Open Access Articles- Top Results for Minor league

Minor league

Minor leagues are professional sports leagues which are not regarded as the premier leagues in those sports. Minor league teams tend to play in smaller, less elaborate venues, often competing in smaller cities. This term is used in North America with regard to several organizations competing in various sports. They generally have lesser fan bases and smaller budgets.

The minor league concept is a manifestation of the franchise system used in North American sports, whereby the group of major league teams in each sport is fixed for long periods between expansions or other adjustments, which only take place with the consent of the major league owners. In England (and many other countries), the football leagues have many divisions below the top-flight as part of the football pyramid. In other parts of the world there is usually either a system of annual promotion and relegation, meaning that clubs have no fixed status in the hierarchy, or there is only one professional league per country in each sport, rendering the major/minor distinction irrelevant.

American football

While there are various semi-professional football leagues, none have any affiliation with the National Football League (NFL). The NFL and its teams have had working relationships with several independent leagues in the past, including the Association of Professional Football Leagues, the Atlantic Coast Football League, and most recently, the league owned-and-operated NFL Europe. In modern times, the NFL has developed players not ready for the active roster through each team's practice squad.

Many consider the Arena Football League to have been a de facto minor league, since several NFL owners had teams in it in the mid-2000s, prior to its bankruptcy and restructuring. Arena football is played under very different conditions, and the AFL had its own minor league, af2, until 2009. Several other independent indoor football leagues that play a similar game exist. Similarly, the Canadian Football League, though it has developed ties with the NFL in recent years and has moved away from competing with the NFL for talent, plays a visibly different game than the American game, and the two sports favor different types of skills; the CFL arguably holds major league status in its home territory of Canada. Several minor and developmental leagues independent of the NFL have come and gone, with one, the Fall Experimental Football League, active as of the 2014 season.

Association football

Below Major League Soccer several lower-level leagues operate on both sides of the U.S.–Canada border as part of the American and Canadian soccer pyramids. As is standard for sports in both countries, the formal promotion and relegation system is not used, although teams have been informally "promoted" from lower leagues up to Major League Soccer. Today, the second level is the current North American Soccer League. The third level is USL Pro, operated by the United Soccer Leagues (USL). The USL also operates the Premier Development League, a semi-professional league that has some age restrictions.

In 2013 Major League Soccer announced a partnership with USL Pro which began formal affiliation between some USL Pro teams and MLS teams.[1] The partnership continues to deepen as several MLS sides now field their own reserve team in USL Pro.[2] No formal relationship exists between NASL and the other leagues; NASL's commissioner has said he believes it will "stay that way for some time".[3]


This article is about adult minor league baseball. For youth "minor league" baseball, see Little League Baseball.

Minor league baseball is almost as old as the professional game itself, and at first consisted of attempts to play baseball in smaller cities and towns independent of the National League, the first true major baseball league. Soon, scouts for the National League were traveling to watch minor league teams play and attempting to sign the more talented ones away. Some sports historians cite the connection between the other major league, the American League and its minor league forebear, the Western Association. Soon Major League Baseball began formal developmental agreements with some minor league teams, while others remained independent.


The National Basketball Association has an affiliated minor league: the NBA Development League (also called the "D-League"). The now-defunct Continental Basketball Association (CBA) served some of the purposes of a minor league for the NBA for many years. However, there were no direct developmental agreements between CBA and NBA teams the way that there are between Major League Baseball and National Hockey League teams and their minor league affiliates.

Current minor leagues

Ice hockey

The sport with the next most extensive system of minor league teams other than baseball is ice hockey. In North America, between 1988 and 2005, 233 minor ice hockey teams played in a total of 160 cities in 13 minor professional leagues. The vast majority of these teams played in the United States, with only 21 of these teams based in Canadian cities. 123 of these minor professional teams played in the southern United States.[4] One reason given for the large number of American-based teams is that minor league franchises will frequently move from city to city, and even between leagues.[5] In contrast, Canadian cities more commonly host junior ice hockey teams, which develop teenage prospects prior to their move to the professional leagues.

The American Hockey League is the most prominent of the minor hockey leagues in North America.

Current minor leagues

Former minor leagues

All National Hockey League teams have a farm team in the American Hockey League and often share a team in the ECHL. On "the farm" the NHL team will develop young players, occasionally rehabilitate older players who are injured or whose quality of play has slumped, or, if possible, bury an expensive player to avoid a hit on the team's salary cap. These teams, in turn, have lower-level minor leagues to draw players from and pass players down to. Minor ice hockey leagues should not be confused with Junior or Senior ice hockey leagues. They are different in that minor professional hockey leagues do not have restrictions on the age or experience levels of their players, but Junior and Senior leagues do.

Other sports

Other sports organizations considered to be minor leagues are golf's Tour and Symetra Tour, respectively affiliated with the PGA Tour and LPGA; NASCAR's Xfinity Series, Camping World Truck Series and Whelen All-American Series; and various other affiliated satellite tours of other individual sports, including the Challengers Tour of Professional Tennis.


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  4. ^ Scott, Jon C. (2006). Hockey Night in Dixie: Minor Pro Hockey in the American South. Heritage House Publishing Company Ltd. pp. vii. ISBN 1-894974-21-2. 
  5. ^ Scott, Jon C. (2006). Hockey Night in Dixie: Minor Pro Hockey in the American South. Heritage House Publishing Company Ltd. pp. vii. ISBN 1-894974-21-2. 

See also