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Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī
225px A stamp issued September 6, 1983 in the Soviet Union, commemorating alKhwārizmī's (approximate) 1200th birthday.  
Born 
c. 780 Khwārizm^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]} 

Died  c. 850 
Era  Medieval era (Islamic Golden Age) 
Notable ideas  Treatises on algebra and Indian numerals 
Influenced

Abū ‘Abdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī^{[note 1]} (Persian: عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمی; c. 780 – c. 850), formerly Latinized as Algoritmi or Algaurizin, was a Persian^{[1]}^{[5]} mathematician, astronomer and geographer during the Abbasid Caliphate, a scholar in the House of Wisdom in Baghdad.
In the twelfth century, Latin translations of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.^{[3]} His Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic. In Renaissance Europe, he was considered the original inventor of algebra, although it is now known that his work is based on older Indian or Greek sources.^{[6]} He revised Ptolemy's Geography and wrote on astronomy and astrology.
Some words reflect the importance of alKhwarizmi's contributions to mathematics. "Algebra" is derived from aljabr, one of the two operations he used to solve quadratic equations. Algorism and algorithm stem from Algoritmi, the Latin form of his name.^{[7]} His name is also the origin of (Spanish) guarismo^{[8]} and of (Portuguese) algarismo, both meaning digit.
Contents
Life
He was born in a Persian^{[1]}^{[5]} family, and his birthplace is given as Chorasmia^{[9]} by Ibn alNadim.
Few details of alKhwārizmī's life are known with certainty. His name may indicate that he came from Khwarezm (Khiva), then in Greater Khorasan, which occupied the eastern part of the Greater Iran, now Xorazm Province in Uzbekistan.
AlTabari gave his name as Muhammad ibn Musa alKhwārizmī alMajousi alKatarbali (محمد بن موسى الخوارزميّ المجوسـيّ القطربّـليّ). The epithet alQutrubbulli could indicate he might instead have come from Qutrubbul (Qatrabbul),^{[10]} a viticulture district near Baghdad. However, Rashed^{[11]} suggests:
There is no need to be an expert on the period or a philologist to see that alTabari's second citation should read "Muhammad ibn Mūsa alKhwārizmī and alMajūsi alQutrubbulli," and that there are two people (alKhwārizmī and alMajūsi alQutrubbulli) between whom the letter wa [Arabic 'و' for the article 'and'] has been omitted in an early copy. This would not be worth mentioning if a series of errors concerning the personality of alKhwārizmī, occasionally even the origins of his knowledge, had not been made. Recently, G. J. Toomer ... with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader.
Regarding alKhwārizmī's religion, Toomer writes:
Another epithet given to him by alṬabarī, "alMajūsī," would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion. This would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin, but the pious preface to alKhwārizmī's Algebra shows that he was an orthodox Muslim, so alṬabarī's epithet could mean no more than that his forebears, and perhaps he in his youth, had been Zoroastrians.^{[12]}
Ibn alNadīm's Kitāb alFihrist includes a short biography on alKhwārizmī, together with a list of the books he wrote. AlKhwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between 813 and 833. After the Islamic conquest of Persia, Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade, and many merchants and scientists from as far as China and India traveled to this city, as did AlKhwārizmī. He worked in Baghdad as a scholar at the House of Wisdom established by Caliph alMa’mūn, where he studied the sciences and mathematics, which included the translation of Greek and Sanskrit scientific manuscripts.
D. M. Dunlop suggests that it may have been possible that Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī was in fact the same person as Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, the eldest of the three Banū Mūsā.^{[13]}^{[year missing]}
Contributions
AlKhwārizmī's contributions to mathematics, geography, astronomy, and cartography established the basis for innovation in algebra and trigonometry. His systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra, a word derived from the title of his 830 book on the subject, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing".
On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 825, was principally responsible for spreading the Indian system of numeration throughout the Middle East and Europe. It was translated into Latin as Algoritmi de numero Indorum. AlKhwārizmī, rendered as (Latin) Algoritmi, led to the term "algorithm".
Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomy, Indian numbers, and Greek mathematics.
AlKhwārizmī systematized and corrected Ptolemy's data for Africa and the Middle East. Another major book was Kitab surat alard ("The Image of the Earth"; translated as Geography), presenting the coordinates of places based on those in the Geography of Ptolemy but with improved values for the Mediterranean Sea, Asia, and Africa.
He also wrote on mechanical devices like the astrolabe and sundial.
He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for alMa'mun, the caliph, overseeing 70 geographers.^{[14]}
When, in the twelfth century, his works spread to Europe through Latin translations, it had a profound impact on the advance of mathematics in Europe.^{[citation needed]}
Algebra
The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing (Arabic: الكتاب المختصر في حساب الجبر والمقابلة alKitāb almukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb aljabr walmuqābala) is a mathematical book written approximately 830 CE. The book was written with the encouragement of the Caliph alMa'mun as a popular work on calculation and is replete with examples and applications to a wide range of problems in trade, surveying and legal inheritance.^{[15]} The term algebra is derived from the name of one of the basic operations with equations (aljabr, meaning "restoration", referring to adding a number to both sides of the equation to consolidate or cancel terms) described in this book. The book was translated in Latin as Liber algebrae et almucabala by Robert of Chester (Segovia, 1145) hence "algebra", and also by Gerard of Cremona. A unique Arabic copy is kept at Oxford and was translated in 1831 by F. Rosen. A Latin translation is kept in Cambridge.^{[16]}
It provided an exhaustive account of solving polynomial equations up to the second degree,^{[17]} and discussed the fundamental methods of "reduction" and "balancing", referring to the transposition of terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.^{[18]}
AlKhwārizmī's method of solving linear and quadratic equations worked by first reducing the equation to one of six standard forms (where b and c are positive integers)
 squares equal roots (ax^{2} = bx)
 squares equal number (ax^{2} = c)
 roots equal number (bx = c)
 squares and roots equal number (ax^{2} + bx = c)
 squares and number equal roots (ax^{2} + c = bx)
 roots and number equal squares (bx + c = ax^{2})
by dividing out the coefficient of the square and using the two operations aljabr (Arabic: الجبر "restoring" or "completion") and almuqābala ("balancing"). Aljabr is the process of removing negative units, roots and squares from the equation by adding the same quantity to each side. For example, x^{2} = 40x − 4x^{2} is reduced to 5x^{2} = 40x. Almuqābala is the process of bringing quantities of the same type to the same side of the equation. For example, x^{2} + 14 = x + 5 is reduced to x^{2} + 9 = x.
The above discussion uses modern mathematical notation for the types of problems which the book discusses. However, in alKhwārizmī's day, most of this notation had not yet been invented, so he had to use ordinary text to present problems and their solutions. For example, for one problem he writes, (from an 1831 translation)
If some one say: "You divide ten into two parts: multiply the one by itself; it will be equal to the other taken eightyone times." Computation: You say, ten less thing, multiplied by itself, is a hundred plus a square less twenty things, and this is equal to eightyone things. Separate the twenty things from a hundred and a square, and add them to eightyone. It will then be a hundred plus a square, which is equal to a hundred and one roots. Halve the roots; the moiety is fifty and a half. Multiply this by itself, it is two thousand five hundred and fifty and a quarter. Subtract from this one hundred; the remainder is two thousand four hundred and fifty and a quarter. Extract the root from this; it is fortynine and a half. Subtract this from the moiety of the roots, which is fifty and a half. There remains one, and this is one of the two parts.^{[15]}
In modern notation this process, with 'x' the "thing" (shay') or "root", is given by the steps,
 <math>(10x)^2=81 x</math>
 <math>x^2  20 x + 100 = 81 x</math>
 <math>x^2+100=101 x</math>
Let the roots of the equation be 'p' and 'q'. Then <math>\tfrac{p+q}{2}=50\tfrac{1}{2}</math>, <math>pq =100</math> and
 <math>\frac{pq}{2} = \sqrt{\left(\frac{p+q}{2}\right)^2  pq}=\sqrt{2550\tfrac{1}{4}  100}=49\tfrac{1}{2}</math>
So a root is given by
 <math>x=50\tfrac{1}{2}49\tfrac{1}{2}=1</math>
Several authors have also published texts under the name of Kitāb aljabr walmuqābala, including Abū Ḥanīfa alDīnawarī, Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam, Abū Muḥammad al‘Adlī, Abū Yūsuf alMiṣṣīṣī, 'Abd alHamīd ibn Turk, Sind ibn ‘Alī, Sahl ibn Bišr, and Šarafaddīn alṬūsī.
J. J. O'Conner and E. F. Robertson wrote in the MacTutor History of Mathematics archive:
Perhaps one of the most significant advances made by Arabic mathematics began at this time with the work of alKhwarizmi, namely the beginnings of algebra. It is important to understand just how significant this new idea was. It was a revolutionary move away from the Greek concept of mathematics which was essentially geometry. Algebra was a unifying theory which allowed rational numbers, irrational numbers, geometrical magnitudes, etc., to all be treated as "algebraic objects". It gave mathematics a whole new development path so much broader in concept to that which had existed before, and provided a vehicle for future development of the subject. Another important aspect of the introduction of algebraic ideas was that it allowed mathematics to be applied to itself in a way which had not happened before.^{[19]}
R. Rashed and Angela Armstrong write:
AlKhwarizmi's text can be seen to be distinct not only from the Babylonian tablets, but also from Diophantus' Arithmetica. It no longer concerns a series of problems to be resolved, but an exposition which starts with primitive terms in which the combinations must give all possible prototypes for equations, which henceforward explicitly constitute the true object of study. On the other hand, the idea of an equation for its own sake appears from the beginning and, one could say, in a generic manner, insofar as it does not simply emerge in the course of solving a problem, but is specifically called on to define an infinite class of problems.^{[20]}
Arithmetic
AlKhwārizmī's second major work was on the subject of arithmetic, which survived in a Latin translation but was lost in the original Arabic. The translation was most likely done in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bath, who had also translated the astronomical tables in 1126.
The Latin manuscripts are untitled, but are commonly referred to by the first two words with which they start: Dixit algorizmi ("So said alKhwārizmī"), or Algoritmi de numero Indorum ("alKhwārizmī on the Hindu Art of Reckoning"), a name given to the work by Baldassarre Boncompagni in 1857. The original Arabic title was possibly Kitāb alJam‘ watTafrīq biḤisāb alHind^{[21]} ("The Book of Addition and Subtraction According to the Hindu Calculation").^{[22]}
AlKhwarizmi's work on arithmetic was responsible for introducing the Arabic numerals, based on the HinduArabic numeral system developed in Indian mathematics, to the Western world. The term "algorithm" is derived from the algorism, the technique of performing arithmetic with HinduArabic numerals developed by alKhwarizmi. Both "algorithm" and "algorism" are derived from the Latinized forms of alKhwarizmi's name, Algoritmi and Algorismi, respectively.
Astronomy
AlKhwārizmī's Zīj alSindhind^{[12]} (Arabic: زيج "astronomical tables of Sind and Hind") is a work consisting of approximately 37 chapters on calendrical and astronomical calculations and 116 tables with calendrical, astronomical and astrological data, as well as a table of sine values. This is the first of many Arabic Zijes based on the Indian astronomical methods known as the sindhind.^{[23]} The work contains tables for the movements of the sun, the moon and the five planets known at the time. This work marked the turning point in Islamic astronomy. Hitherto, Muslim astronomers had adopted a primarily research approach to the field, translating works of others and learning already discovered knowledge.
The original Arabic version (written c. 820) is lost, but a version by the Spanish astronomer Maslamah Ibn Ahmad alMajriti (c. 1000) has survived in a Latin translation, presumably by Adelard of Bath (January 26, 1126).^{[24]} The four surviving manuscripts of the Latin translation are kept at the Bibliothèque publique (Chartres), the Bibliothèque Mazarine (Paris), the Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid) and the Bodleian Library (Oxford).
Trigonometry
AlKhwārizmī's Zīj alSindhind also contained tables for the trigonometric functions of sines and cosine.^{[23]} A related treatise on spherical trigonometry is also attributed to him.^{[19]}
Geography
AlKhwārizmī's third major work is his Kitāb Ṣūrat alArḍ (Arabic: كتاب صورة الأرض, "Book of the Description of the Earth"),^{[25]} also known as his Geography, which was finished in 833. It is a major reworking of Ptolemy's 2ndcentury Geography, consisting of a list of 2402 coordinates of cities and other geographical features following a general introduction.^{[26]}
There is only one surviving copy of Kitāb Ṣūrat alArḍ, which is kept at the Strasbourg University Library. A Latin translation is kept at the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid.^{[citation needed]} The book opens with the list of latitudes and longitudes, in order of "weather zones", that is to say in blocks of latitudes and, in each weather zone, by order of longitude. As Paul Gallez^{[dubious – discuss]} points out, this excellent system allows the deduction of many latitudes and longitudes where the only extant document is in such a bad condition as to make it practically illegible. Neither the Arabic copy nor the Latin translation include the map of the world itself; however, Hubert Daunicht was able to reconstruct the missing map from the list of coordinates. Daunicht read the latitudes and longitudes of the coastal points in the manuscript, or deduces them from the context where they were not legible. He transferred the points onto graph paper and connected them with straight lines, obtaining an approximation of the coastline as it was on the original map. He then does the same for the rivers and towns.^{[27]}
AlKhwārizmī corrected Ptolemy's gross overestimate for the length of the Mediterranean Sea^{[28]} from the Canary Islands to the eastern shores of the Mediterranean; Ptolemy overestimated it at 63 degrees of longitude, while alKhwarizmi almost correctly estimated it at nearly 50 degrees of longitude. He "also depicted the Atlantic and Indian Oceans as open bodies of water, not landlocked seas as Ptolemy had done."^{[29]} AlKhwarizmi's Prime Meridian at the Fortunate Isles was thus around 10° east of the line used by Marinus and Ptolemy. Most medieval Muslim gazetteers continued to use alKhwarizmi's prime meridian.^{[28]}
Jewish calendar
AlKhwārizmī wrote several other works including a treatise on the Hebrew calendar (Risāla fi istikhrāj ta’rīkh alyahūd "Extraction of the Jewish Era"). It describes the 19year intercalation cycle, the rules for determining on what day of the week the first day of the month Tishrī shall fall; calculates the interval between the Jewish era (creation of Adam) and the Seleucid era; and gives rules for determining the mean longitude of the sun and the moon using the Jewish calendar. Similar material is found in the works of alBīrūnī and Maimonides.^{[12]}
Other works
Ibn alNadim in his Kitab alFihrist (an index of Arabic books) mentions alKhwārizmī's Kitab alTarikh, a book of annals. No direct manuscript survives; however, a copy had reached Nisibis by the 1000s, where its metropolitan, Elias bar Shinaya, found it. Elias's chronicle quotes it from "the death of the Prophet" through to 169 AH, at which point Elias's text itself hits a lacuna.^{[30]}
Several Arabic manuscripts in Berlin, Istanbul, Tashkent, Cairo and Paris contain further material that surely or with some probability comes from alKhwārizmī. The Istanbul manuscript contains a paper on sundials; the Fihrist credits alKhwārizmī with Kitāb arRukhāma(t). Other papers, such as one on the determination of the direction of Mecca, are on the spherical astronomy.
Two texts deserve special interest on the morning width (Ma‘rifat sa‘at almashriq fī kull balad) and the determination of the azimuth from a height (Ma‘rifat alsamt min qibal alirtifā‘).
He also wrote two books on using and constructing astrolabes.
See also
40x40px  Wikiquote has quotations related to: alKhwārizmī 
40x40px  Wikimedia Commons has media related to Muhammad ibn Musa alKhwarizmi. 
 AlKhwarizmi (crater) — A crater on the far side of the moon named after alKhwārizmī.
 Astronomy in medieval Islam
 Hindu and Buddhist contribution to science in medieval Islam
 Khwarizmi International Award — An Iranian award named after alKhwārizmī.
 Mathematics in medieval Islam
Notes
 ^ There is some confusion in the literature on whether alKhwārizmī's full name is Abū ‘Abdallāh Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī or Abū Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī. Ibn Khaldun notes in his encyclopedic work: "The first who wrote upon this branch [algebra] was Abu ‘Abdallah alKhowarizmi, after whom came Abu Kamil Shoja‘ ibn Aslam." (MacGuckin de Slane). (Rosen 1831, pp. xi–xiii) mentions that "[Abu Abdallah Mohammed ben Musa] lived and wrote under the caliphate of Al Mamun, and must therefore be distinguished from Abu Jafar Mohammed ben Musa, likewise a mathematician and astronomer, who flourished under the Caliph Al Motaded (who reigned A.H. 279–289, A.D. 892–902)." In the introduction to his critical commentary on Robert of Chester's Latin translation of alKhwārizmī's Algebra, L.C. Karpinski notes that Abū Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn Mūsā refers to the eldest of the Banū Mūsā brothers. Karpinski notes in his review on (Ruska 1917) that in (Ruska 1918): "Ruska here inadvertently speaks of the author as Abū Ga‘far M. b. M., instead of Abū Abdallah M. b. M."
References
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Hogendijk, Jan P. (1998). "alKhwarzimi". Pythagoras 38 (2): 4–5. ISSN 00334766.^{[dead link]}
 ^ Berggren 1986
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Struik 1987, p. 93
 ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abū Kāmil Shujā‘ ibn Aslam", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Oaks, Jeffrey A. "Was alKhwarizmi an applied algebraist?". University of Indianapolis. Retrieved 20080530.
 ^ Rosen 1831, p. v–vi; Toomer 1990
 ^ Daffa 1977
 ^ Knuth, Donald (1979). Algorithms in Modern Mathematics and Computer Science (PDF). SpringerVerlag. ISBN 0387111573.
 ^ Cristopher Moore and Stephan Mertens, The Nature of Computation, (Oxford University Press, 2011), 36.
 ^ "Iraq After the Muslim Conquest", by Michael G. Morony, ISBN 1593333153 (a 2005 facsimile from the original 1984 book), p. 145
 ^ Rashed, Roshdi (1988). "alKhwārizmī's Concept of Algebra". In Zurayq, Qusṭanṭīn; Atiyeh, George Nicholas; Oweiss, Ibrahim M.. Arab Civilization: Challenges and Responses : Studies in Honor of Constantine K. Zurayk. SUNY Press. p. 108. ISBN 0887066984.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} ^{c} Toomer 1990
 ^ Dunlop
 ^ "alKhwarizmi". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 20080530.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Rosen, Frederic. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, alKhwārizmī". 1831 English Translation. Retrieved 20090914.
 ^ Karpinski, L. C. (1912). "History of Mathematics in the Recent Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica". American Association for the Advancement of Science.
 ^ Boyer, Carl B. (1991). "The Arabic Hegemony". A History of Mathematics (Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 228. ISBN 0471543977.
"The Arabs in general loved a good clear argument from premise to conclusion, as well as systematic organization — respects in which neither Diophantus nor the Hindus excelled."
 ^ (Boyer 1991, "The Arabic Hegemony" p. 229) "It is not certain just what the terms aljabr and muqabalah mean, but the usual interpretation is similar to that implied in the translation above. The word aljabr presumably meant something like "restoration" or "completion" and seems to refer to the transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation; the word muqabalah is said to refer to "reduction" or "balancing" — that is, the cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation."
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alKhwārizmī", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 ^ Rashed, R.; Armstrong, Angela (1994). The Development of Arabic Mathematics. Springer. pp. 11–2. ISBN 0792325656. OCLC 29181926.
 ^ Ruska
 ^ Berggren 1986, p. 7
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Kennedy 1956, pp. 26–9
 ^ Kennedy 1956, p. 128
 ^ The full title is "The Book of the Description of the Earth, with its Cities, Mountains, Seas, All the Islands and the Rivers, written by Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa alKhwārizmī, according to the Geographical Treatise written by Ptolemy the Claudian", although due to ambiguity in the word surah it could also be understood as meaning "The Book of the Image of the Earth" or even "The Book of the Map of the World".
 ^ "The history of cartography". GAP computer algebra system. Retrieved 20080530.
 ^ Daunicht.
 ^ ^{a} ^{b} Edward S. Kennedy, Mathematical Geography, p. 188, in (Rashed & Morelon 1996, pp. 185–201)
 ^ Covington, Richard (2007). "The Third Dimension". Saudi Aramco World, May–June 2007: 17–21. Retrieved 20080706.
 ^ LJ Delaporte (1910). Chronographie de Mar Elie bar Sinaya. Paris. p. xiii.
Further reading
 Biographical
 Toomer, Gerald (1990). "AlKhwārizmī, Abu Ja‘far Muḥammad ibn Mūsā". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Dictionary of Scientific Biography 7. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0684169622.
 Brentjes, Sonja (2007). "Khwārizmī: Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al‐Khwārizmī" in Thomas Hockey et al.(eds.). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers, Springer Reference. New York: Springer, 2007, pp. 631–633. (PDF version)
 Dunlop, Douglas Morton (1943). "Muḥammad b. Mūsā alKhwārizmī". The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland (Cambridge University) (2): 248–250. JSTOR 25221920.
 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Musa AlKhwarizmi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 Fuat Sezgin. Geschichte des arabischen Schrifttums. 1974, E. J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.
 Sezgin, F., ed., Islamic Mathematics and Astronomy, Frankfurt: Institut für Geschichte der arabischislamischen Wissenschaften, 1997–9.
 Algebra
 Gandz, Solomon (November 1926). "The Origin of the Term "Algebra"". The American Mathematical Monthly (The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 33, No. 9) 33 (9): 437–440. ISSN 00029890. JSTOR 2299605. doi:10.2307/2299605.
 Gandz, Solomon (1936). "The Sources of alKhowārizmī's Algebra". Osiris 1 (1): 263–277. ISSN 03697827. doi:10.1086/368426.
 Gandz, Solomon (1938). "The Algebra of Inheritance: A Rehabilitation of AlKhuwārizmī". Osiris 5 (5): 319–391. ISSN 03697827. doi:10.1086/368492.
 Hughes, Barnabas (1986). "Gerard of Cremona's Translation of alKhwārizmī's alJabr: A Critical Edition". Mediaeval Studies 48: 211–263.
 Barnabas Hughes. Robert of Chester's Latin translation of alKhwarizmi's alJabr: A new critical edition. In Latin. F. Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden (1989). ISBN 3515045899.
 Karpinski, L. C. (1915). Robert of Chester's Latin Translation of the Algebra of AlKhowarizmi: With an Introduction, Critical Notes and an English Version. The Macmillan Company.
 Rosen, Fredrick (1831). The Algebra of Mohammed Ben Musa. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 1417949147.
 Ruska, Julius (1917). "Zur ältesten arabischen Algebra und Rechenkunst". Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophischhistorische Klasse: 1–125.
 Arithmetic
 Folkerts, Menso (1997). Die älteste lateinische Schrift über das indische Rechnen nach alḪwārizmī (in German and Latin). München: Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 3769601084.
 Vogel, Kurt (1968). Mohammed ibn Musa Alchwarizmi's Algorismus; das früheste Lehrbuch zum Rechnen mit indischen Ziffern. Nach der einzigen (lateinischen) Handschrift (Cambridge Un. Lib. Ms. Ii. 6.5) in Faksimile mit Transkription und Kommentar herausgegeben von Kurt Vogel. Aalen, O. Zeller.
 Astronomy
 Goldstein, B. R. (1968). Commentary on the Astronomical Tables of AlKhwarizmi: By Ibn AlMuthanna. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300004982.
 Hogendijk, Jan P. (1991). "AlKhwārizmī's Table of the "Sine of the Hours" and the Underlying Sine Table". Historia Scientiarum 42: 1–12.
 King, David A. (1983). AlKhwārizmī and New Trends in Mathematical Astronomy in the Ninth Century. New York University: Hagop Kevorkian Center for Near Eastern Studies: Occasional Papers on the Near East 2. LCCN 85150177.
 Neugebauer, Otto (1962). The Astronomical Tables of alKhwarizmi.
 Rosenfeld, Boris A. (1993). Menso Folkerts; J. P. Hogendijk, eds. ""Geometric trigonometry" in treatises of alKhwārizmī, alMāhānī and Ibn alHaytham". Vestiga mathematica: Studies in Medieval and Early Modern Mathematics in Honour of H. L. L. Busard (Amsterdam: Rodopi). ISBN 9051835361.
 Suter, Heinrich. [Ed.]: Die astronomischen Tafeln des Muhammed ibn Mûsâ alKhwârizmî in der Bearbeitung des Maslama ibn Ahmed alMadjrîtî und der latein. Übersetzung des Athelhard von Bath auf Grund der Vorarbeiten von A. Bjørnbo und R. Besthorn in Kopenhagen. Hrsg. und komm. Kopenhagen 1914. 288 pp. Repr. 1997 (Islamic Mathematics and Astronomy. 7). ISBN 382984008X.
 Van Dalen, B. AlKhwarizmi's Astronomical Tables Revisited: Analysis of the Equation of Time.
 Jewish calendar
 Kennedy, E. S. (1964). "AlKhwārizmī on the Jewish Calendar". Scripta Mathematica 27: 55–59.
 Geography
 Daunicht, Hubert (1968–1970). Der Osten nach der Erdkarte alḪuwārizmīs : Beiträge zur historischen Geographie und Geschichte Asiens (in German). Bonner orientalistische Studien. N.S.; Bd. 19. LCCN 71468286.
 Mžik, Hans von (1915). "Ptolemaeus und die Karten der arabischen Geographen". Mitteil. D. K. K. Geogr. Ges. In Wien 58: 152.
 Mžik, Hans von (1916). "Afrika nach der arabischen Bearbeitung der γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις des Cl. Ptolomeaus von Muh. ibn Mūsa alHwarizmi". Denkschriften d. Akad. D. Wissen. In Wien, Phil.hist. Kl. 59.
 Mžik, Hans von (1926). Das Kitāb Ṣūrat alArḍ des Abū Ǧa‘far Muḥammad ibn Mūsā alḪuwārizmī. Leipzig.
 Nallino, C. A. (1896), "AlḪuwārizmī e il suo rifacimento della Geografia di Tolemo", Atti della R. Accad. dei Lincei, Arno 291, Serie V, Memorie, Classe di Sc. Mor., Vol. II, Rome
 Ruska, Julius (1918). "Neue Bausteine zur Geschichte der arabischen Geographie". Geographische Zeitschrift 24: 77–81.
 Spitta, W. (1879). "Ḫuwārizmī's Auszug aus der Geographie des Ptolomaeus". Zeitschrift Deutschen Morgenl. Gesell. 33.
 Spherical trigonometry
 B. A. Rozenfeld. "AlKhwarizmi's spherical trigonometry" (Russian), Istor.Mat. Issled. 32–33 (1990), 325–339.
General references
 For a more extensive bibliography see: History of mathematics, Mathematics in medieval Islam, and Astronomy in medieval Islam.
 Berggren, J. Lennart (1986). Episodes in the Mathematics of Medieval Islam. New York: Springer Science+Business Media. ISBN 0387963189.
 Boyer, Carl B. (1991). "The Arabic Hegemony". A History of Mathematics (Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ISBN 0471543977.
 Daffa, Ali Abdullah al (1977). The Muslim contribution to mathematics. London: Croom Helm. ISBN 0856644641.
 Dallal, Ahmad (1999). "Science, Medicine and Technology". In Esposito, John. The Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York.
 Kennedy, E. S. (1956). "A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables; Transactions of the American Philosophical Society" 46 (2). Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.
 King, David A. (1999a). "Islamic Astronomy". In Walker, Christopher. Astronomy before the telescope. British Museum Press. pp. 143–174. ISBN 0714127337.
 King, David A. (2002). "A Vetustissimus Arabic Text on the Quadrans Vetus". Journal for the History of Astronomy 33: 237–255. Bibcode:2002JHA....33..237K.
 Struik, Dirk Jan (1987). A Concise History of Mathematics (4th ed.). Dover Publications. ISBN 0486602559.
 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Abraham bar Hiyya HaNasi", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., "Arabic mathematics: forgotten brilliance?", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews.
 Roshdi Rashed, The development of Arabic mathematics: between arithmetic and algebra, London, 1994.

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