Nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal), also known as NOS1, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the NOS1 gene.
Nitric oxide (NO) is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter and may be involved in long term potentiation. It is implicated in neurotoxicity associated with stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, neural regulation of smooth muscle, including peristalsis, and penile erection. NO is also responsible for endothelium-derived relaxing factor activity regulating blood pressure. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions, as indicated by the fact that inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) block these effects. Neuronal NOS and macrophage NOS are distinct isoforms. Both the neuronal and the macrophage forms are unusual among oxidative enzymes in requiring several electron donors: FAD, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), NADPH, and tetrahydrobiopterin.
It has been implicated in asthma, schizophrenia and restless leg syndrome. It has also been investigated with respect to bipolar disorder  and air pollution exposure.
NOS1 has been shown to interact with DLG4 and NOS1AP.
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This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.
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