# Microclimate

For the viticultural use of the term microclimate, see Regional climates levels in viticulture.
File:Micro-climate on rock at Sunrise-on- Sea.jpg
Microclimate on rock located in intertidal zone in Sunrise-on-Sea, South Africa

A microclimate is a local atmospheric zone where the climate differs from the surrounding area. The term may refer to areas as small as a few square feet (for example a garden bed) or as large as many square miles.

Microclimates exist, for example, near bodies of water which may cool the local atmosphere, or in heavily urban areas where brick, concrete, and asphalt absorb the sun's energy, heat up, and reradiate that heat to the ambient air: the resulting urban heat island is a kind of microclimate. Microclimates can be found in most places. Another place this can occur is when the ground is made of tar or concrete, because these are man made objects, they do not take in much heat they mainly reradiate it.

Another contributing factor to microclimate is the slope or aspect of an area. South-facing slopes in the Northern Hemisphere and north-facing slopes in the Southern Hemisphere are exposed to more direct sunlight than opposite slopes and are therefore warmer for longer.

## Background

File:TheLostGardensOfHeligan-Jungle.jpg
Tree ferns thrive in a protected dell area in the Lost Gardens of Heligan, in Cornwall, England, latitude 50° 15'N.

The area in a developed industrial park may vary greatly from a wooded park nearby, as natural flora in parks absorb light and heat in leaves that a building roof or parking lot just radiates back into the air. Advocates of solar energy argue that widespread use of solar collection can mitigate overheating of urban environments by absorbing sunlight and putting it to work instead of heating the foreign surface objects.[citation needed]

A microclimate can offer an opportunity as a small growing region for crops that cannot thrive in the broader area; this concept is often used in permaculture practiced in northern temperate climates. Microclimates can be used to the advantage of gardeners who carefully choose and position their plants. Cities often raise the average temperature by zoning, and a sheltered position can reduce the severity of winter. Roof gardening, however, exposes plants to more extreme temperatures in both summer and winter.

Tall buildings create their own microclimate, both by overshadowing large areas and by channeling strong winds to ground level. Wind effects around tall buildings are assessed as part of a microclimate study.

Microclimates can also refer to purpose-made environments, such as those in a room or other enclosure. Microclimates are commonly created and carefully maintained in museum display and storage environments. This can be done using passive methods, such as silica gel, or with active microclimate control devices.

Usually, if the inland areas have a humid continental climate, the coastal areas stay much milder during winter months, in contrast to the hotter summers. This is the case further north on the American west coast, such as in British Columbia, Canada, where Vancouver has an oceanic wet winter with rare frosts, but inland areas that average several degrees warmer in summer have cold and snowy winters.

### Soil types

The type of soil found in an area can also affect microclimates. For example, soils heavy in clay can act like pavement, moderating the near ground temperature. On the other hand; if soil has many air pockets, then the heat could be trapped underneath the topsoil, resulting in the increased possibility of frost at ground level [1]

## Sources and influences on microclimate

Two main parameters to define a microclimate within a certain area are temperature and humidity. A source of a drop in temperature and/or humidity can be attributed to different sources or influences. Often microclimate is shaped by a conglomerate of different influences and is a subject of microscale meteorology.

### Cold air pool

The well known examples of cold air pool (CAP) effect are Gstettneralm Sinkhole in Austria (lowest recorded temperature -53 C) [2] and Peter Sinks in the US. The main criterion on the wind speed $v$ in order to create a warm air flow penetration into a CAP is the following:

$\mathrm{Fr} = \frac{v}{Nh} \geq \mathrm{Fr}_c,$

where $\mathrm{Fr}$ is the Froude number, $N$ --- the Brunt–Väisälä frequency, $h$ --- depth of the valley, and $\mathrm{Fr}_c$ --- Froude number at the threshold wind speed.[3]

### Craters

The presence of permafrost close to the surface in a crater creates a unique microclimate environment.[4]

### Caves and lava tubes

As similar as lava tubes can be to caves which are not formed due to volcanic activity the microclimate within the former is different due to dominant presence of basalt. Lava tubes and basaltic caves are important astrobiological targets on Earth and Mars (see also Martian lava tube).

### Plant microclimate

As pointed out by Rudolf Geiger in his book [5] not only climate influences the living plant but the opposite effect of the interaction of plants on their environment can also take place, and is known as plant climate.

### Dams

Artificial reservoirs as well as natural ones create microclimates and often influence the macroscopic climate as well.

## Cities and regions known for microclimates

### Americas

• Northern California above the Bay Area is also well known for microclimates with massive differences of temperatures. The coastline typically averages between Script error: No such module "convert". and Script error: No such module "convert". during summer months along that coastline, but inland towns not far from the ocean such as Lakeport, average as much as Script error: No such module "convert". in spite of being just around 40 miles inland. Even as far north as the Klamath River valley around the 41st parallel north between Willow Creek and Yreka averages such temperatures, which is extremely hot for such northerly areas. At this parallel, the temperature at the coast is such cool that Willow Creek beats Eureka's all-time record temperature on average 79 times per year. This is in spite of the areas being less than 50 miles from each other. In oceanic stable terms it is like travelling from the summers in the north of England to the south of Spain in a fraction of the distance.
• San Francisco is a city with microclimates and submicroclimates. Due to the city's varied topography and influence from the prevailing summer marine layer, weather conditions can vary by as much as 9 °F (5 °C) from block to block. The Noe Valley district for example, is typically warmer and sunnier than adjacent areas because surrounding hills block some of the cool fog from the Pacific.
• The region as a whole, known as the San Francisco Bay area can have a wide range of extremes in temperature. In the basins and valleys adjoining the coast, climate is subject to wide variations within short distances as a result of the influence of topography on the circulation of marine air. The San Francisco Bay Area offers many varieties of climate within a few miles. In the Bay area, for example, the average maximum temperature in July is about Script error: No such module "convert". at Half Moon Bay on the coast, Script error: No such module "convert". at Walnut Creek only Script error: No such module "convert". inland, and Script error: No such module "convert". at Tracy, just Script error: No such module "convert". inland.[6]
• The Los Angeles and San Diego areas are also subject to phenomena typical of a microclimate. The temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F (10 °C) between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over one degree per mile (1.6 km) from the coast inland. Hills and mountains can also block coastal air masses. The San Fernando Valley is usually much warmer in summer than most of Los Angeles, because the Santa Monica Mountains usually block the cool ocean breezes and fog. Southern California has also a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom" or "May Grey", which sometimes gives overcast or foggy skies in the morning at the coast, but usually gives sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer.
• Calgary, Alberta, is also known for its microclimates. Especially notable are the differences between the downtown and river valley/flood plain regions and the areas to the west and north. This is largely due to an elevation difference within the city's boundaries of over Script error: No such module "convert"., but can also be attributed somewhat, to the effects of the seasonal Chinooks.[7]
• Halifax, Nova Scotia, also has numerous microclimates. Coastal temperatures and weather conditions can differ considerably from areas located just 5–15 km inland. This is true in all seasons. Varying elevations are common throughout the city, and it is even possible to experience several microclimates while travelling on a single highway due to these changing elevations.
• Chesapeake Bay, is also known for its subtropical microclimate. It is most notable for its mild climatic effects on the area east and west of the lowlands of Maryland and Delmarva. Having over 64,000 square miles of water; (most of which is a mix of fresh and salt water) creates higher levels of humidity and heat in the spring and summer months. An example of this effect is the survival of tropical palm trees and plants such as water hyacinths[8] in the area.[9] [10]

### Europe and Africa

• Known for its wines, the Ticino region in Switzerland benefits from a microclimate in which palm trees and banana trees grow.
• Gran Canaria is called "Miniature Continent" for its rich variety of microclimates.
• Biddulph Grange is very rich with microclimates as a result of the large dips and variety of very large trees alongside a large amount of water.
• Leeds, located in England is known to have a number of microclimates because of the number of valleys surrounding the city centre.
• The coastal areas in the Andalusia region of Spain typically average around at Script error: No such module "convert". in summer, but inland cities like Seville and Córdoba have extremely hot summers averaging Script error: No such module "convert".. The northern coast of Spain has summers similar to areas much further north, averaging around Script error: No such module "convert"., with southern inland areas being much hotter.

### Asia and Oceania

• Amman, Jordan has extreme examples of microclimate, and almost every neighbourhood exhibits its own weather.[11] It is known among locals that some boroughs such as the northern and western suburbs are among the coldest in the city, and can be experiencing frost or snow whilst other warmer districts such as the city centre can be at much warmer temperatures at the same time.
• Yazd and Kashan in Iran, the traditional architecture benefits from central courtyards with trees and water pools that function together with wind catchers to create a favorable microclimate in this desert area.
• Sydney, Australia has a microclimate occurring prominently in the warmer months. Inland, in Sydney's western suburbs, the climate is drier and significantly hotter with temperatures generally around Script error: No such module "convert". above Sydney CBD and Eastern Suburbs (the coast), as sea breezes don't penetrate further inland. In summer, the coast averages at Script error: No such module "convert"., while inland varies between Script error: No such module "convert". to Script error: No such module "convert"., depending on the suburb.[12][13] In extreme occasions, the Coast would have a temperature of Script error: No such module "convert"., while a suburb 30 km (19 mi) inland bakes in Script error: No such module "convert". heat. However, winter lows in the West are around Script error: No such module "convert". cooler than the coastal suburbs, and may provide mild to moderate frost.[14] Within the city and surrounds, rainfall varies, from around Script error: No such module "convert". in the far-west to Script error: No such module "convert". at Observatory Hill (the east, or the coast).[15]

## References

1. Gardening Resources, Cornell University
2. Microclimate, www.wetter-freizeit.com, in German.
3. J. Racovec et al. Turbulent dissipation of the cold-air pool in a basin: comparison of observed and simulated development. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 79, 195-213 (2002).
4. Permafrost in Hawaii, NASA Astrobiology Institute, 2010
5. R. Geiger. The climate near the ground. Harvard University Press, 1957.
6. "Climate Of California". Wrcc.dri.edu. Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
7. "Calgary’s Gardening Climate". Scarboro.ca. 2008-05-05. Retrieved 2014-02-02.
8. http://extension.umd.edu/learn/august-ornamental-plant-tips