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Marginal sea

This article is about physical oceanography. For naval territory, see territorial waters.
File:Oceans and seas boundaries map-en.svg
Marginal seas as defined by the IMO
File:Arabian Sea map.png
The Arabian Sea as a marginal sea of the Indian Ocean

In oceanography, a marginal sea is a sea partially enclosed by islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas, adjacent to or widely open to the open ocean at the surface, and/or bounded by submarine ridges on the sea floor.[1][clarification needed]

Marginal seas of the world

Sources differ over which seas are considered marginal seas as well as which ocean a given sea is considered a marginal part of. There is no single ultimate authority on the matter.

Marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Atlantic Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Indian Ocean:

File:Ionian Sea map.png
Aegean, Adriatic, Ionian, and Tyrrhenian seas

Marginal seas of the Mediterranean Sea:

Marginal sea of the Black Sea:

Marginal seas of the Pacific Ocean:

Marginal seas of the Southern Ocean:

The Caribbean Sea is sometimes defined as a marginal sea,[4] sometimes as a mediterranean sea.[1]

The Caspian Sea is also sometimes defined as a marginal sea, and also the Dead Sea and the Garabogazköl.


  1. ^ a b c d American Congress on Surveying and Mapping (1994). Glossary of the mapping sciences. ASCE Publications. p. 469. ISBN 978-0-7844-0050-0. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  2. ^ Kara Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  3. ^ Laptev Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ Cite error: The named reference Wang1992 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  5. ^ Longhurt, Alan R. (2007). Ecological Geography of the Sea. Academic Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-12-455521-1. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  6. ^ Andaman Sea, Encyclopædia Britannica

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