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Muslim world

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Muslim scientists contributed to advances in the sciences. They placed far greater emphasis on experiment than had the Greeks. This led to an early scientific method being developed in the Muslim world, where progress in methodology was made, beginning with the experiments of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) on optics from circa 1000, in his Book of Optics. The most important development of the scientific method was the use of experiments to distinguish between competing scientific theories set within a generally empirical orientation, which began among Muslim scientists. Ibn al-Haytham is also regarded as the father of optics, especially for his empirical proof of the intromission theory of light. Some have also described Ibn al-Haytham as the "first scientist."[54] al-Khwarzimi's invented the log base systems that are being used today, he also contributed theorems in trigonometry as well as limits.[55] Recent studies show that it is very likely that the Medieval Muslim artists were aware of advanced decagonal quasicrystal geometry (discovered half a millennium later in the 1970s and 1980s in the West) and used it in intricate decorative tilework in the architecture.[56]

Muslim physicians contributed to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology: such as in the 15th century Persian work by Mansur ibn Muhammad ibn al-Faqih Ilyas entitled Tashrih al-badan (Anatomy of the body) which contained comprehensive diagrams of the body's structural, nervous and circulatory systems; or in the work of the Egyptian physician Ibn al-Nafis, who proposed the theory of pulmonary circulation. Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine remained an authoritative medical textbook in Europe until the 18th century. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (also known as Abulcasis) contributed to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim medical schools for centuries. Other medical advancements came in the fields of pharmacology and pharmacy.[57]

In astronomy, Muḥammad ibn Jābir al-Ḥarrānī al-Battānī improved the precision of the measurement of the precession of the Earth's axis. The corrections made to the geocentric model by al-Battani, Averroes, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, Mu'ayyad al-Din al-'Urdi and Ibn al-Shatir were later incorporated into the Copernican heliocentric model. Heliocentric theories were also discussed by several other Muslim astronomers such as Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī, Sijzi, Qotb al-Din Shirazi, and Najm al-Dīn al-Qazwīnī al-Kātibī. The astrolabe, though originally developed by the Greeks, was perfected by Islamic astronomers and engineers, and was subsequently brought to Europe.

Some most famous scientists from the medieval Islamic world include Jābir ibn Hayyān, al-Farabi, Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi, Ibn al-Haytham, Abū Rayḥān al-Bīrūnī, Avicenna, Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, and Ibn Khaldun.


File:Illustration of al-Hariri Maqamat spinning wheel.jpg
The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval Muslim world, it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)

In technology, the Muslim world adopted papermaking from China.[58] The knowledge of gunpowder was also transmitted from China via Islamic countries,[59] where the formulas for pure potassium nitrate[60][61] and an explosive gunpowder effect were first developed.

Advances were made in irrigation and farming, using new technology such as the windmill. Crops such as almonds and citrus fruit were brought to Europe through al-Andalus, and sugar cultivation was gradually adopted by the Europeans. Arab merchants dominated trade in the Indian Ocean until the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century. Hormuz was an important center for this trade. There was also a dense network of trade routes in the Mediterranean, along which Muslim countries traded with each other and with European powers such as Venice, Genoa and Catalonia. The Silk Road crossing Central Asia passed through Muslim states between China and Europe.

Muslim engineers in the Islamic world made a number of innovative industrial uses of hydropower, and early industrial uses of tidal power and wind power,[62] fossil fuels such as petroleum, and early large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic).[63] The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, while horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were being employed in the Islamic world, including early fulling mills, gristmills, hullers, sawmills, ship mills, stamp mills, steel mills, sugar mills, tide mills and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from al-Andalus and North Africa to the Middle East and Central Asia.[58] Muslim engineers also invented crankshafts and water turbines, employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power, used to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines.[64] Such advances made it possible for industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour in ancient times to be mechanized and driven by machinery instead in the medieval Islamic world. The transfer of these technologies to medieval Europe had an influence on the Industrial Revolution.[65]

Gunpowder Empires

Scholars often use the term Gunpowder Empires to describe the Islamic empires of the Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal. Each of these three empires had considerable military exploits using the newly developed firearms, especially cannon and small arms, to create their empires.[66] They existed primarily between the fourteenth and the late seventeenth centuries.[67]

Great Divergence

"Why do the Christian nations, which were so weak in the past compared with Muslim nations begin to dominate so many lands in modern times and even defeat the once victorious Ottoman armies?"..."Because they have laws and rules invented by reason"

Ibrahim Muteferrika, Rational basis for the Politics of Nations (1731)

The Great Divergence, was the reason why European colonial powers militarily defeated preexisting Oriental powers like the Mughal Empire, Ottoman Empire and many smaller states in the pre-modern Muslim world and initiated a period known as 'colonialism'.


File:World 1914 empires colonies territory.PNG
Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).

In the 15th century colonialism was initiated by European powers (particularly, but not exclusively, Portugal, Spain, Britain, the Netherlands, Russia, Italy and France) this phenomenon had a profound impact upon Muslim societies in Africa, Europe, Middle East and Asia.

Colonialism was often advanced by conflict with mercantile initiatives by colonial powers and caused tremendous social upheavals in Muslim societies.

Colonial powers commonly classified Muslim societies that were highly heterogeneous as monolithic, anti-modern and anti-intellectual.

A number of Muslim societies reacted to Western powers with zealotry and thus initiating the rise of religious nationalism; or affirmed more traditionalist and inclusive ideals such as Sufism; and in rare cases adopted modernity that was ushered by the colonial powers.[69]

The only Muslim regions not to be colonized by the Europeans were Saudi Arabia, Iran, Turkey and Afghanistan.

Fall of Colonialism

With the end of colonialism particularly during the Cold War era, Muslim majority countries have become independent nation/state.

Countries gaining independence

Many disputes have occurred within the Muslim community regarding how to manage, organize and administer their respective countries.

Contemporary developments

Muslim cultures today

Islam has 1.57 billion adherents, making up over 23% of the world population.[70][71][72]

Throughout history Muslim cultures have been diverse ethically, linguistically and regionally. In the contemporary world Muslim cultures exist in Asia, Africa and Europe in various countries where Muslims constitute a majority.

However other Muslim cultures have also emerged in countries throughout the world where Muslims constitute the minority segments of the population.


Due to Globalization, Islam today has taken root and influenced endemic cultures in places far from the traditional boundaries of the Muslim world.[73]


Islam is the world's second largest religion. According to a 2010 study and released January 2011,[74][75] Islam has 1.57 billion adherents, making up over 23% of the world population.[70][71][72] According to the Pew Research Center in 2010 there were 49 Muslim-majority countries.[76]

File:Islam percent population in each nation World Map Muslim data by Pew Research.svg
The Muslim population of the world map by percentage of each country, according to the Pew Forum (assessed in 29 June 2014).

Countries with the largest Muslim populations (2010)

Muslim populations

Except for India, Nigeria, Ethiopia, China and Russia, the majority of the population in the following countries are Muslim.[74]

Muslims live in, but also have an official status in the following regions:

The countries of Southwest Asia, and some in Northern and Northeastern Africa are considered part of the Greater Middle East. In Chechnya, Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia, Ingushetia, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan in Russia, Muslims are in the majority.

Some definitions would also include the Muslim minorities in:


File:Jakarta Skyline Part 2.jpg
View of Jakarta, Indonesia. The country has the largest number of Muslims in the world.

Approximately 23% of the world's population is Muslim.[3][80] Current estimates conclude that the number of Muslims in the world is around 1.6 billion.[3] Muslims are the majority in 49 countries,[81] they speak hundreds of languages [over forty languages are spoken in Iran alone], and come from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Major languages spoken by Muslims include Arabic, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Swahili, Hausa, Fula, Berber, Tuareg, Somali, Albanian, Bosnian, Russian, Turkish, Azeri, Kazakh, Uzbek, Tatar, Persian, Pashto, Balochi, Sindhi and Kashmiri, among many others.


The two main denominations of Islam are the Sunni and Shia sects. They differ primarily upon of how the life of the ummah ("faithful") should be governed, and the role of the imam. These two main differences stem from the understanding of which hadith are to interpret the Quran. Sunnis believe the true political successor of the Prophet in Sunnah is Abu Bakr, father of the Prophet's favoured wife, 'A'ishah (elected by people of Medina) while the religious succession ceased to exist on account of finality of Prophethood. Shia on the other hand believe that the true political as well as religious successor is 'Ali ibn Abi Talib, husband of the Prophet's daughter Fatimah (designated by the Prophet).[82]

The overwhelming majority of Muslims in the world, between 87–90%, are Sunni.[83]

Shias and other (Ibadiyyas-Ismailis) make up the rest, about 10–13% of overall Muslim population. The top 10 countries with the most Shia populations are: Iran—93%, Azerbaijan—61%, Iraq—55%, Yemen—36%, Lebanon—27%,[84] Pakistan—25%, Syria—17%, Turkey—15%, Afghanistan—15%, and India—2.7%.[85]

The Kharijite Muslims, who are less known, have their own stronghold in the country of Oman holding about 75% of the population.[86]

Geographical distribution

The main Islamic madh'habs (schools of law) of Muslim countries or distributions
A map of major denominations and religions of the world


According to the UNHCR, Muslim countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010.

Since then Muslim nations have absorbed refugees from recent conflicts, including the uprising in Syria.[87] In July 2013, the UN stated that the number of Syrian refugees had exceeded 1.8 million.[88]


World map indicating literacy by country in 2013 (2013 UN Human Development Report and Individual statistics departments) Grey = no data

In many Muslim countries, illiteracy is a substantial problem.

Low literacy rates in Muslim majority countries and lack of educational initiatives are the cause of great social turbulence.

Madrasas exist and have taken hold in the gap caused by the lack of basic education provided by various countries.


Literacy rate in the Muslim world varies. Some members such as Kuwait, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan have over 97% literacy rates, whereas literacy rates are the lowest in Bangladesh, Mali and a few other countries.


Several Muslim countries like Turkey and Iran exhibit high scientific publication.[89] Some countries have tried to encourage scientific research. In Pakistan, establishment of the Higher Education Commission in 2002, resulted in a 5-fold increase in the number of PhDs and a 10-fold increase in the number of scientific research papers in 10 years with the total number of universities increasing from 115 in 2001 to over 400 in 2012.[citation needed] Saudi Arabia has established the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology. United Arab Emirates has invested in Zayed University, United Arab Emirates University, and Masdar Institute of Science and Technology[90][clarification needed]


The major economies of the Muslim world are composed of some economic systems of Western Asia, South Asia, Southeast Asia; most of the Middle East, most of North Africa (and the Horn of Africa), and most of West Africa.[91]

Islamic economics bans interest or Riba (Usury) but in the vast majority of Muslim countries Western banking is used.

Regional economies

Western Muslim economies

The major economies of the western Muslim economies are in part composed of the Asiatic economies of Islamic Western Asia and South Asia.[91]

African Muslim economies

The major economies of the African Muslim economies are composed of Islamic African nations.[91]

See also: Horn of Africa Economy (Economy of Ethiopia and Economy of Somalia)

Near East and Southwest Muslim economies

The major economies of the Near East and Southwest Muslim economies are composed of Islamic Near Eastern nations (the Middle East) and Islamic Southeast Asian nations.[91]

Further information: Economy of the Middle East (Middle East economic integration), Economy of Palestine (Economy of Gaza), Economy of Iraq (Economy of Iraqi Kurdistan), Economy of Brunei, Economy of Malaysia (Bamboo network), and Economy of Indonesia


Islamic architecture


The term "Islamic art and architecture" denotes the works of art and architecture produced from the 7th century onwards by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by culturally Islamic populations.[93][94]


Main article: Islamic architecture

Encompasses both secular and religious styles, the design and style made by Muslims and their construction of buildings and structures in Islamic culture included the architectural types: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace and the Fort. Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic art is architecture, particularly that of the mosque.[95] Through Islamic architecture, effects of varying cultures within Islamic civilization can be illustrated. Generally, the use of Islamic geometric patterns and foliage based arabesques were striking. There was also the use of decorative calligraphy instead of pictures which were haram (forbidden) in mosque architecture. Note that in secular architecture, human and animal representation was indeed present.

The North African and Iberian Islamic architecture, for example, has Roman-Byzantine elements, as seen in the Great Mosque of Kairouan which contains marble columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings,[96] in the Alhambra palace at Granada, or in the Great Mosque of Cordoba.

Persian-style mosques are characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades, and arches supported each by several pillars. In South Asia, elements of Hindu architecture were employed, but were later superseded by Persian designs. The most numerous and largest of mosques exist in Turkey, which obtained influence from Byzantine, Persian and Syrian designs, although Turkish architects managed to implement their own style of cupola domes.[95]


Main article: Aniconism in Islam

No Islamic visual images or depictions of God are meant to exist because it is believed that such artistic depictions may lead to idolatry. Moreover, Muslims believe that God is incorporeal, making any two- or three- dimensional depictions impossible. Instead, Muslims describe God by the names and attributes that, according to Islam, he revealed to his creation. All but one sura of the Quran begins with the phrase "In the name of God, the Beneficent, the Merciful". Images of Mohammed are likewise prohibited. Such aniconism and iconoclasm[97] can also be found in Jewish and some Christian theology.


Islamic art frequently adopts the use of geometrical floral or vegetal designs in a repetition known as arabesque. Such designs are highly nonrepresentational, as Islam forbids representational depictions as found in pre-Islamic pagan religions. Despite this, there is a presence of depictional art in some Muslim societies, notably the miniature style made famous in Persia and under the Ottoman Empire which featured paintings of people and animals, and also depictions of Quranic stories and Islamic traditional narratives. Another reason why Islamic art is usually abstract is to symbolize the transcendence, indivisible and infinite nature of God, an objective achieved by arabesque.[98] Islamic calligraphy is an omnipresent decoration in Islamic art, and is usually expressed in the form of Quranic verses. Two of the main scripts involved are the symbolic kufic and naskh scripts, which can be found adorning the walls and domes of mosques, the sides of minbars, and so on.[98]

Distinguishing motifs of Islamic architecture have always been ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.[99] The role of domes in Islamic architecture has been considerable. Its usage spans centuries, first appearing in 691 with the construction of the Dome of the Rock mosque, and recurring even up until the 17th century with the Taj Mahal. And as late as the 19th century, Islamic domes had been incorporated into European architecture.[100]


Girih is an Islamic decorative art form used in architecture and handicrafts (book covers, tapestry, small metal objects), consisting of geometric lines that form an interlaced strapwork.

Islamic calligraphy

Islamic calligraphy, is the artistic practice of handwriting, calligraphy, and by extension, of bookmaking, in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.


Islamic lunar calendar

The Islamic calendar, Muslim calendar or Hijri calendar (AH) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days. It is used to date events in many Muslim countries and determines the proper days on which to observe the annual fast (see Ramadan), to attend Hajj, and to celebrate other Islamic holidays and festivals.

Solar Hijri calendar

The Solar Hijri calendar, also called the Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan. It begins on the vernal equinox. Each of the twelve months corresponds with a zodiac sign. The first six months have 31 days, the next five have 30 days, and the last month has 29 days in usual years but 30 days in leap years. The year of Prophet Muhammad's migration to Medina (622 CE) is fixed as the first year of the calendar, and the New Year's Day always falls on the March equinox.


The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization grouping fifty-seven states. 49 are Muslim countries, the others are non Muslim countries with Muslim minorities. The organisation is the collective voice of the Muslim world to safeguard the interest and ensure the progress and well-being of their peoples and those of other Muslims in the world over.

The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) includes many nations that are also in the Arab League.


Democracy and compulsion indexes

In the 2010 Democracy Index published by the Economist Intelligence Unit, no Muslim World countries were rated as a "Full Democracy" under its guidelines, and 3 out of 49 were rated as a "Flawed Democracy." The rest were rated either an "Authoritarian Regime" or a "Hybrid Regime."[101]

The 2010 Freedom in the World, rated 3 of the nations as Free based on Political Rights and Civil Liberties in the member countries.[102]

Reporters Without Borders in its 2010 Press Freedom Index rated Mali and Suriname among the Muslim world as having a Satisfactory Situation. Other Muslim states had ratings ranging from Noticeable Problems to Very Serious Situation.[103][104]

The US Department of State 2010 International Religious Freedom Report cited Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan and Uzbekistan as being Countries of Particular Concern, where religious freedom is severely violated. It also cited Afghanistan, Egypt, Iraq, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan as "countries that face challenges in protecting religious freedom".[105]

The Open Doors USA organisation, in its 2012 survey of countries around the world that persecute Christians, listed 37 members of the Muslim world amongst the top 50 countries where Christians face the most severe persecution. 9 of the top 10 countries are Islamic-majority states.[106]

Religion and state

File:Islam attitudes.png
Religion and state in Muslim majority countries.

As the Muslim world came into contact with secular ideals, societies responded in different ways. Some Muslim countries are secular. Azerbaijan became the first secular republic in the Muslim world, between 1918 and 1920, when it was incorporated into the Soviet Union.[107][108][109] Turkey has been governed as a secular state since the reforms of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.[110] By contrast, the 1979 Iranian Revolution replaced a mostly secular regime with an Islamic republic led by the Ayatollah, Ruhollah Khomeini.[111]

Some countries have declared Islam as the official state religion. In those countries the legal code is largely secular. Only personal status matters pertaining to inheritance and marriage are governed by Sharia law.

Islamic states

Islamic states have adopted Islam as the ideological foundation of state and constitution.

State religion

The following Muslim-majority nation-states have endorsed Islam as their state religion.

Although Lebanon recognizes Islam as a state-religion it also recognizes 18 others making it the most religiously diverse country in the Middle East.

No Declaration

These are neutral states without any constitutional or official announcement regarding status of religion or secularism.

Secular states

Secular states in Muslim world have declared separation between civil/government affairs and religion.

Law and ethics

Further information: Islamic ethics
File:Use of Sharia by country.svg
Use of Sharia by country:
  Sharia plays no role in the judicial system
  Sharia applies in personal status issues only
  Sharia applies in full, including criminal law
  Regional variations in the application of sharia

In some nations, Muslim ethnic groups enjoy considerable autonomy.

In some places, Muslims implement Islamic law, called sharia in Arabic. The Islamic law exists in a number of variations, but the main forms are the five (four Sunni and one Shia) and Salafi and Ibadi schools of jurisprudence (fiqh)[clarification needed]

  • Hanafi school in Pakistan, North India, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Turkey, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, other Balkan States, Lower Egypt, Spain, Canada, Jordan, Lebanon, Iraq, Russia, Caucasus Republics, China, Central Asian Republics, European Union, other countries of North and South America.
  • Maliki in North Africa, West Africa, Sahel, Qatar, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait.
  • Shafi'i in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Eritrea, Somalia, Yemen, Maldives, Sri Lanka and South India
  • Hanbali in Saudi Arabia,
  • Jaferi in Iran, Iraq, Bahrain and Azerbaijan. These four are the only "Muslim states" where the majority is Shia population. In Yemen, Pakistan, India, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Turkey, and Syria, are countries with Shia populations. In Lebanon, the majority Muslims (54%) were about equally divided between Sunni and Shia in 2010.
  • Ibadi in Oman and small regions in North Africa

In a small minority of Muslim countries, the law requires women to cover either just legs, shoulders and head or the whole body apart from the face. In strictest forms, the face as well must be covered leaving just a mesh to see through. These rules for dressing cause tensions, concerning particularly Muslims living in Western countries, where restrictions are considered both sexist and oppressive. Some Muslims oppose this charge, and instead declare that the media in these countries presses on women to reveal too much in order to be deemed attractive, and that this is itself sexist and oppressive.


File:Benazir bhutto 1988.jpg
Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim majority country.[143]

During much of the 20th century, the Islamic identity and the dominance of Islam on political issues have arguably increased during the early 21st century. The fast-growing interests of the Western world in Islamic regions, international conflicts and globalization have changed the influence of Islam on the world in contemporary history.[144]

Religious nationalism

Some people in Muslim countries also see Islam manifested politically as Islamism.[145] Political Islam is powerful in some Muslim-majority countries. Islamic parties in Turkey, Pakistan and Algeria have taken power at the provincial level. Some in these movements call themselves Islamists, which also sometimes describes more militant Islamic groups. The relationships between these groups (in democratic countries there is usually at least one Islamic party) and their views of democracy are complex.

Some of these groups are accused of practicing Islamic terrorism.

List of conflicts in Muslim world

Some of the events pivotal in the Muslim world's relationship with the outside world in the post-Soviet era were:


See also


  1. ^ For the definition, see: Ummah.
  2. ^ James Bowman. Honor: A History. Page 26. 2007.
  3. ^ a b c "Executive Summary". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  4. ^ "Region: Asia-Pacific". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  5. ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  6. ^ "Region: Sub-Saharan Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  7. ^ "Region: Europe". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  8. ^ "Region: Americas". The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 January 2012. 
  9. ^ Tom Kington (31 March 2008). "Number of Muslims ahead of Catholics, says Vatican". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 November 2008. 
  10. ^ "Muslim Population". Retrieved 17 November 2008. 
  11. ^ "Field Listing - Religions". Retrieved 17 November 2008. 
  12. ^ A History of Arabic Astronomy: Planetary Theories During the Golden Age of Islam - George Saliba - Google Books. Retrieved 2012-10-24. 
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  14. ^ Mason, Robert (1995)."New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas V 12 p.1
  15. ^ Mason, Robert (1995)."New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas V 12 p.5
  16. ^ Mason, Robert (1995)."New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas V 12 p.7
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  33. ^ a b G. J. Toomer (1996), Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 222, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820291-1.
  34. ^ The Inferno. Dante Alighieri. Bickers and Son, 1874.
  35. ^ See Inferno (Dante); Eighth Circle (Fraud)
  36. ^ Miguel Asín Palacios, Julián Ribera, Real Academia Española. La Escatologia Musulmana en la Divina Comedia. E. Maestre, 1819.
  37. ^ See also: Miguel Asín Palacios.
  38. ^ I. Heullant-Donat and M.-A. Polo de Beaulieu, "Histoire d'une traduction," in Le Livre de l'échelle de Mahomet, Latin edition and French translation by Gisèle Besson and Michèle Brossard-Dandré, Collection Lettres Gothiques, Le Livre de Poche, 1991, p. 22 with note 37.
  39. ^ Tr. The Book of Muhammad's Ladder
  40. ^ Transliterated as Maometto.
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  50. ^ Russell (1994) p. 227
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