Open Access Articles- Top Results for Myzozoa


Not to be confused with Myxozoa.

Myzozoa is a grouping of Alveolata,[1][2] that feed through myzocytosis.

Several protozoan species group in Myzozoa.[3]

It is sometimes described as a phylum, containing the subphyla Dinozoa and Apicomplexa.[4]

The term "Miozoa" is also used.[5]


The closest relation to this clade are the ciliates.

Both these groups of organisms — unlike the majority of eukaryotes studied to date — seem to have linear mitochnodrial genome. Most other eukaryotes that have had their mitochondrial genomes examined have circular genomes.

The branching order of this clade is only partly understood. The Colpodellids and the Apicomplexa appear to be sister clades as do the perkinsids and the dinoflagelates.[6] The positions of the other members of this phylum remains unclear at present.

The Chromerida and the Colpodellida appear to be sister clades with the Dinozoa being more closely related to the perkinsids and the dinoflagelates.[7]


Perkinsus marinus and the Apicomplexa both have histones while the dinoflagellates appear to have lost theirs.[8]


  1. ^ Leander BS, Hoppenrath M (February 2008). "Ultrastructure of a novel tube-forming, intracellular parasite of dinoflagellates: Parvilucifera prorocentri sp. nov. (Alveolata, Myzozoa)". Eur. J. Protistol. 44 (1): 55–70. PMID 17936600. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2007.08.004. 
  2. ^ "Alveolates". Retrieved 2009-06-14. 
  3. ^ Valster RM, Wullings BA, Bakker G, Smidt H, van der Kooij D (May 2009). "Free-living protozoa in two unchlorinated drinking water supplies identified by phylogenic analysis of 18S rRNA gene sequences". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75 (14): 4736–46. PMC 2708415. PMID 19465529. doi:10.1128/AEM.02629-08. 
  4. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (June 2004). "Only six kingdoms of life". Proc. Biol. Sci. 271 (1545): 1251–62. PMC 1691724. PMID 15306349. doi:10.1098/rspb.2004.2705. 
  5. ^ Cavalier-Smith T, Chao EE (September 2004). "Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.)". Eur J Protistol 40 (3): 185–212. doi:10.1016/j.ejop.2004.01.002. 
  6. ^ Leander BS, Kuvardina ON, Aleshin VV, Mylnikov AP, Keeling PJ (2003). "Molecular phylogeny and surface morphology of Colpodella edax (Alveolata): insights into the phagotrophic ancestry of apicomplexans". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 50 (5): 334–40. PMID 14563171. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2003.tb00145.x. 
  7. ^ Moore RB, Oborník M, Janouskovec J et al. (February 2008). "A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites". Nature 451 (7181): 959–63. PMID 18288187. doi:10.1038/nature06635. 
  8. ^ Gornik SG, Ford KL, Mulhern TD, Bacic A, McFadden GI, Waller RF (December 2012). "Loss of nucleosomal DNA condensation coincides with appearance of a novel nuclear protein in dinoflagellates". Curr. Biol. 22 (24): 2303–12. PMID 23159597. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.10.036. 

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