Open Access Articles- Top Results for Namaste


File:Dancer in Sari.jpg
A Mohiniattam dancer making a Namaste gesture

Namaste (/ˈnɑːməst/, NAH-məs-tay; Sanskrit: नमस्ते; Hindi: [nəməsteː]), sometimes expressed as Namaskar or Namaskaram, is a customary greeting when people meet or depart.[1][2] It is commonly found among Hindus of the Indian Subcontinent, in some Southeast Asian countries, and diaspora from these regions.[3][4] Namaste is spoken with a slight bow and hands pressed together, palms touching and fingers pointing upwards, thumbs close to the chest. This gesture is called Añjali Mudrā or Pranamasana.[5] In Hinduism it means "I bow to the divine in you".[3][6]

Namaste or namaskar is used as a respectful form of greeting, acknowledging and welcoming a relative, guest or stranger. It is used with goodbyes as well. It is typically spoken and simultaneously performed with the palms touching gesture, but it may also be spoken without acting it out or performed wordlessly; all three carry the same meaning. This cultural practice of salutation and valediction originated in the Indian subcontinent.[7]

Etymology, meaning and origins

File:A tamil youth with greeting gesture.JPG
A Tamil youth giving a Namaste greeting.

Namaste (Namas + te, Devanagari: नमः + ते = नमस्ते) is derived from Sanskrit and is a combination of the word "Namaḥa" and the enclitic 2nd person singular pronoun "te".[8] The word "Namaḥa" takes the Sandhi form "Namas" before the sound "t".[9][10]

Namaḥa means 'bow', 'obeisance', 'reverential salutation' or 'adoration'[11] and te means 'to you' (dative case). Therefore, Namaste literally means "bowing to you".[12]

A less common variant is used in the case of three or more people being addressed namely Namo vaḥ which is a combination of "Namaḥa" and the enclitic 2nd person plural pronoun "vaḥ".[8] The word "Namaḥa" takes the Sandhi form "Namo" before the sound "v".[9]

An even less common variant is used in the case of two people being addressed namely Namo vām which is a combination of "Namaḥa" and the enclitic 2nd person dual pronoun "vām".[8]

Excavations for Indus civilization have revealed many male and female terracotta figures in Namaste posture.[13][14] These archeological findings are dated to be between 3000 BC to 2000 BC.[15][16]


File:An Oberoi Hotel employee doing Namaste, New Delhi.jpg
Pressing hands together with a smile to greet Namaste – a common cultural practice in India.

The gesture is widely used throughout Asia and beyond.[3] Namaste or namaskar is used as a respectful form of greeting, acknowledging and welcoming a relative, guest or stranger. It is used with good byes as well.[2] In some contexts, namaste is used by one person to express gratitude for assistance offered or given, and to thank the other person for his or her generous kindness.[17]

Namaskar is also part of the 16 upacharas used inside temples or any place of formal Puja (worship). Namaste in the context of deity worship, conclude scholars,[18][19] has the same function as in greeting a guest or anyone else. It expresses politeness, courtesy, honor, and hospitality from one person to the other. This is sometimes expressed, in ancient Hindu scriptures such as Taittiriya Upanishad, as Atithi Devo Bhav (literally, the guest is god).[20][21]

Namaste is one of the six forms of pranama, and in parts of India these terms are used synonymously.[22][23]

Regional variations

In Telugu, Namaste is also known as Dhandamu(singular) and Dhandaalu(plural).But in the contemporary era,Telugus most often use the Sanskrit term Namaskaramu.

In Bengali, the Namaste gesture is expressed as Nōmōshkar (নমস্কার), and said as Prōnäm (Bengali: প্রনাম) informally.

In Tamil culture, the gesture is known as Kumpiṭu (கும்பிடு),[24] which is composed of two words kumpu (கும்பு) meaning 'to cup hands' and iṭu இடு meaning 'to do';[25] while an equivalent of the salutation would be வணக்கம் (vaṇakkam), which is roughly translated as 'greetings'.[citation needed]

See also


  1. Sanskrit English Disctionary University of Koeln, Germany
  2. 2.0 2.1 Constance Jones and James D. Ryan, Encyclopedia of Hinduism, ISBN 978-0-8160-5458-9, p. 302
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Ying, Y. W., Coombs, M., & Lee, P. A. (1999), Family intergenerational relationship of Asian American adolescents, Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5(4), pp. 350–363
  4. Bhatia, S., & Ram, A. (2009). Theorizing identity in transnational and diaspora cultures: A critical approach to acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33(2), pp. 140–149
  5. Chatterjee, Gautam (2001), Sacred Hindu Symbols, Google books, pp. 47–48 .
  6. Lawrence, J. D. (2007), The Boundaries of Faith: A Journey in India, Homily Service, 41(2), pp. 1–3
  7. D. Ikeda, D. & V.P. Nanda (2004), The Spirit of India: Buddhism and Hinduism (2), Journal of Oriental Studies, 14, pp. 3–47
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 Thomas Burrow "The Sanskrit Language", pp. 263–268
  9. 9.0 9.1 Thomas Burrow, The Sanskrit Language, pp. 100–102
  10. Namah Sanskrit Dictionary
  11. "Cologne Digital Sanskrit Lexicon", Cologne Digital Sanskrit Dictionaries (search results), University of Cologne, retrieved March 24, 2012 .
  12. Namaste Douglas Harper, Etymology Dictionary
  13. Sharma & Sharma (2004), Panorama of Harappan Civilization, ISBN 978-8174790576, Kaveri Books, page 129
  14. Origins of Hinduism Hinduism Today, Volume 7, Issue 2 (April/May/June), Chapter 1, p. 3
  15. Seated Male in Namaskar pose National Museum, New Delhi, India (2012)
  16. S Kalyanaraman, Indus Script Cipher: Hieroglyphs of Indian Linguistic Area, ISBN 978-0982897102, pp. 234–236
  17. Joseph Shaules (2007), Deep Culture: The Hidden Challenges of Global Living, ISBN 978-1847690166, pp. 68–70
  18. James Lochtefeld, The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 2, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 720
  19. Fuller, C. J. (2004), The Camphor Flame: Popular Hinduism and Society in India, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 66–70, ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5 
  20. Kelkar (2010), A Vedic approach to measurement of service quality, Services Marketing Quarterly, 31(4), 420-433
  21. Roberto De Nobili, Preaching Wisdom to the Wise: Three Treatises, ISBN 978-1880810378, page 132
  22. R.R. Mehrotra (1995), How to be polite in Indian English, International Journal of the Sociology of Language. Volume 116, Issue 1, Pages 99–110
  23. G. Chatterjee (2003), Sacred Hindu Symbols, ISBN 978-8170173977, pp. 47–49
  24. Korean studies 8. University Press of Hawaii. 1984. p. 44. 
  25. Civattampi, Kārttikēcu (1995). Sri Lankan Tamil society and politics. New Century. p. 25. 

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