Mycobacterium - Related Links
Open Access Articles- Top Results for Mycobacterium
Mycobacterial DiseasesGlycogenomics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterial DiseasesReview on Molecular Mechanism of First Line Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterial DiseasesA Brief review on Ecology and Evolution of Mycobacteria
Journal of Infectious Diseases and TherapyMedicinal Plants, an Important Reserve of Antimycobacterial and Antitubercular Drugs: An Update
Journal of Medical Microbiology & DiagnosisVariable Number Tandem Repeats for Global Strain Typing and Strain Differentiation of Mycobacterium leprae
Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae. The genus includes pathogens known to cause serious diseases in mammals, including tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and the classic Hansen's strain of leprosy (Mycobacterium leprae). The Greek prefix myco- means "fungus," alluding to the way mycobacteria have been observed to grow in a mold-like fashion on the surface of liquids when cultured.
- 1 Microbiologic characteristics
- 2 Ecological characteristics
- 3 Pathogenicity
- 4 Mycosides
- 5 Genomics
- 6 Species
- 6.1 Slowly growing
- 6.2 Intermediate growth rate
- 6.3 Rapidly growing
- 6.4 Ungrouped
- 7 Mycobacteriophage
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Mycobacteria are aerobic and nonmotile bacteria (except for the species Mycobacterium marinum, which has been shown to be motile within macrophages) that are characteristically acid-alcohol-fast. Mycobacteria do not contain endospores or capsules and are usually considered Gram-positive. While mycobacteria do not seem to fit the Gram-positive category from an empirical standpoint (i.e., in general, they do not retain the crystal violet stain well), they are classified as an acid-fast Gram-positive bacterium due to their lack of an outer cell membrane. Mycobacterium marinum and perhaps M. bovis have been shown to sporulate; however, this has been contested by further research. The distinguishing characteristic of all Mycobacterium species is that the cell wall is thicker than in many other bacteria, which is hydrophobic, waxy, and rich in mycolic acids/mycolates. The cell wall consists of the hydrophobic mycolate layer and a peptidoglycan layer held together by a polysaccharide, arabinogalactan. The cell wall makes a substantial contribution to the hardiness of this genus. The biosynthetic pathways of cell wall components are potential targets for new drugs for tuberculosis.
Many Mycobacterium species adapt readily to growth on very simple substrates, using ammonia or amino acids as nitrogen sources and glycerol as a carbon source in the presence of mineral salts. Optimum growth temperatures vary widely according to the species and range from 25 °C to over 50 °C.
Some species can be very difficult to culture (i.e. they are fastidious), sometimes taking over two years to develop in culture. Further, some species also have extremely long reproductive cycles — M. leprae, may take more than 20 days to proceed through one division cycle (for comparison, some E. coli strains take only 20 minutes), making laboratory culture a slow process. In addition, the availability of genetic manipulation techniques still lags far behind that of other bacterial species.
A natural division occurs between slowly– and rapidly–growing species. Mycobacteria that form colonies clearly visible to the naked eye within seven days on subculture are termed rapid growers, while those requiring longer periods are termed slow growers. Mycobacteria cells are straight or slightly curved rods between 0.2 and 0.6 µm wide by 1.0 and 10 µm long.
Some mycobacteria produce carotenoid pigments without light. Others require photoactivation for pigment production.
- Photochromogens (Group I)
- Produce nonpigmented colonies when grown in the dark and pigmented colonies only after exposure to light and reincubation.
- Ex: M. kansasii, M. marinum, M. simiae.
- Scotochromogens (Group II)
- Produce deep yellow to orange colonies when grown in the presence of either the light or the dark.
- Ex: M. scrofulaceum, M. gordonae, M. xenopi, M. szulgai.
- Non-chromogens (Groups III & IV)
- Nonpigmented in the light and dark or have only a pale yellow, buff or tan pigment that does not intensify after light exposure.
- Ex: M. tuberculosis, M. avium-intra-cellulare, M. bovis, M. ulcerans
- Ex: M. fortuitum, M. chelonae
Mycobacteria are widespread organisms, typically living in water (including tap water treated with chlorine) and food sources. Some, however, including the tuberculosis and the leprosy organisms, appear to be obligate parasites and are not found as free-living members of the genus.
Mycobacteria can colonize their hosts without the hosts showing any adverse signs. For example, billions of people around the world have asymptomatic infections of M. tuberculosis.
Mycobacterial infections are notoriously difficult to treat. The organisms are hardy due to their cell wall, which is neither truly Gram negative nor positive. In addition, they are naturally resistant to a number of antibiotics that disrupt cell-wall biosynthesis, such as penicillin. Due to their unique cell wall, they can survive long exposure to acids, alkalis, detergents, oxidative bursts, lysis by complement, and many antibiotics. Most mycobacteria are susceptible to the antibiotics clarithromycin and rifamycin, but antibiotic-resistant strains have emerged.
As with other bacterial pathogens, surface and secreted proteins of M. tuberculosis contribute significantly to the virulence of this organism. There is an increasing list of extracytoplasmic proteins proven to have a function in the virulence of M. tuberculosis.
Mycobacteria can be classified into several major groups for purpose of diagnosis and treatment: M. tuberculosis complex, which can cause tuberculosis: M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, and M. microti; M. leprae, which causes Hansen's disease or leprosy; Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are all the other mycobacteria, which can cause pulmonary disease resembling tuberculosis, lymphadenitis, skin disease, or disseminated disease.
Mycosides are phenolic alcohols (such as phenolphthiocerol) that were shown to be components of Mycobacterium glycolipids that are termed glycosides of phenolphthiocerol dimycocerosate. There are 18 and 20 carbon atoms in mycosides A, and B, respectively.
Comparative analyses of mycobacterial genomes have identified several conserved indels and signature proteins that are uniquely found in all sequenced species from the genus Mycobacterium. Additionally, 14 proteins are found only in the species from the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia, suggesting that these two genera are closely related.
Phenotypic tests can be used to identify and distinguish different Mycobacteria species and strains. In older systems, mycobacteria are grouped based upon their appearance and rate of growth. However, these are symplesiomorphies, and more recent classification is based upon cladistics.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) members are causative agents of human and animal tuberculosis. Species in this complex include:
Mycobacterium avium complex
- Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of species that, in a disseminated infection but not lung infection, used to be a significant cause of death in AIDS patients. The species M. indicus pranii appears to be basal in this complex. Species in this complex include:
Mycobacterium gordonae clade
Mycobacterium kansasii clade
Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum/terrae clade
Mycobacterium simiae clade
- M. triplex
- M. genavense
- M. florentinum
- M. lentiflavum
- M. palustre
- M. kubicae
- M. parascrofulaceum
- M. heidelbergense
- M. interjectum
- M. simiae
- M. bohemicum
- M. botniense
- M. branderi
- M. celatum
- M. chimaera
- M. conspicuum
- M. cookii
- M. doricum
- M. farcinogenes
- M. haemophilum
- M. heckeshornense
- M. intracellulare
- M. lacus
- M. leprae, which causes leprosy
- M. lepraemurium
- M. lepromatosis, another (less significant) cause of leprosy, described in 2008
- M. malmoense
- M. marinum, causes a rare disease called Aquarium granuloma.
- M. monacense
- M. montefiorense
- M. murale
- M. nebraskense
- M. saskatchewanense
- M. scrofulaceum
- M. shimoidei
- M. szulgai
- M. tusciae
- M. xenopi
- M. yongonense
Intermediate growth rate
Mycobacterium chelonae clade
Mycobacterium fortuitum clade
- M. fortuitum
- M. fortuitum subsp. acetamidolyticum
- M. boenickei
- M. peregrinum
- M. porcinum
- M. senegalense
- M. septicum
- M. neworleansense
- M. houstonense
- M. mucogenicum
- M. mageritense
- M. brisbanense
- M. cosmeticum
Mycobacterium parafortuitum clade
Mycobacterium vaccae clade
- M. confluentis
- M. flavescens
- M. madagascariense
- M. phlei
- M. smegmatis
- M. thermoresistibile
- M. gadium
- M. komossense
- M. obuense
- M. sphagni
- M. agri
- M. aichiense
- M. alvei
- M. arupense
- M. brumae
- M. canariasense
- M. chubuense
- M. conceptionense
- M. duvalii
- M. elephantis
- M. gilvum
- M. hassiacum
- M. holsaticum
- M. immunogenum
- M. massiliense
- M. moriokaense
- M. psychrotolerans
- M. pyrenivorans
- M. vanbaalenii
- M. pulveris
- M. arosiense
- M. aubagnense
- M. caprae
- M. chlorophenolicum
- M. fluoroanthenivorans
- M. kumamotonense
- M. novocastrense
- M. parmense
- M. phocaicum
- M. poriferae
- M. rhodesiae
- M. seoulense
- M. tokaiense
- Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.
- James H. Kerr and Terry L. Barrett, "Atypical Mycobacterial Diseases", Military Dermatology Textbook, p. 401.
- Ghosh, Jaydip; Larsson, Pontus; Singh, Bhupender; Pettersson, B M Fredrik; Islam, Nurul M; Nath Sarkar, Sailendra; Dasgupta, Santanu; Kirsebom, Leif A (2009). "Sporulation in mycobacteria". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (26): 10781–10786. PMID 19541637. doi:10.1073/pnas.0904104106.
- Traag, BA; Driks, A; Stragier, P; Bitter, W; Broussard, G; Hatfull, G; Chu, F; Adams, KN; Ramakrishnan, L; Losick, R (Jan 2010). "Do mycobacteria produce endospores?". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107 (2): 878–81.
- Bhamidi S (2009). "Mycobacterial Cell Wall Arabinogalactan". Bacterial Polysaccharides: Current Innovations and Future Trends. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-45-5.
- Parish T, Brown A (editors) (2009). <span />Mycobacterium: Genomics and Molecular Biology. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-40-0.
- McMurray DN (1996). "Mycobacteria and Nocardia". In Baron S et al. (eds.). Baron's Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). Univ of Texas Medical Branch. ISBN 0-9631172-1-1.
- McCann et al. (2009). "Secreted and Exported Proteins Important to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pathogenesis". Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42-4.
- Smith, D.W., et al., Nature 1960, 186, 887
- fatty alcohols and aldehydes
- Akinola R. et al. 2013 A Systems Level Comparison of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium smegmatis Based on Functional Interaction. J Bacteriol Parasitol 2013, 4:4
- Gao, B.; Paramanathan, R.; Gupta, R. S. (2006). "Signature proteins that are distinctive characteristics of Actinobacteria and their subgroups". Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 90 (1): 69–91. PMID 16670965. doi:10.1007/s10482-006-9061-2.
- Gao, B.; Gupta, R. S. (2012). "Phylogenetic Framework and Molecular Signatures for the Main Clades of the Phylum Actinobacteria". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 76 (1): 66–112. PMC 3294427. PMID 22390973. doi:10.1128/MMBR.05011-11.
- Rahman, SA; Singh, Y; Kohli, S; Ahmad, J; Ehtesham, NZ; Tyagi, AK; Hasnain, SE (2014). "Comparative analyses of nonpathogenic, opportunistic, and totally pathogenic Mycobacteria reveal genomic and biochemical variabilities and highlight the survival attributes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis". MBio 5 (6). doi:10.1128/mBio.02020-14.
- Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease Caused by Nontuberculous Mycobacteria. American Thoracic Society. Am J Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. Aug 1997 156(2) Part 2 Supplement
- RIDOM: Ribosomal Differentiation of Medical Microorganisms
- J.P. Euzéby: List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature - Genus Mycobacterium
- Tuberculist: Genome annotation database
- MTB Sysborg: Genome annotation database from the Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology
- TB Structural Genomics Consortium: Structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins
- MycDB: Mycobacterium database
- TBDB: Tuberculosis database
- Mycobacterium genomes and related information at PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by NIAID
- Frequently Asked Questions about NTM Lung Disease
- PRASITE: Identification of mycobacteria