Open Access Articles- Top Results for Mantou


Classic white mantou
Alternative names Chinese steamed bun, Chinese steamed bread
Type Bread, Dim sum
Place of origin China
Main ingredients Wheat flour, water, leavening agents
16x16px Cookbook:Mantou  16x16px Mantou
Traditional Chinese 饅頭
Simplified Chinese 馒头
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麵頭

Mantou, often referred to as Chinese steamed bun/bread, is a type of cloud-like steamed bread or bun popular in Northern China.[1] The name, "mantou" is said to have originated from a tale about the medieval army general, Zhuge Liang.[2]


Mantou are typically eaten as a staple food in northern parts of China where wheat, rather than rice, is grown. They are made with milled wheat flour, water and leavening agents. In size and texture, they range from Script error: No such module "convert"., soft and fluffy in the most elegant restaurants, to over Script error: No such module "convert"., firm and dense for the working man's lunch. (As white flour, being more heavily processed, was once more expensive, white mantou were somewhat of a luxury in preindustrial China.)

Traditionally, mantou, bing, and wheat noodles were the staple carbohydrates of the northern Chinese diet, analogous to rice, which forms the mainstay of the southern Chinese diet. They are also known in the south, but are often served as street food or a restaurant dish, rather than as a staple or home cooking. Restaurant mantou are often smaller and more delicate and can be further manipulated, for example, by deep-frying and dipping in sweetened condensed milk.

They are often sold precooked in the frozen section of Asian supermarkets, ready for preparation by steaming or heating in the microwave oven.

A similar food, but with a savory or sweet filling inside, is baozi.[3] Mantou is the older word, and in some regions (such as the Jiangnan region of China, and Korea) mantou (or the equivalent local reading of the word) can be used to indicate both the filled and unfilled buns, while in Japan the equivalent local reading of the word refers only to filled buns.


Main article: Manti (dumpling)
Deep-fried mantou - a popular Chinese dessert served with sweetened condensed milk

Mantou is presumed to be derived from the Turkic and Central Asian languages, having been introduced to China in about the Song Dynasty / Yuan Dynasty period.


A popular story in China relates that the name mantou actually originated from the homophonous word mántóu meaning "barbarian's head".

This story refers to the Three Kingdoms Period, when the strategist Zhuge Liang led the Shu Army in an invasion of the southern lands (roughly modern-day Yunnan and northern Burma). After subduing the barbarian king Meng Huo, Zhuge Liang led the army back to Shu, but met a swift-flowing river which defied all attempts to cross it. A barbarian lord informed him, in olden days, the barbarians would sacrifice 49 men and throw their heads into the river to appease the river spirit and allow them to cross; Zhuge Liang, however, did not want to cause any more bloodshed, and instead killed the cows and horses the army brought along, and filled their meat into buns shaped roughly like human heads - round with a flat base - to be made and then thrown into the river. After a successful crossing, he named the buns "barbarian's head" (mántóu, 蠻頭, which evolved into the present day 饅頭).[4] Another version of the story relates back to Zhuge Liang's southern campaign when he instructed that his soldiers who had fallen prey to diarrhea and other ills in the swampy region be fed filled steamed buns filled with meat or sweet fillings.[5]

Variations in meaning outside northern China

Prior to the Song Dynasty, the word mantou meant both filled and unfilled buns. The term baozi arose in the Song Dynasty to indicate filled buns only. As a result, mantou gradually came to indicate only unfilled buns in Mandarin and other varieties of Chinese.

In many areas, however, mantou still retains its meaning of filled buns. In the Jiangnan region where Wu Chinese is spoken, it usually means both filled and unfilled buns. In the province of Shanxi where Jin Chinese is spoken, unfilled buns are often called momo (饃饃), which is simply the character for "steamed bun". The name momo spreaded to Tibet and Nepal and usually refers to filled buns or dumplings now.[6]

The name mantou is cognate to manty and mantı; these are filled dumplings in Turkish,[7] Persian,[8] Uzbek,[9] and Pakistani ("mantu")[10] cuisines. In Japan, manjū (饅頭) usually indicates filled buns, which traditionally contain bean paste or minced meat-vegetable mixture (nikuman 肉まん "meat manjū").[11] Filled mantou are called siyopaw in Philippine,[12] from the Spanish siópao, ultimately derived from Chinese shāobāo (). In Thailand, they called filled "mantou" as "salapao".[13] In Korea, mandu (饅頭)[14] can refer to both baozi or jiaozi (餃子). In Mongolia, manty or mantu are steamed dumplings[15] and a steamed variation is said to have led to the Korean mandu.[16] The dish, Singaporean Chilli Crab is commonly served with a fried version of mantou.[17][18][19]

See also


  1. ^ Graves, Helen (2 October 2013). "Chinese food and drink: Pork belly mantou – recipe". Guardian News & Media LLC. Guardian US. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  2. ^ Graves, Helen (2 October 2013). "Chinese food and drink: Pork belly mantou – recipe". Guardian News & Media LLC. Guardian US. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  3. ^ Hsiung, Deh-Ta (2002). The Chinese Kitchen: A Book of Essential Ingredients with Over 200 Easy and Authentic Recipes. New York, NY: MacMillan. p. 33. ISBN 9780312288945. 
  4. ^ Bates, Roy (2008). 29 Chinese Mysteries. pp. 103–104. ISBN 9780557006199. 
  5. ^ Lee, Keekok (2008). Warp and Weft, Chinese Language and Culture. Strategic Book Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9781606932476. 
  6. ^ Gordon, Stewart (2009). When Asia Was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks Who Created the "Riches of the "East" (Reprint edition ed.). Da Capo Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0306817397. 
  7. ^ Malouf, Greg and Lucy (2008). Turquoise: A Chef's Travels in Turkey. San Francisco: Chronicle Books. p. 244. ISBN 9780811866033. 
  8. ^ Civitello, Linda (2007). Cuisine and Culture: A History of Food and People. John Wiley & Sons. p. 89. ISBN 9780471741725. 
  9. ^ Rishi, Inderjeet (2012). Super Snacks: 100 Favorite Snacks from Five Continents. Trafford Publishing. p. 173. ISBN 9781466963559. 
  10. ^ Brown, Lindsay, and Paul Clammer, Rodney Cocks (2008). Pakistan and the Karakoram Highway. Lonely Planet. p. 198. ISBN 9781741045420. 
  11. ^ The East, Volumes 30-31. Tokyo, Japan: East Publications. 1994. p. 9. 
  12. ^ Eggs, Malcolm and Seb Emina (2013). The Breakfast Bible. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 9781408839904. 
  13. ^ Sukphisit, Suthon (1997). The vanishing face of Thailand: folk arts and folk culture. Post Books. p. 155. ISBN 9789742020279. 
  14. ^ Wong, Lee Anne (2014). Dumplings All Day Wong: A Cookbook of Asian Delights From a Top Chef. New York, NY: Macmillan. p. 51. ISBN 9781624140594. 
  15. ^ Bloom, Greg and Paul Clammer, Michael Kohn (2010). Central Asia. Lonely Planet. p. 86. ISBN 9781741791488. 
  16. ^ Pettid, Michael J. (2008). Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History. Reaktion Books. p. 98. ISBN 9781861893482. 
  17. ^ Tan, Jeanette (28 October 2014). "Chilli crab, mantou wow MasterChef Australia's George Calombaris in Singapore". Yahoo Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd. Yahoo Entertainment, Singapore. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  18. ^ Ting, Deanna (12 December 2012). "5 Can't-Miss Singapore Dining Experiences". Successful Meetings. Northstar Travel Media LLC. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 
  19. ^ Sietsema, Robert (7 August 2012). "Chili Crab Dip With Mantou From Masak, Dish #71". Village Voice, LLC. New York Village Voice. Retrieved 28 January 2015. 

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