Born in Edinburgh, Gove was raised in Aberdeen where he began his career as a journalist. He was first elected to Parliament in 2005 for the safe Conservative seat of Surrey Heath. He was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet by David Cameron in 2007 as Shadow Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families.
At its 2013 conference, Gove was criticised by the National Association of Head Teachers, whose members condemned the climate of bullying, fear and intimidation they said he had created during his time as Education Secretary. The conference passed a vote of no confidence in his policies. Votes of no confidence were also passed by the Association of Teachers and Lecturers, National Union of Teachers and NASUWT at their conferences in 2013.
- 1 Early life and career outside Parliament
- 2 Political career
- 2.1 Member of Parliament
- 2.2 Secretary of State for Education
- 2.2.1 Building Schools for the Future and school capital projects
- 2.2.2 Exam and curriculum reforms
- 2.2.3 King James Bible
- 2.2.4 Leveson Inquiry
- 2.2.5 2012 English GCSE results
- 2.2.6 Education vouchers
- 2.2.7 Creationist schools
- 2.2.8 BNP membership amongst teachers
- 2.2.9 Children's homes scandal and data protection rules
- 2.2.10 Criticism from teachers and head teachers
- 2.2.11 Birmingham schools row
- 2.2.12 Anti-female genital mutilation campaign
- 2.2.13 Reshuffle
- 2.3 Chief Whip of the Conservative Party
- 2.4 Secretary of State for Justice
- 2.5 Expenses claims
- 2.6 Freedom of Information and email
- 2.7 Twitter smear attacks on opponents controversy
- 3 Political views
- 4 Religious views
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 Notes
- 8 External links
Early life and career outside Parliament
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Gove was born in Edinburgh; at four months old, he was adopted by a Labour-supporting family in Aberdeen, where he was brought up. His adoptive father ran a fish processing business; his adoptive mother was a lab assistant at the University of Aberdeen before working at the Aberdeen School for the Deaf.
In Aberdeen he was initially educated at a state school, later attending the independent Robert Gordon's College, to which he had won a scholarship. In recent years, Gove has written letters of apology to his former teachers for misbehaving in class.
Gove became a trainee reporter at the Press and Journal in Aberdeen, where he spent several months on strike in the 1989-1990 dispute over union recognition and representation. He joined the Times in 1996 as a leader writer and has been its comment editor, news editor, Saturday editor and assistant editor. He has also written a weekly column on politics and current affairs for the Times and contributed to the Times Literary Supplement, Prospect magazine and the Spectator. He remains on good terms with Rupert Murdoch, whom Gove described in evidence before the Leveson Inquiry as "one of the most impressive and significant figures of the last 50 years". He has also written a sympathetic biography of Michael Portillo and a critical study of the Northern Ireland peace process, The Price of Peace, for which he won the Charles Douglas-Home Prize. He has worked for the BBC's Today programme, On The Record, Scottish Television and the Channel 4 monologue programme A Stab in the Dark, alongside David Baddiel and Tracey MacLeod, and was a regular panellist on BBC Radio 4's The Moral Maze and Newsnight Review on BBC Two.
Gove joined the Conservative Party at university and was secretary of Aberdeen South Young Conservatives. He helped to write speeches for Cabinet and Shadow Cabinet ministers, including Peter Lilley and Michael Howard. When applying for a job at the Conservative Research Department he was told he was "insufficiently political" and "insufficiently Conservative", so he turned to journalism.
Gove had been chairman of Policy Exchange, a conservative think tank launched in 2002. He had a hand in establishing the right-leaning magazine Standpoint, to which he also occasionally contributes.
Member of Parliament
Gove entered Parliament in the 2005 general election as Conservative member for the safe seat of Surrey Heath, after the incumbent MP Nick Hawkins was deselected by the local Conservative Association. When Cameron was elected leader in December 2005, he appointed Gove the housing spokesman. Gove is seen as part of an influential set of Tories, sometimes referred to as the Notting Hill Set, which includes David Cameron, George Osborne, Edward Vaizey, Nicholas Boles and Rachel Whetstone.
On 2 July 2007, the MP for Surrey Heath was promoted to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families (a new department set up by then Prime Minister Gordon Brown) shadowing Ed Balls. Before the 2010 general election, most of Gove's questions in House of Commons debates concerned children, schools and families, education, local government, Council Tax, foreign affairs, and the environment.
Michael Portillo said in June 2012 that Gove could be a serious contender in a future race for the Conservative leadership, though Gove had said in an interview a few months before that "I'm constitutionally incapable of it. There's a special extra quality you need that is indefinable, and I know I don't have it. There's an equanimity, an impermeability and a courage that you need. There are some things in life you know it's better not to try."
Secretary of State for Education
With the formation of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government after the May 2010 general election, Gove became Secretary of State for Education. His first moves included rebranding his department, announcing plans to allow schools rated as "outstanding" by Ofsted to become academies, and cutting the previous government's school-building programme. He was forced to apologise, however, when the list of terminated school-building projects he had released was found to be inaccurate. The list was reannounced several times before it was finally accurately published.
In July 2010, Gove said that Labour had failed in its attempt to break the link between social class and school achievement despite spending billions of pounds. Quoting research, he indicated that by the age of 6, children of low ability from affluent homes were still out-performing brighter children from poor backgrounds. In a Commons Education Select Committee he said that this separation of achievement grew larger throughout pupils' school careers, stating, "In effect, rich thick kids do better than poor clever children when they arrive at school [and] the situation as they go through gets worse".
Building Schools for the Future and school capital projects
In February 2011 a judicial review deemed Gove's decision to axe Building Schools for the Future (BSF) projects in six local authority areas was unlawful as he had failed to consult before imposing the cuts. The judge also said that, in five of the cases, the failure was "so unfair as to amount to an abuse of power" and that "however pressing the economic problems, there was no overriding public interest which precluded consultation or justifies the lack of any consultation". The councils' response was that the government would have to reconsider but the government said it had won the case on the substantial issues. The judge made clear that, contrary to the councils' position, they could not expect that their projects would be funded.
In March 2011 Gove was criticised for not understanding the importance of school architecture and having previously misrepresented the cost. In February 2011, he gave "not-quite-true information to Parliament" by saying that one individual made £1m in one year when the true figure was £700k for five advisers at different times over a four-year period. He told a Free schools's conference that "no one in this room is here to make architects richer" and specifically mentioned architect Richard Rogers.
Exam and curriculum reforms
Gove's views on exam systems became clear in December 2014 after the release of archive papers from 1986. GCSE's were the brainchild of Sir Keith Joseph, and Margaret Thatcher, believing they lacked rigour, fiercely opposed them. However opposition to the new exams from the teaching unions persuaded her to introduce them immediately, purely so as not to appear weak. Although Gove had sought but failed to replace them, his special advisor, Dominic Cummings, described the 1986 decision as catastrophic, leading to a collapse in the integrity of the exam system.
During the 2010 Conservative Party Conference, Gove announced that the primary- and secondary-school national curricula for England would be restructured, and that study of authors such as Byron, Keats, Jane Austen, Dickens and Thomas Hardy would be reinstated in English lessons as part of a plan to improve children's grasp of English literature and language. Academies are not required to follow the national curriculum, and so would not be affected by the reforms. Children who fail to write coherently and grammatically, and who are weak in spelling, would be penalised under new examinations. Historian Simon Schama would give advice to government to ensure that pupils learnt Britain's "island story". Standards in mathematics and science would also be strengthened. He claimed that this was needed because left-wing ideologues had undermined education. Theirs was the view, he thought, that schools "shouldn't be doing anything so old-fashioned as passing on knowledge, requiring children to work hard, or immersing them in anything like dates in history or times tables in mathematics. These ideologues may have been inspired by generous ideals but the result of their approach has been countless children condemned to a prison house of ignorance."
In a November 2010 white paper, Gove declared reforms would include the compulsory study of foreign languages up to the age of 16, and a shake-up of league tables in which schools are ranked higher for the number of pupils taking GCSEs in five core subjects: English; mathematics; science; a language; and one of the humanities. He also announced that experts such as historian Simon Schama will be brought in to review the curriculum, and that targets are to be introduced for primary schools for the first time. Additionally, trainee teachers will spend more time in the classroom, there would be more assessment of teacher training applicants—including tests of character and emotional intelligence—and former troops will be offered sponsorship to retrain as teachers to improve discipline. Teachers are also expected to receive guidance on how to search pupils for more items, including mobile phones and pornography, and when they can use force.
In April 2011 Gove criticised schools for not studying pre-20th century classics and blamed "England's constricted and unreformed exam system" for failing to encourage children to read. Gove also blamed an "anti-knowledge culture" for reducing achievement and said children benefited when expectations were set higher. In June 2011 his "ignorance of science" was criticised after he called for students to have "a rooting in the basic scientific principles" and by way of example assigned Lord Kelvin's laws of thermodynamics to Sir Isaac Newton.
In June 2012, the Daily Mail revealed leaked plans to scrap GCSE examinations, return to O-level exams and allow less able students to take less academic qualifications. The plans had not been discussed with the Deputy Prime Minister or the Liberal Democrats and were subsequently heavily criticised by some teachers, trade unions and Labour Party MPs. They had been discussed with the Prime Minister, and a subsequent YouGov/Sunday Times poll suggested that the public supported the policy by a margin of 50% to 32%. They also received praise from the Mayor of London, Boris Johnson, who said that he "could be...singing a hymn of praises for my old chum Gove and his brilliant new Gove-levels." The leaked documents also suggested that Gove was intending to create a single exam board to organise all exams, and to scrap the National Curriculum in its current form. However, there were "rebukes" from both the Welsh and Northern Ireland Education ministers who said it was important to communicate before making announcements on proposed changes to jointly owned qualifications.
In February 2013, shortly after the draft Programmes of Study for History in the national curriculum was released by the DfE, the representatives of the principal organisations for historians in the UK wrote to the Observer to register "significant reservations" about its contents and the way in which it had been devised. In March 2013, 100 academics wrote to "warn of the dangers posed by Michael Gove's new National Curriculum". Gove retorted that the critics were "Marxists" and "Enemies of Promise", that "there is good academia and bad academia." His closest advisers are known to have mottoes like "purges work". In response, one signatory to the letter opined that Gove suffered from a "blinkered, almost messianic, self-belief, which appears to have continually ignored the expertise and wisdom of teachers, head-teachers, advisers and academics, whom he often claims to have consulted", while one of the country's leading education experts and the person who headed up the biggest review of British primary education in 40 years, Cambridge's Robin Alexander, declared: "It's surely proper to ask whether heaping abuse on members of the electorate because they hold different views is what government in a democracy is about." A senior civil servant then admitted that one of the most controversial parts of the proposed secondary curriculum had been written internally by the DfE, without any input from experts. In May, Simon Schama, earlier mooted as a supporter of Gove's reforms of the history curriculum, delivered an excoriating speech in which he characterised the finalised proposals as "insulting and offensive" and "pedantic and utopian", accusing Gove of constructing a "ridiculous shopping list" of subjects. He urged the audience at the Hay Festival: "Tell Michael Gove what you think of it. Let him know." In June, leaked documents revealed that a member of the government's curriculum advisory group had described the reform process as having had "a very chaotic feel. It's typical of government policy at the moment: they don't think things through very carefully, they don't listen to anyone and then just go ahead and rush into major changes." In September, Robin Alexander said that the proposed reforms to the primary-level national curriculum were "neo Victorian", "educationally inappropriate and pedagogically counter-productive". In October, almost 200 people—including Carol Ann Duffy, Melvin Burgess and Michael Rosen, as well as academics from Oxford, Bristol and Newcastle—signed a letter to the Times condemning Gove's reforms, warning of the "enormous" and negative risks they posed to children and their education. The same month saw Oxford's head of admissions warn that the timetable for secondary-level reforms would "just wreck the English education system."
King James Bible
In 2011 Gove planned to provide every school in England with a copy of the King James Bible, inscribed "presented by the Secretary of State for Education", to celebrate the 400th anniversary of its translation into English. Gove described the King James as "the most important book in the English language", and insisted that every student should have the opportunity to appreciate its literary riches. The project ran into difficulty when the education secretary was required to find private funding to complete it. Private sponsors paid for the Bibles, which were distributed in June 2012. The Guardian quoted unnamed head teachers as being critical of the project, but the initiative did receive support from across the spectrum, including from Richard Dawkins who praised its literary merit but said that reading it would disabuse people of the "pernicious falsehood" that it provides a guide to morality.
In May 2012 Gove, giving evidence to the Leveson Inquiry, warned Lord Justice Leveson "the cure might be worse than the disease", advising the judge against too much extra regulation of the press. The former journalist added that some cases of press misbehaviour were "deplorable", but argued that these could be punished under existing laws, such as defamation. Gove himself is a former News International journalist.
2012 English GCSE results
In September 2012, following the furore surrounding the downgrading of GCSE English results, he refused to instruct Ofqual to intervene, and attacked his Welsh counterpart as "irresponsible and mistaken" for ordering disputed GCSEs to be regraded. On 17 September he announced to the House of Commons an English Baccalaureate Certificate to replace GCSE, comprising English, Maths, Science, together with a Humanities subject and language, to be first examined in 2017. His plans to replace GCSE examinations with an English Baccalaureate were rejected by Parliament in February 2013.
As Shadow Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Families, Gove advocated the introduction of a Swedish-style voucher system, whereby parents can choose where their child should be educated, with the state paying what they would have cost in a state-school. He has also advocated Swedish-style free schools, to be managed by parents and funded by the state, with the possibility that such schools may be allowed to be run on a for-profit model.
In June 2012, Gove approved three schools run by creationists leading to concerns about whether Department for Education (DfE) requirements not to teach creationism or intelligent design as science would be met. Grindon Hall Christian school in Sunderland, due to open in September 2012, said its website - which said it would teach creationism as science - was out of date. Exemplar-Newark Business academy, whose previous application was rejected because of concerns over creationism, and a third school in Kent both said they would teach creationism in RE but not in Science. The British Humanist Association said teaching creationism in any syllabus was unacceptable.
BNP membership amongst teachers
As Education Secretary Gove has stated that schools should have the power to dismiss teachers for being members of the British National Party (BNP). He told The Guardian: "I don't believe that membership of the BNP is compatible with being a teacher. One of the things I plan to do is to allow headteachers and governing bodies the powers and confidence to be able to dismiss teachers engaging in extremist activity".
Children's homes scandal and data protection rules
In September 2013 news that the DfE did not maintain a register of children's homes in the UK came to light as a result of an article Gove wrote for the Daily Telegraph. Gove asserted his prior ignorance and surprise that the department did not hold this information and claimed that "Ofsted was prevented by 'data protection' rules, 'child protection' concerns and other bewildering regulations from sharing that data with us, or even with the police".
Gove's claim was refuted the same day by the Information Commissioner, Christopher Graham, who pointed out there was "nothing" in data protection legislation that prevents vulnerable young people from being properly protected in care homes. Graham noted that "[t]his law covers information about people so it has no bearing on the disclosure of non-personal information like the location of care homes", and said he would be writing to both Gove and Michael Wilshaw about the matter.
Criticism from teachers and head teachers
Gove has come in for strong criticism from teaching professionals.
At their annual conference in March 2013, the Association of Teachers and Lecturers (ATL) passed a no-confidence motion in Gove. This was followed up the next month at the annual conference of the National Union of Teachers (NUT), who unanimously passed a vote of no confidence in Gove, the first time in its history that it performed such an action, and called for his resignation. The audience at the NUT conference were told that Gove had "lost the confidence of the teaching profession", "failed to conduct his duties in a manner befitting the head of a national education system", and "chosen to base policy on dogma, political rhetoric and his own limited experience of education."
Together these unions represent the vast majority of education professionals in the UK.
Gove garnered further criticism at the May 2013 conference of the National Association of Head Teachers (NAHT), whose members condemned what they said was a climate of bullying, fear and intimidation that he had created during his time as Education Secretary. The conference passed a vote of no confidence in his policies.
Changes to pay, pensions, and workloads have also roused the profession's ire. The NUT and NASUWT staged rolling strikes on a regional basis in October 2013, though a national strike was temporarily averted after talks were agreed. After talks failed, strike action affecting 10,000 schools took place in March 2014.
Before the coalition government came in, in 2010, a YouGov survey of teachers' voting intentions found that 33% were Tory and 32% were Labour; four years later, a poll found that only 16% were Tory and 57% were Labour.
Birmingham schools row
In June 2014, there was a highly public argument between the Home Office and Department for Education ministers about the responsibility for alleged extremism in Birmingham schools. This required the Prime Minister David Cameron's intervention to resolve. The Prime Minister required Gove to apologise to Home Office Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism head Charles Farr for briefings critical of him appearing on the front page of The Times.
Anti-female genital mutilation campaign
On 15 July 2014, Gove's four-year stint in charge of the Department for Education came to an end when he was replaced as Secretary of State for Education by former Treasury minister Nicky Morgan in a wide-ranging cabinet reshuffle and moved to the post of chief whip of the Conservative Party. This was alleged by some to be a demotion, although Prime Minister David Cameron denied this was the case. Gove told BBC News that he had mixed emotions about starting the new role, saying it was a privilege to become chief whip but that leaving the Department for Education was “a wrench”.
Chief Whip of the Conservative Party
Following Gove's appointment as Chief Whip in July 2014, his first day in office was marred by a defeat on an impromptu Opposition Ten Minute Rule bill division, at which time Gove was speaking to Labour backbencher Bill Esterson in the toilets of the Aye lobby, prompting shadow House of Commons Leader Angela Eagle to comment that "he not only lost his first vote but he managed to get stuck in the toilet in the wrong lobby and he nearly broke his own whip". New Leader of the House, William Hague, did not deny the incident took place, instead prompting prolonged laughter in the chamber by saying: "Knowledge of who is in the toilets in whatever lobby is a very important piece of information for any chief whip and I take this as evidence that he was carrying out his duties very assiduously".
Secretary of State for Justice
Over a five-month period between December 2005 and April 2006, Michael Gove claimed more than £7,000 on a house bought with his wife Sarah Vine, a journalist, in 2002. Around a third of the money was spent at Oka, an upmarket interior design company established by Lady Annabel Astor, Prime Minister David Cameron’s mother-in-law. Shortly afterwards he reportedly 'flipped' his designated second home, a property for which he claimed around £13,000 to cover stamp duty. Gove also claimed for a cot mattress, despite children's items being banned under the Commons rule. Gove said he would repay the claim for the cot mattress, but maintained that his other claims were "below the acceptable threshold costs for furniture" and that moving house was necessary "to effectively discharge my parliamentary duties". While he was moving between homes, on one occasion he stayed at the Pennyhill Park Hotel and Spa following a constituency engagement, charging the taxpayer more than £500 per night's stay.
Freedom of Information and email
Gove has been the subject of repeated criticism for alleged attempts to avoid the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act. The criticism surrounds Gove's use of various private email accounts to send emails that allegedly relate to his departmental responsibilities. The allegations suggest that Mr Gove and his advisers believed they could avoid their correspondence being subject to Freedom of Information requests, as they believed that their private email accounts were not subject to the Freedom of Information Act. In September 2011, the Financial Times reported that Gove had used an undisclosed private email account – called "Mrs Blurt" – to discuss government business with advisers. In March 2012 the Information Commissioner ruled that because emails the Financial Times had requested contained public information they could be the subject of a Freedom of Information request and ordered the information requested by the paper to be disclosed. Gove was also advised to cease the practice of using private email accounts to conduct government business. Gove disputed the Information Commissioner's ruling, something that cost taxpayers £12,540, and proceeded to tribunal, but the appeal was subsequently withdrawn.
It was also alleged that Gove and his advisors had destroyed email correspondence in order to avoid Freedom of Information requests. The allegation was denied by Gove's department who stated that deleting email was simply part of good computer housekeeping.
Twitter smear attacks on opponents controversy
In February 2013 The Guardian launched investigations into connections between Gove's ministerial advisers and what they described as "allegations that members of his department have used the social networking site Twitter to launch highly personal attacks on journalists and political opponents and to conduct a Tory propaganda campaign paid for by the taxpayer." The article suggested that an anonymous Twitter account called @toryeducation was regularly used to attack critical stories about both Gove and his department and to launch highly personal attacks on opponents of Gove and his policies.
It was further suggested that the knowledge of imminent but unpublished government policy demonstrated by the Twitter account called @toryeducation indicated that it was very likely to come from within the Education Department, implying the involvement of special advisers paid for by taxpayers. Issuing party political material and indulging in personal attacks would both be clear breaches of the special advisers' code and the civil service code.
Gove is generally considered as combining socially liberal views—e.g. on gay marriage, race, and social mobility—with harder eurosceptic and neoconservative views on foreign affairs. He has expressed his view that the state should generally not interfere in domestic affairs and attests to have campaigned for personal freedom in certain matters. He opposed the 2006 act to introduce identity cards and called Section 28 "a nonsense". Gove has argued that "the only sustainable ethical foundation for society is a belief in the innate worth and dignity of every individual." Giving evidence before the Leveson Inquiry in May 2012, Gove said he was "unashamedly on the side of those who say that we should think very carefully before legislation and regulation because the cry 'Something must be done' often leads to people doing something which isn't always wise."
During the 2008 Conservative Party Conference, Gove argued that Edmund Burke, an 18th-century philosopher who commented on organic society and the French Revolution, was the greatest conservative ever. When asked about those who believe 'Marx was right all along', he responded that they were guilty of ignoring the systematic abuses and poverty of centrally planned economies, and criticised Eric Hobsbawm, saying that "only when Hobsbawm weeps hot tears for a life spent serving an ideology of wickedness will he ever be worth listening to."
Views on the NHS
Gove is one of several Conservative MP who co-authored Direct Democracy: An Agenda for a New Model Party -a book published in 2005. The book says the NHS "fails to meet public expectations" and calls for it to be dismantled and replaced with personal health accounts.
The Financial Times describes Gove as having "strong neoconservative convictions". He proposed that the invasion of Iraq would bring peace and democracy both to Iraq and the wider Middle East. In December 2008, he wrote that declarations of either victory or defeat in Iraq in 2003 were premature, and that the liberation of Iraq was a foreign policy success.
The liberation of Iraq has actually been that rarest of things – a proper British foreign policy success. Next year, while the world goes into recession, Iraq is likely to enjoy 10% GDP growth. Alone in the Arab Middle East, it is now a fully functioning democracy with a free press, properly contested elections and an independent judiciary ... Sunni and Shia contend for power in parliament, not in street battles. The ingenuity, idealism and intelligence of the Iraqi people can now find an outlet in a free society rather than being deployed, as they were for decades, simply to ensure survival in a fascist republic that stank of fear.—Michael Gove, Michael Gove: Triumph of freedom over evil
He had to be calmed down by parliamentary colleagues in August 2013 after shouting, "A disgrace, you're a disgrace!" at various Conservative and Liberal Democrat rebels who contributed to defeating the coalition government's motion to attack Syria in retaliation for the 2013 Ghouta attacks. He later claimed he was reacting to the manner in which Labour MPs celebrated the outcome of the vote.
Gove has been accused of harbouring hostile attitude towards Islam after the publications of his book Celsius 7/7, though he distinguishes between "the great historical faith" of Islam, which he says has "brought spiritual nourishment to millions", and Islamism, a "totalitarian ideology" that turns to "hellish violence and oppression," likening Islamism to Nazism and Communism.
Views on First World War centenary
In a controversial article about the First World War centenary in January 2014, Gove attacked "Left-wing versions of the past designed to belittle Britain and its leaders", insisting that, despite "mistakes", Britain's role in the world was also "marked by nobility and courage."
Some of Gove's key points were however rebuffed by academic contributors to the same article. Gove had criticised Cambridge professor Sir Richard Evans saying his views were more like that of an undergraduate cynic in a footlights review. Instead he urged people to listen to Margaret MacMillan of Oxford university. However MacMillan denied saying that soldiers were fighting for freedom–they were defending their homeland. Gove had mistaken myths for rival interpretations of history. Evans said Gove's attack was "ignorant" and asked how anyone could possibly say Britons were fighting for freedom given their country's main ally was Tsarist Russia. Jeremy Paxman said Gove had "wilfully misquoted" Evans on the subject of the First World War.
Gove's proposal for a new Royal Yacht costing £60m was made public in January 2012. Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg criticised the idea, calling it "a case of the haves and the have yachts". Gove believes that Scotland should remain part of the United Kingdom, arguing that Scotland's strengths complement those of other parts of the UK. He does not believe that the United States' "current position in the world is analogous to that of an Imperial power, as we have come to understand imperial powers". While deeply critical of Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union, Gove believes that "there have also been more benign empires, and in that I would include, almost pre-eminently, the British." In March 2014, he described the concentration of Old Etonians at the top of the Tory coalition as "ridiculous. I don't know where you can find a similar situation in any other developed economy."
Gove has written in support of bringing back hanging as capital punishment, which was abolished in the UK in 1965. Writing in The Times, Gove argued "Were I ever alone in the dock I would not want to be arraigned before our flawed tribunals, knowing my freedom could be forfeit as a result of political pressures. I would prefer a fair trial, under the shadow of the noose."
Having been raised in the Church of Scotland, Gove now worships in the Church of England, and regularly attends St Mary Abbots church, Kensington, London, although he still describes himself as a Presbyterian. He stated he is "Christian and proud of it" at a talk to pupils at Westminster School in 2012. Noting the singing of the “deliberately anti-Catholic rant,” the Famine Song at Rangers-Celtic matches, he credited Cardinal Keith O'Brien with using his intellect to protect the vulnerable in Scotland whilst regretting the absence of a similar figure in the Kirk.
- Celsius 7/7 (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2006).
- A Blue Tomorrow: New Visions for Modern Conservatives (London: Politico's, 2001; ed. with Edward Vaizey and Nicholas Boles).
- The Price of Peace: an analysis of British policy in Northern Ireland (London: Centre for Policy Studies, 2000).
- Michael Portillo: The Future of the Right (London: Fourth Estate, 1995).
- Norman, Matthew (29 February 2012). "Let us never forget the stench of this rank corruption". The Independent (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Cabinet reshuffle: David Cameron's new line-up". BBC News. 4 September 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Michael Gove heckled at head teachers' conference in Birmingham". BBC News. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Chorley, Matt (25 March 2013). "Teachers pass vote of no confidence in Michael Gove and Ofsted chief for 'sucking the life out' of education system". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Shepherd, Jessica (2 April 2013). "NUT passes unanimous vote of no confidence in Michael Gove". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- BBC Online (July 2014). “Michael Gove moved to chief whip in cabinet reshuffle”, BBC, 15 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014
- BBC Online (July 2014). “Michael Gove move not a demotion, says David Cameron”, BBC, 15 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014
- "Michael Gove". Start the Week. 30 December 2013. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
- Johnston, Simon (16 May 2010)."Teenage Michael Gove supported Labour". The Sunday Telegraph (London).
- "The Rt Hon Michael Gove MP » Biography". michaelgove.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Gove apologises to his former French teacher". BBC News. 23 October 2012. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- "Michael Gove". Newsnight Review (BBC). 22 April 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Class list published in The Times, 29 July 1988; p. 33
- "Picture emerges of Tory strike basher Michael Gove on the picket line during his OWN walkout". The People (London). 21 March 2010. Archived from the original on 30 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Parker, George; Warrell, Helen (14 March 2014). "How far will Michael Gove go?". ft.com. Retrieved 14 March 2014.
- "A Feast at Midnight (1995) – Full cast and crew". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Gove at Midnight". YouTube. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- Settle, Michael (3 October 2005). "Rollercoaster ride for leadership contenders". The Herald (Glasgow). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "ZCC Business Breakfast with Michael Gove MP". Zionist Central Council of Greater Manchester. 2009. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Burkeman, Oliver (31 January 2005). "Clever move". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Michael Gove". Who knows who. channel4.com. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Beckett, Andy (26 September 2008). "What can they be thinking?". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Writers A–Z » Michael Gove". standpointmag.co.uk. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Kite, Melissa (27 June 2004). "Surrey Heath members believe that their money ought to be able to buy a future prime minister". The Sunday Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Michael Gove: Electoral history and profile". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Jones, George (14 December 2005). "Cameron signals sensitivity on immigration". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 October 2012.
- "Who are the Notting Hill Set?". The Daily Telegraph (London). 26 February 2006. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Michael Gove, Conservative MP for Surrey Heath". TheyWorkForYou. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Portillo: Gove 'serious candidate' as Tory leader". BBC News. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Martin, Iain. "Will Michael Gove Go All the Way to No 10?". Standpoint (March 2012). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Department for Education returns in coalition rebrand". BBC News. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Harrison, Angela (26 May 2010). "Schools are promised an academies 'revolution'". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Richardson, Hannah (5 July 2010). "School buildings scheme scrapped". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Gove apologizes over school building list errors". BBC News. 7 July 2010. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Paton, Graeme (28 July 2010). "'Rich thick kids' do better at school, says Gove". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- Richardson, Hannah (11 February 2011). "Councils defeat government over school buildings". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Moore, Rowan (6 March 2011). "Architects do matter, Mr Gove". The Observer (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Fulcher, Merlin (2 February 2011). "Gove: Richard Rogers won't design your school". Architects' Journal. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- David Sanderson (30 December 2014). "Thatcher introduced GCSEs to spite the teaching unions". The Times. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
- Paton, Graeme (5 October 2010). "Conservative Party Conference: schoolchildren 'ignorant of the past', says Gove". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Education White Paper: Key points". The Daily Telegraph (London). 24 November 2010. Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- Paton, Graeme (1 April 2011). "Michael Gove: schools failing to promote the classics". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Chivers, Tom (23 June 2011). "Would you have confused Shakespeare and Dickens, Michael Gove?". Daily Telegraph blogs. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Garner, Richard; Wright, Oliver (21 June 2012). "Michael Gove faces criticism over GCSE axe in exam overhaul". The Independent (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Mulholland, Hélène; Watt, Nick (21 June 2012). "Michael Gove's plan to scrap GCSEs is ludicrous, say teaching union leaders". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Paton, Graeme (21 June 2012). "Lib Dems vow to block Michael Gove's plan to axe GCSEs". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "GCSE row: No 10 insists Cameron did know about Gove plan". BBC News. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "YouGov / The Sunday Times Survey Results" (PDF). YouGov. 21–22 June 2012.
- Johnson, Boris (22 June 2012). "House of Lords reform: Nick Clegg's crazy plan is a pay day for has-beens and never-wozzers". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Wales and Northern Ireland rebuke on GCSEs announcement". BBC News. 1 August 2012. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Priestland, David et al. (12 February 2013). "Michael Gove's new curriculum: what the experts say". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- D'Avray, David; Eales, Jackie; Fulbrook, Mary; McLay, Keith; Mandler, Peter; Scott, Hamish (17 February 2013). "Plan for history curriculum is too focused on Britain". The Observer (London).
- Bassey, Michael et al. (20 March 2013). "Letters: Gove will bury pupils in facts and rules". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Gove, Michael (23 March 2013). "I refuse to surrender to the Marxist teachers hell-bent on destroying our schools". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Shepherd, Jessica (21 March 2013). "Michael Gove labels professors critical of new curriculum as 'bad academia'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Manning, Ralph (28 March 2013). "Letters: Gove ignores the real issues with the curriculum". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Ward, Helen (24 September 2013). "Top primary don warns Michael Gove: 'Insulting opponents is the real "enemy of progress"". TES News blog. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Stewart, William (12 April 2013). "Gove's curriculum could be 'chaos', leaders warn". Times Educational Supplement (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Furness, Hannah (30 May 2013). "Hay Festival 2013: Don't sign up to Gove's insulting curriculum, Schama urges". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 15 October 2013.
- Mansell, Warwick (24 June 2013). "Curriculum experts say Gove's plans could lower standards". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Garner, Richard (24 September 2013). "Michael Gove creating 'neo Victorian' curriculum for primary schools, says professor who led massive review into sector". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- "Letters: Narrow test-based education 'harms children'". The Times (London). 1 October 2013. Retrieved 1 October 2013. (subscription required)
- Garner, Richard (15 October 2013). "Government plans to overhaul GCSEs and A-levels at the same time will 'wreck' education, says Oxford University's head of admissions". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Hughes, David (25 May 2012). "Michael Gove defends school Bibles scheme". The Independent (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Wintour, Patrick (17 January 2012). "And lo! Gove's Bible project did run into a spot of bother". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Walford, Charles (19 January 2012). "Education Secretary Michael Gove's £377,000 plan to send a King James Bible to every school 'founders over funding'". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Shepherd, Jessica (15 May 2012). "Michael Gove's King James Bible plan rescued by millionaire Tory donors". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- Dawkins, Richard (20 May 2012). "Why I want all our children to read the King James Bible". The Observer (London). p. 31. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- "Michael Gove: media regulation must not undermine freedom of speech". The Daily Telegraph (London). 29 May 2012.
- During his answers to the Parliamentary Education Committee on 12 September
- Coughlan, Sean (12 September 2012). "Michael Gove attacks Welsh GCSE regrade". BBC News. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Planned switch from GCSEs to Baccalaureate in England 'abandoned'". BBC News. 7 February 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Shepherd, Jessica (7 March 2010). "Conservatives aim to lure private schools into state system". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- Vasagar, Jeevan (29 May 2012). "Michael Gove open-minded over state schools being run for profit". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- Vasagar, Jeevan (17 July 2012). "Creationist groups win Michael Gove's approval to open free schools". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 18 July 2012.
- Hasan, Medhi (2 November 2010). "In praise of Michael Gove: He's wrong on free schools but right to ban BNP teachers". New Statesman (blog). Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Gove, Michael (12 September 2013). "I'm ending this scandal over children's care". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- Graham, Christopher (13 September 2013). "ICO responds to Michael Gove article in today's Daily Telegraph" (Press release). Office of the Information Commissioner. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
- "Teachers Pass No Confidence Vote In Gove". Sky News. 25 March 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "NUT and NASUWT announce teachers' plan to strike in October". The Daily Telegraph (London). 5 September 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Thousands of schools affected as teachers strike over pay and conditions". The Guardian (London). Press Association. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Robinson, Sadie (25 October 2013). "Teachers' unions pull back from national strike this year against Gove". Socialist Worker. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
- Paton, Graeme (6 November 2013). "Michael Gove 'refusing to back down over teachers' strike'". telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Garner, Richard (26 December 2013). "Teachers threaten more strikes as talks with Michael Gove stumble". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Saul, Heather (26 March 2014). "Teachers' strike affects 10,000 schools". independent.co.uk. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- Benedict Brogan (4 June 2014). "Theresa May is angry. Really angry". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Toby Young (4 June 2014). "Five things you need to know about Theresa May's row with Michael Gove". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Toby Helm, Daniel Boffey, Warwick Mansell (7 June 2014). "Furious Cameron slaps down Gove and May over 'Islamic extremism' row". The Observer. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- "Michael Gove apologises over 'Trojan Horse' row with Theresa May". BBC. 8 June 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2014.
- Alexandra Topping, Sandra Laville and Rowena Mason. "Parents who allow female genital mutilation will be prosecuted | Society". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- BBC News (July 2014). “Michael Gove: 'It's a wrench but a privilege changing job'”, BBC, 15 July 2014. Retrieved 16 July 2014
- Stevenson, Alex (July 2014). “Flushing out the truth: Here's how Michael Gove got stuck in the toilets on his first day as chief whip”, politics.co.uk, 17 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- BBC News (July 2014). “Michael Gove 'got stuck in Commons toilet'”, BBC News, 17 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014
- "Michael Gove moves to justice in post-election reshuffle". BBC News.
- Hope, Christopher (May 2009). “Michael Gove 'flipped' homes: MPs' expenses”, Daily Telegraph, 11 May 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2014.
- Hope, Christopher (11 May 2009). "Michael Gove 'flipped' homes: MPs' expenses". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 13 May 2009.
- Wright, Mike (21 December 2010). "No base in the borough for Surrey Heath MP". Get Surrey (Guildford: S&B Media).
- Ensor, Josie (20 September 2011). "Michael Gove faces questions over use of private email". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Vasagar, Jeevan. "Michael Gove aides accused of deleting government correspondence date=2 March 2012". The Guardian. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Smith, Graham (1 March 2012). "Decision Notice" (Press release). Information Commissioner's Office.
- "Michael Gove loses 'private email' battle". BBC News. 2 March 2012.
- McSmith, Andy (26 October 2012). "Tony Blair may be an admirer of Ukrainian mills, but not on the basis of British ones he's visited". The Independent (London). Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Vasagar, Jeevan (29 March 2012). "Michael Gove appeals against ruling on misuse of email". The Guardian (London).
- Henry, Julie (3 March 2012). "Michael Gove aides 'destroyed government emails'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- Doward, Jamie (3 February 2013). "Michael Gove advisers face claims of smear tactics against foes". The Observer (London).
- Helm, Toby (3 February 2013). "Are dark arts spinning out of control in Michael Gove's department?". The Observer. p. 8.
- Gove, Michael (1 July 2003). "When the straight and narrow is the wrong path". The Times (London). Retrieved 5 April 2010.(subscription required)
- McSmith, Andy (27 September 2008). "Michael Gove: The modest moderniser". The Independent (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Michael Gove, Leveson, and the case for liberty". Archbishop Cranmer blog. 30 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2012.
some of us believe that before the case for regulation is made, the case for liberty needs to be asserted as well.
- Gove, Michael (27 October 2008). "When you're in a hole, don't dig any new ones". The Times (London). Retrieved 5 April 2010.(subscription required)
- Toby Helm and Rajeev Syal (16 August 2009). "Key Tory MPs backed call to dismantle NHS". Guardian newspapers. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- "Additional support". Daily Telegraph. 8 June 2005. Retrieved 14 September 2014.
- Gove, Michael (21 December 2008). "Triumph of freedom over evil". Scotland on Sunday (Edinburgh). Retrieved 8 May 2010.
- Ali, Tariq (30 August 2013). "The Vassal's Revolt". LRB blog. Retrieved 31 August 2013.
- "Syria debate: Michael Gove brands Tory and Lib Dem rebels a disgrace". The Guardian (London). Press Association. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Mason, Rowena (3 September 2013). "Michael Gove says he was angry at Labour MPs who cheered Syria vote". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 3 September 2013.
- "Gove tells UJIA: 'I am a proud Zionist'". The Jewish Chronicle (London). 22 September 2011. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- "Michael Gove helps to raise £2.8m for UJIA projects". The Jewish Chronicle. 10 October 2011.
- Dalrymple, William (24 September 2006). "A global crisis of understanding". The Times (London). Retrieved 5 April 2010. (subscription required)
- Gove, Michael (2006). Celsius 7/7. p.vii.
- Elgot, Jessica (4 January 2014). "Michael Gove Attacked For 'Blackadder' Comments On 'Left-Wing' Whitewash Of WW1 History". The Huffington Post UK. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Shipman, Tim (2 January 2014). "Michael Gove blasts 'Blackadder myths' about the First World War spread by television sit-coms and left-wing academics". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Helm, Toby; Thorpe, Vanessa; Oltermann, Philip (4 January 2014). "Labour condemns Michael Gove's 'crass' comments on first world war". The Observer (London). Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- Jonathan Brown (3 January 2014). "Cambridge history professor hits back at Michael Gove's 'ignorant attack'". The Independent. Retrieved 25 August 2014.
- Plunkett, John (15 January 2014). "Jeremy Paxman accuses Michael Gove of 'wilfully misquoting' historian". theguardian.com. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
- Burns, John F. (16 January 2012). "Education Minister Suggests a Yacht for Queen Elizabeth II". The New York Times.
- "Nick Clegg Says Royal Yacht Not Top Of Priority List". Huffington Post UK. 16 January 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2012.
- Gove, Michael (12 October 2008). "Iceland has shown up Salmond as a Darien dreamer". The Scotsman (Edinburgh).
- Gove, Michael et al. (26 July 2003). "Liberal Intervention: The Empire's New Clothes?" (PDF). Panel discussion sponsored by the Foreign Policy Centre and Prospect at St Leonard's, Shoreditch. Retrieved 12 February 2012.
- "Michael Gove, new Justice Secretary, wanted to bring back hanging". Telegraph UK. 10 May 2015. Retrieved 11 May 2015.
- Oliver, Jonathan (22 December 2007). "While Blair converts to Catholicism, only 8 Ministers say they believe in God". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 30 August 2013.
- Talking to BBC Daily Politics, 3 October 2013
- Gove, Michael (1 November 2008). "Flabby Kirk needs to regain its moral might". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Michael Gove". Conservative Party (UK). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Gove defends newspapers' 'right to offend' in Miliband row". BBC News. 2 October 2013. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Shackle, Samira; Hegarty, Stephanie; Eaton, George (1 October 2009). "The new ruling class". New Statesman (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- Owen, Glen (23 May 2010). "The coalition of millionaires: 23 of the 29 member of the new cabinet are worth more than £1m... and the Lib Dems are just as wealthy as the Tories". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 27 October 2013.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to Michael Gove.|
- Official website
- Michael Gove at the Internet Movie Database
- Profile at the Conservative Party
- John Rentoul, The Independent names Michael Gove as a top public service innovator, Ethos, June 2012
- Column archives in The Times
- Profile from The Economist
- Profile at Parliament of the United Kingdom
- Contributions in Parliament at Hansard 1803–2005
- Current session contributions in Parliament at Hansard
- Electoral history and profile at The Guardian
- Voting record at Public Whip
- Record in Parliament at TheyWorkForYou
- Profile at Westminster Parliamentary Record
- Profile at BBC News Democracy Live
- Articles authored at Journalisted
Lua error in Module:Authority_control at line 346: attempt to index field 'wikibase' (a nil value).