhammad Alshareef completed his Hifz in the early 1990s then went on to deviate from his traditional roots and form the Salafist organization the AlMaghrib Institute.

United States

On May 26, 2012, Congressman André Carson of Indiana called for additional Madrasas in the United States.[86] There is a madrassa in Queens, NY called Shia Ithna-Asheri Jamaat of New York.[87] In Brooklyn, NY there is also a madrassa named Khalil Gibran International Academy.[88] Presently, the Darul Uloom in New York City, an affiliate of Darul Uloom Haqqania in Pakistan, also serves as a Madrassa.

Misuse of the word

Western commentators post-9/11 often perceive madrasas as places of radical revivalism with a connotation of anti-Americanism and radical extremism, frequently associated in the Western press with Wahhabi attitudes toward non-Muslims. In Arabic the word madrasa simply means "school" and does not imply a political or religious affiliation, radical or otherwise. Madrasas have varied curricula, and are not all religious. Some madrasas in India, for example, have a secularised identity.[89] Although early madrasas were founded primarily to gain "knowledge of God" they also taught subjects such as mathematics and poetry. For example, in the Ottoman Empire, "Madrasahs had seven categories of sciences that were taught, such as: styles of writing, oral sciences like the Arabic language, grammar, rhetoric, and history and intellectual sciences, such as logic."[4] This is similar to the Western world, in which universities began as institutions of the Catholic church.

The Yale Center for the Study of Globalization examined bias in United States newspaper coverage of Pakistan since the September 11, 2001 attacks, and found the term has come to contain a loaded political meaning:[90]

"When articles mentioned 'madrassas,' readers were led to infer that all schools so-named are anti-American, anti-Western, pro-terrorist centres having less to do with teaching basic literacy and more to do with political indoctrination."

Various American public figures have, in recent times, used the word in a negative context, including Newt Gingrich,[90] Donald Rumsfeld,[91] and Colin Powell.[92] The New York Times published in January 2007 a correction for misusing the word "madrassa" in a way that assumed it meant a radical Islamic school. The correction stated:

"An article [...] about a pointed exchange [...] over a Web site report that said Senator Barack Obama had attended an Islamic school or madrassa in Indonesia as a child referred imprecisely to madrassas. While some [madrassas] teach a radical version of Islam, most historically have not."[93]

See also

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Notes

  1. ^ http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/spotlight/indiaonline/2013/11/madrassas-india-attract-hindu-students-2013111814457229891.html
  2. ^ "Madarasaa". WordAnywhere. Retrieved 2007-06-23. [dead link]
  3. ^ Madrasah ʻāmmah (Arabic: مدرسة عامة‎) translates as 'public school', madrasah khāṣṣah (Arabic: مدرسة خاصة‎) translates as 'private school', madrasah dīnīyah (Arabic: مدرسة دينية‎) translates as 'religious school', madrasah Islāmīyah (Arabic: مدرسة إسلامية‎) translates as 'Islamic school', and madrasah jāmiʻah (Arabic: مدرسة جامعة‎) translates as 'university'.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t İnalcık, Halil. 1973. "Learning, the Medrese, and the Ulema." In The Ottoman Empire: The Classical Age 1300–1600. New York: Praeger, pp. 165–178.
  5. ^ a b Several sources have claimed that the University of Al-Karaouine, founded in 859, is the oldest university.
    • Esposito, John (2003). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 328. ISBN 0-19-512559-2. 
    • Kettani, M. Ali. Engineering Education in the Arab World. Middle East Journal, 1974, 28(4):441.
  6. ^ Jonathan Berkey, The Transmission of Knowledge in Medieval Cairo (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), passim
  7. ^ Ira Lapidus, Muslim Cities in the Later Middle Ages (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), passim
  8. ^ Tony Street (July 23, 2008). "Arabic and Islamic Philosophy of Language and Logic". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2008-12-05. 
  9. ^ Sonja Brentjes (June 2003), "Between doubts and certainties: on the place of history of science in Islamic societies within the field of history of science", NTM Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Wissenschaften, Technik und Medizin (Springer) 11 (2): 65–79 [69], ISSN 1420-9144, doi:10.1007/BF02908588 
  10. ^ Sabra, A. I. (2000) [1996], "Situating Arabic Science: Locality versus Essence", in Shank, Michael H., The Scientific Enterprise in Antiquity and the Middle Ages, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 215–31, ISBN 0-226-74951-7 , pages 225-7
  11. ^ Andrew J. Coulson, Delivering Education (PDF), Hoover Institution, p. 117, retrieved 2008-11-22 
  12. ^ Edmund Burke (June 2009), "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity", Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165–186 [178–82], doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 
  13. ^ a b M. S. Asimov, Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1999), The Age of Achievement: Vol 4, Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 33–4, ISBN 81-208-1596-3 
  14. ^ M. S. Asimov, Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1999), The Age of Achievement: Vol 4, Motilal Banarsidass, pp. 34–5, ISBN 81-208-1596-3 
  15. ^ Toby E. Huff (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, Cambridge University Press, pp. 77–8
  16. ^ M. S. Asimov, Clifford Edmund Bosworth (1999), The Age of Achievement: Vol 4, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 37, ISBN 81-208-1596-3 
  17. ^ Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jami`ah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–132 [122], doi:10.1177/0011392106058837, The main subjects taught were Quranic exegesis, theology, jurisprudence and the principles of jurisprudence, grammar and syntax, the Traditions of Muhammad(ḥadīth), logic and, sometimes, philosophy and mathematics. In addition to the above, other subjects such as literary studies, history, politics, ethics, music, metaphysics, medicine, astronomy and chemistry were also taught. 
  18. ^ "education", Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2008, retrieved 2008-09-30 
  19. ^ a b Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jamiʻah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–132, doi:10.1177/0011392106058837 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Makdisi, George (April–June 1989), "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 109 (2): 175–182 [176], JSTOR 604423, doi:10.2307/604423 
  21. ^ a b George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (260)
  22. ^ Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science 2nd. ed. p. 78-79; 136, 155.
  23. ^ Gibb, H. A. R. (1970), "The University in the Arab-Moslem World", in Bradby, Edward, The University Outside Europe: Essays on the Development of University, Ayer Publishing, pp. 281–298 [281], ISBN 0-8369-1548-8 
  24. ^ Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-52994-8, p. 191-193
  25. ^ Arnold H. Green. "The History of Libraries in the Arab World: A Diffusionist Model". Libraries & the Cultural Record 23 (4): 459. 
  26. ^ Hossein Nasr. Traditional Islam in the modern world. Taylor & Francis. p. 125. 
  27. ^ Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-52994-8, p. 179-185
  28. ^ Daniel, Norman (1984). "Review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi"". Journal of the American Oriental Society 104 (3): 586–8. JSTOR 601679. The first section, typology of institutions and the law of waqf, is crucial to the main thesis, since the college is defined in terms of the charitable trust, or endowment, as in Europe: it is admitted that the university, defined as a corporation, has no Islamic parallel. 
  29. ^ George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (264):
    Thus the university, as a form of social organisation, was peculiar to medieval Europe. Later, it was exported to all parts of the world, including the Muslim East; and it has remained with us down to the present day. But back in the middle ages, outside of Europe, there was nothing anything quite like it anywhere.
    Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge 2003, ISBN 0-521-52994-8, p. 133-139, 149-159, 179-189; Encyclopaedia of Islam has an entry on the "madrasa" but lacks notably one for a medieval Muslim "university" (Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. "Madrasa." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 21 March 2010)
  30. ^ Pryds, Darleen (2000), "Studia as Royal Offices: Mediterranean Universities of Medieval Europe", in Courtenay, William J.; Miethke, Jürgen; Priest, David B., Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society, Education and Society in the Middle Ages and Renaissance 10, Leiden: Brill, pp. 83–99, ISBN 90-04-11351-7, ISSN 0926-6070 
  31. ^ Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX
  32. ^ Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan. The heritage of European universities, Volume 548. Council of Europe. p. 121. 
  33. ^ de Ridder-Symoens, Hilde: A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. 47-55
  34. ^ Verger, J. (1999), "Doctor, doctoratus", Lexikon des Mittelalters 3, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, cols. 1155–1156 
  35. ^ Verger, J. (1999), "Licentia", Lexikon des Mittelalters 5, Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler, cols. 1957–1958 
  36. ^ Kettani, M. Ali. Engineering Education in the Arab World. Middle East Journal, 1974, 28(4):441.
  37. ^ Civilization: The West and the Rest by Niall Ferguson, Publisher: Allen Lane 2011 - ISBN 978-1-84614-273-4
  38. ^ Edmund Burke (June 2009), "Islam at the Center: Technological Complexes and the Roots of Modernity", Journal of World History (University of Hawaii Press) 20 (2): 165–186 [180–3], doi:10.1353/jwh.0.0045 
  39. ^ Goddard, Hugh (2000), A History of Christian-Muslim Relations, Edinburgh University Press, p. 99, ISBN 0-7486-1009-X 
  40. ^ Alatas, Syed Farid (2006), "From Jamiʻah to University: Multiculturalism and Christian–Muslim Dialogue", Current Sociology 54 (1): 112–132 [123], doi:10.1177/0011392106058837, One such jamiʻ was that of al-Azhar in Cairo. This was established during the last quarter of the 10th century by the Fatimids to teach the principles of jurisprudence, grammar, philosophy, logic and astronomy. [...] It is here that we may find the origins of the modern universitas. 
  41. ^ Necipogulu, Gulru (1996), Muqarnas, Volume 13, Brill Publishers, p. 56, ISBN 90-04-10633-2 
  42. ^ A European Civil Project of a Documentation Center on Islam
  43. ^ Makdisi, George (April–June 1989), "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West", Journal of the American Oriental Society (American Oriental Society) 109 (2): 175–182 [176], JSTOR 604423, doi:10.2307/604423 :
    There was no other doctorate in any other field, no license to teach a field, except that of the religious law. To obtain a doctorate, one had to study in a guild school of law.
  44. ^ Pedersen, J.; Rahman, Munibur; Hillenbrand, R. "Madrasa." Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010, retrieved 20/03/2010:
    Madrasa,...in mediaeval usage, essentially a college of law in which the other Islamic sciences, including literary and philosophical ones, were ancillary subjects only.
  45. ^ a b Lessnoff, Michael (2007), "Islam, Modernity and Science", in Malešević, Siniša; Haugaard, Mark, Ernest Gellner and contemporary social thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 196, ISBN 978-0-521-70941-5 
  46. ^ Jomier, J. "al- Azhar (al-Ḏj̲āmiʿ al-Azhar)." Encyclopædia of Islam, Second Edition. Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel and W.P. Heinrichs. Brill, 2010
    There was no examination at the end of the course of study. Many of the students were well advanced in years. Those who left al-Azhar obtained an idjāza or licence to teach; this was a certificate given by the teacher under whom the student had followed courses, testifying to the student's diligence and proficiency.
  47. ^ George Makdisi: "Madrasa and University in the Middle Ages", Studia Islamica, No. 32 (1970), pp. 255-264 (260):
    Perhaps the most fundamental difference between the two systems is embodied in their systems of certification; namely, in medieval Europe, the licentia docendi, or license to teach; in medieval Islam, the ijāzah, or authorization. In Europe, the license to teach was a license to teach a certain field of knowledge. It was conferred by the licensed masters acting as a corporation, with the consent of a Church authority, in Paris, by the Chancellor of the Cathedral Chapter... Certification in the Muslim East remained a personal matter between the master and the student. The master conferred it on an individual for a particular work, or works. Qualification, in the strict sense of the word, was supposed to be a criterion, but it was at the full discretion of the master, since, if he chose, he could give an ijaza to children hardly able to read, or even to unborn children. This was surely an abuse of the system... but no official system was involved. The ijaza was a personal matter, the sole prerogative of the person bestowing it; no one could force him to give one.
  48. ^ Toby Huff, Rise of early modern science 2nd ed.(Cambridge University, 2003) p. 149.
  49. ^ Toby Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China and the West, 2nd ed., Cambridge, 2003, p. 133-139, 149-159, 179-189 (179)
  50. ^ C. E. Bosworth: Untitled review of "The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West by George Makdisi", Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, No. 2 (1983), pp. 304-305
  51. ^ Kevin Shillington: "Encyclopedia of African history", Vol. 1, New York: Taylor & Francis Group, 2005, ISBN 1-57958-245-1, p. 1025
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Further reading

External links

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