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Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

This article is about the first king of Bavaria. For the seventeenth century Elector Maximilian I, see Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria.
Maximilian I Joseph
King of Bavaria
Portrait by Joseph Stieler, 1822
King of Bavaria
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1 January 1806 – 13 October 1825
Successor Ludwig I
Elector of Bavaria
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16 February 1799 – 1 January 1806
Predecessor Charles I
Spouse Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt
Caroline of Baden
Issue Ludwig I of Bavaria
Augusta, Duchess of Leuchtenberg
Caroline, Empress of Austria
Prince Karl Theodor of Bavaria
Prince Karl Friedrich of Bavaria
Elisabeth Ludovika, Queen of Prussia
Amalia, Queen of Saxony
Archduchess Sophie of Austria
Maria Anna, Queen of Saxony
Ludovika, Duchess in Bavaria
Princess Maximiliana of Bavaria
House House of Wittelsbach
Father Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld
Mother Maria Francisca of Sulzbach
Born 27 May 1756
Schwetzingen, Baden
Died 13 October 1825 (aged 69)
Munich, Bavaria
Burial Theatinerkirche, Munich
Bavarian Royalty
House of Wittelsbach

Maximilian I Joseph
   Ludwig I
   Princess Augusta
   Princess Amalie Marie
   Princess Charlotte
   Prince Karl Theodor
   Prince Karl Friedrich
   Elisabeth Ludovika, Queen of Prussia
   Princess Amalie Auguste
   Archduchess Sophie of Austria
   Maria Anna, Queen of Saxony
   Princess Ludovika
   Princess Maximiliana
Ludwig I
   Maximilian II
   Mathilde, Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine
   Otto of Greece
   Princess Theodelinde
   Prince Regent Luitpold
   Adelgunde, Duchess of Modena
   Archduchess Hildegarde, Duchess of Teschen
   Princess Alexandra
   Prince Adalbert
   Ludwig III
   Prince Leopold
   Princess Therese
   Prince Arnulf
   Prince Ludwig Ferdinand
   Prince Alfons
   Princess Isabella, Duchess of Genoa
   Princess Elvira
   Princess Clara
   Elisabeth Marie, Countess Otto of Seefried and Buttenheim
   Archduchess Auguste of Austria
   Prince Georg
   Prince Konrad
   Prince Heinrich
   Prince Ferdinand
   Prince Adalbert
   Princess Pilar
   Prince Joseph Clemens
   Princess Elizabeth Maria, Countess of Kageneck
   Princess Amalie Isabella, Mrs. Poletti
   Prince Eugen
   Infante Luis of Spain
   Infante José of Spain
   Maria, Princess Irakli Bagration of Mukhrani
   Infanta Marie of Spain
   Prince Konstantin
   Prince Alexander
   Prince Leopold
   Prince Adalbert
   Princess Ysabel, Baroness of Stichsenstein
   Prince Manuel
   Princess Maria del Pilar
   Princess Maria Felipa, Mrs. Dienst
   Prince Konstantin
   Princess Bernadette
   Prince Hubertus
   Prince Leopold
   Princess Alva
Maximilian II
   Ludwig II
Ludwig II

Otto I

Ludwig III
   Crown Prince Rupprecht
   Adelgunde, Princess of Hohenzollern
   Princess Maria, Duchess of Calabria
   Prince Karl
   Prince Franz
   Mathilde, Princess Ludwig of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
   Prince Wolfgang
   Princess Hildegarde
   Princess Notburga
   Princess Wiltrud, Duchess of Urach
   Princess Helmtrud
   Princess Dietlinde
   Gundelinde, Countess Johann Georg von Preysing-Lichtenegg-Moos
   Hereditary Prince Luitpold
   Princess Irmingard Maria
   Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria
   Prince Rudolf
   Prince Heinrich
   Princess Irmingard
   Princess Editha, Mrs. Schmer
   Princess Hildegard, Mrs. de Loayza
   Princess Gabrielle, Duchess of Cröy
   Princess Sophie, Duchess of Arenberg
   Prince Ludwig
   Maria Elisabeth, Princess Pedro Henrique of Orléans-Braganza
   Aldegunde Maria, Baroness Zdenko von Hoenning-O'Carroll
   Adelgunde, Countess Konstantin of Waldburg-Zeil
   Dorothea, Dowager Grand Duchess of Tuscany
   Prince Rasso
   Marie Gabrielle, Princess of Waldburg-Zeil
   Marie Charlotte, Princess of Quadt
   Franz, Duke of Bavaria
   Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria
   Prince Luitpold
   Princess Irmingard Maria
   Princess Philippa
   Maria-Theresia, Countess Tamas Kornis de Goncz-Ruszka
   Prince Franz-Josef
   Elisabeth, Countess Andreas von Kuefstein
   Prince Wolfgang
   Princess Benedikta, Baroness von Freyberg-Eisenberg
   Prince Christoph
   Gisela, Margravine of Meissen
   Sophie, Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein
   Marie-Caroline, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg
   Princess Hélène
   Princess Elizabeth, Mrs. Terberger
   Princess Maria-Anna, Mrs. Runow
   Auguste, Princess Ferdinand of Lippe-Weissenfeld
   Alice, Princess Lukas of Auersperg
   Prince Ludwig
   Prince Heinrich
   Prince Karl
   Prince Tassilo
   Prince Richard
   Prince Philipp
   Prince Corbian
   Prince Stanislaus
   Prince Marcello
   Princess Odilia

Maximilian I (also known as Maximilian Joseph) (27 May 1756 – 13 October 1825) was duke of Zweibrücken from 1795 to 1799, prince-elector of Bavaria (as Maximilian IV Joseph) from 1799 to 1805, king of Bavaria (as Maximilian I) from 1806 to 1825. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach.


Early life

Maximilian, the son of the count palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and Maria Francisca of Sulzbach, was born at Schwetzingen – between Heidelberg and Mannheim.

He was carefully educated under the supervision of his uncle, Duke Christian IV of Zweibrücken, became Count of Rappoltstein in 1776 and took service in 1777 as a colonel in the French army and rose rapidly to the rank of major-general. From 1782 to 1789 he was stationed at Strasbourg. During his time at the University Klemens von Metternich, the future Austrian chancellor was for some time accommodated by Prince Maximilian.[1] By the outbreak of the French Revolution Maximilian exchanged the French for the Austrian service, taking part in the opening campaigns of the revolutionary wars.

Duke of Zweibrücken and Elector of Bavaria and the Palatinate

On 1 April 1795 he succeeded his brother, Charles II, as duke of Zweibrücken, however, his duchy was entirely occupied by the French. On 16 February 1799 Maximilian Joseph became Elector of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Arch-Steward of the Empire, and Duke of Berg on the extinction of the Palatinate-Sulzbach line with the death of the elector Charles Theodore.

The sympathy with France and with French ideas of enlightenment which characterized his reign was at once manifested. In the newly organized ministry Count Max Josef von Montgelas, who, after falling into disfavour with Charles Theodore, had acted for a time as Maximilian Joseph's private secretary, was the most potent influence, an influence wholly "enlightened" and French. Agriculture and commerce were fostered, the laws were ameliorated, a new criminal code drawn up, taxes and imposts equalized without regard to traditional privileges, while a number of religious houses were suppressed and their revenues used for educational and other useful purposes. He closed the University of Ingolstadt in May 1800 and moved it to Landshut.

In foreign politics Maximilian Joseph's attitude was from the German point of view less commendable. With the growing sentiment of German nationality he had from first to last no sympathy, and his attitude throughout was dictated by wholly dynastic, or at least Bavarian, considerations. Until 1813 he was the most faithful of Napoleon's German allies, the relation being cemented by the marriage of his eldest daughter to Eugène de Beauharnais. His reward came with the Treaty of Pressburg (26 December 1805), by the terms of which he was to receive the royal title and important territorial acquisitions in Swabia and Franconia to round off his kingdom. He assumed the title of king on 1 January 1806. On 15 March he ceded the Duchy of Berg to Napoleon's brother-in-law Joachim Murat.

King of Bavaria

The new king of Bavaria was the most important of the princes belonging to the Confederation of the Rhine, and remained Napoleon's ally until the eve of the Battle of Leipzig, when by the Treaty of Ried (8 October 1813) he made the guarantee of the integrity of his kingdom the price of his joining the Allies. On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France. The treaty was passionately backed by Crown Prince Ludwig and by Marshal von Wrede.

By the first Treaty of Paris (3 June 1814), however, he ceded Tyrol to Austria in exchange for the former Grand Duchy of Würzburg. At the Congress of Vienna, which he attended in person, Maximilian had to make further concessions to Austria, ceding Salzburg and the quarters of the Inn and Hausruckviertel in return for the western part of the old Palatinate. The king fought hard to maintain the contiguity of the Bavarian territories as guaranteed at Ried but the most he could obtain was an assurance from Metternich in the matter of the Baden succession, in which he was also doomed to be disappointed.

At Vienna and afterwards Maximilian sturdily opposed any reconstitution of Germany which should endanger the independence of Bavaria, and it was his insistence on the principle of full sovereignty being left to the German reigning princes that largely contributed to the loose and weak organization of the new German Confederation. The Federal Act of the Vienna Congress was proclaimed in Bavaria, not as a law but as an international treaty. It was partly to secure popular support in his resistance to any interference of the federal diet in the internal affairs of Bavaria, partly to give unity to his somewhat heterogeneous territories, that Maximilian on 26 May 1818 granted a liberal constitution to his people. Montgelas, who had opposed this concession, had fallen in the previous year, and Maximilian had also reversed his ecclesiastical policy, signing on 24 October 1817 a concordat with Rome by which the powers of the clergy, largely curtailed under Montgelas's administration, were restored. The new parliament proved to be more independent than he had anticipated and in 1819 Maximilian resorted to appealing to the powers against his own creation; but his Bavarian "particularism" and his genuine popular sympathies prevented him from allowing the Carlsbad Decrees to be strictly enforced within his dominions. The suspects arrested by order of the Mainz Commission he was accustomed to examine himself, with the result that in many cases the whole proceedings were quashed, and in not a few the accused dismissed with a present of money.

Maximilian died at Nymphenburg Palace, near Munich, on 13 October 1825 and was succeeded by his son Ludwig I. Maximilian is buried in the crypt of the Theatinerkirche in Munich.

Cultural legacy

File:2374 - München - Max-Joseph-Platz.JPG
Monument of Max I Joseph before the National Theatre, Munich

Under the reign of Maximilian Joseph the Bavarian Secularization (1802–1803) led to the nationalisation of cultural assets of the Church. The Protestants were emancipated. In 1808 he founded the Academy of Fine Arts Munich.

The city of Munich was extended by the first systematic expansion with the new Brienner Strasse as core. In 1810 Max Joseph ordered construction of the National Theatre Munich in French neo-classic style. The monument Max-Joseph Denkmal before the National Theatre was created in the middle of the square Max-Joseph-Platz as a memorial for King Maximilian Joseph by Christian Daniel Rauch and carried out by Johann Baptist Stiglmaier. It was only revealed in 1835 since the king had rejected to be eternalized in sitting position.

In 1801 he led the rescue operation when a glassmaker's workshop collapsed, saving the life of Joseph von Fraunhofer, a 14 year-old orphan apprentice. Max Joseph donated books and directed the glassmaker to give Fraunhofer time to study. Fraunhofer went on to become one of the most famous optical scientists and artisans in history, inventing the spectroscope and spectroscopy, making Bavaria noted for fine optics, and joining the nobility before his death at age 39.

He was elected a Royal Fellow of the Royal Society in 1802.[2]

Private life and family

Maximilian married twice and had children by both marriages:

His first wife was Auguste of Hesse-Darmstadt, daughter of Prince Georg Wilhelm of Hesse-Darmstadt (14 April 1765 – 30 March 1796). They were married on 30 September 1785 in Darmstadt. They had five children:

Maximilian's second wife was Karoline of Baden, daughter of Margrave Karl Ludwig of Baden (13 July 1776 – 13 November 1841). They were married on 9 March 1797 in Karlsruhe. They had eight children:

File:Ludovica marie sophie.jpg
The king's youngest daughters (Marie Anne, Sophie and Ludovika) by Stieler


  • 27 May 1756 - 1 April 1795: His Serene Highness Prince Maximillian Joseph of Bavaria
  • 1 April 1795 - 16 February 1799: His Highness The Duke of Zweibrücken
  • 16 February 1799 - 1 January 1806: His Highness The Duke of Zweibrücken, Elector of Bavaria, Duke of Berg, Elector Palatine
  • 1 January 1806 - 13 October 1825: His Majesty The King of Bavaria


King Maximilian I Joseph's relation to Elector Maximilian I of Bavaria

Francis I, Duke of LorraineChristina of Denmark
        1517–1545              |        1522–1590
            |                                      |
Charles III, Duke of Lorraine               Renata of LorraineWilliam V of Bavaria
        1543–1608                              1544–1602        |      1548–1626
            |                               +-------------------+----------+----------------------------+
            |                               |                              |                            |
            |                               |                      Maria Anna of Bavaria    Magdalene of Bavaria
            |                               |                          1574–1616                    1587–1628
            |                               |                              |                            |
  Elizabeth of LorraineMaximilian I, Elector of BavariaMaria Anna of Austria                   |
        1574–1635         (1)           1573–1651              (2)     1610–1655                        |
                          Philipp Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
                          Karl III Philip, Elector Palatine
                   Elizabeth Augusta Sophie, Pfalzgräfin von Neuburg
                                Maria Francisca Sulzbach
                                Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria

See also



  1. ^ Palmer 1972, pp. 10
  2. ^ "Libray Catalog". Royal Society. Retrieved 2012-08-14. 
Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria
Born: 27 May 1756 Died: 13 October 1825
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Karl II
Duke of Zweibrücken
Annexed by France in 1801, returned after the Congress of Vienna in 1815, merged into the Rhenish Palatinate
Preceded by
Charles Theodore
Elector of Bavaria
As Maximillian IV

Abolition of Holy Roman Empire
Preceded by
Charles Theodore
Elector Palatine
Abolition of Holy Roman Empire
Preceded by
Charles Theodore
Duke of Berg
Succeeded by
Joachim Murat
New creation 60px
King of Bavaria

Succeeded by
Ludwig I
Preceded by
Napoleon I
Duke of Salzburg
Succeeded by

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