National Liberal Party (Romania)
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The National Liberal Party (Romanian: Partidul Național Liberal, PNL) is a liberal political party in Romania, first formally constituted political party in the country and the oldest party from the European liberals family.
Until 2014, the PNL was a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE). The party statutes adopted in June 2014 dropped any reference to international affiliation, consequently most of its MEPs joined the parliamentary group of the European People's Party in the European Parliament. On 12 September 2014, it was admitted as a full member to the European People's Party. The party is also a member of the Liberal International.
- 1 Recent history
- 2 Platform
- 3 Structure
- 4 Symbol
- 5 Party leaders
- 6 Notable members
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Until April 2007, the PNL was the largest member of the governing Justice and Truth Alliance, which enjoyed a parliamentary majority due to an alliance between the Liberal Party, the Democratic Party, and the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. In April 2007, then Prime Minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, who was also the party leader, formed a minority government only with Democratic Union of Hungarians. After the 2008 legislative election the party entered into the opposition, winning 19.74% seats in the Parliament, while the new government coalition, formed by their former ally the Democratic Liberal Party, and the Social Democratic Party, had 69.85%. In the 2009 Romanian presidential elections its new leader, Crin Antonescu, finished third and the party remained in opposition.
On 5 February 2011, the PNL formed the Social Liberal Union (USL) political alliance with the Social Democratic Party, National Union for the Progress of Romania and Conservative Party. The PNL exited the USL and entered opposition on 25 February 2014, disbanding the alliance.
On 26 May 2014, following the 2014 European elections, PNL party president Crin Antonescu announced that he was seeking membership of the European People's Party (EPP). At the beginning of the 8th European Parliament, 5 of the PNL MEPs sat with the EPP Group, and 1 with the ALDE Group, who later became an independent MEP within ALDE.
In late May 2014 the party agreed to a future merger with the Democratic Liberal Party (PDL), and for the two parties to submit a joint candidate for the upcoming 2014 presidential election. The joint PNL-PDL presidential candidate was agreed to run under an electoral banner called the Christian Liberal Alliance (ACL).
On 27 June 2014, former PNL leader Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu announced his intention to found a separate liberal party to run for president, stating opposition to the upcoming merger with the PDL. The breakaway party, called the Liberal Reformist Party (PLR), was founded by Popescu-Tăriceanu on 3 July 2014.
On 17 July 2014 it was announced that the new party to be formed from a future merger of the PNL and PDL would retain the National Liberal Party name, while being situated in the PDL's existing headquarters in Bucharest, and would be legally registered by the end of 2014. On 26 July 2014, a joint party congress of the PNL and PDL approved the merger.
On 2 November 2014, ACL presidential candidate Klaus Iohannis, PNL party president and Mayor of Sibiu, was runner-up in the first round of the 2014 presidential election, winning the runoff election held on 16 November 2014 with 54.5% of the vote.
Template:Outdated section The party adheres to the doctrine of liberalism, advocating both economic and social liberalization. In recent years, it has focused more on economic liberalism. For example, one of its main election promises for the 2004 legislative election was the introduction of a flat tax rate of 16% for personal income and corporate profits. Because the Liberal Party became part of the governing coalition, it managed to introduce this change, hence giving Romania one of the most liberal tax policies in Europe.
The National Liberal Party also supports the neutrality of the state in moral and religious issues, as well as the privatization and denationalization of the economy, a trend which is currently taking place quite rapidly in Romania, as in other post-communist economies.
Additionally, the party has also supported the introduction of a parliamentary system in which the president would be elected by the parliament rather than by the people to replace Romania's current semi-presidential system, which is based on the French model. It also advocates a decentralization of Romania's political structure, with greater autonomy given to the eight development regions.
With regard to EU politics, the National Liberal Party has adopted the following stances:
- Supports EU enlargement to the Western Balkans
- Supports EU membership for Turkey, as long as it satisfies membership criteria
- Supports the accession of Moldova to the EU, in the same wave as the Western Balkans
- Supports a reformed European Constitution
- Supports reform of the Common Agricultural Policy
- Opposes a common EU tax policy
- Opposes a common EU social policy
- Supports a common EU migration policy
- Supports a common EU defense and security policy
- Supports a partnership between the US and the EU, where the EU is an "equal and critical" partner.
According to the Statute, the leading organs of the party are the following:
The Congress, or The General Assembly of the delegates of the party's members (Romanian: Congresul; Adunarea Generală a delegaţilor membrilor partidului) is the supreme authority in the party. It leads the party and takes decisions at national level. Its members are elected by the local (territorial) organizations, and The National Consillium. The Congress meets every four years, after the parliamentary elections, or at anytime needed. The Congress is convoked either by the Permanent Delegation (see below), at the request of the Central Political Bureau, or at the request of at least half of the Territorial Permanent Delegations. The Congress elects the President of the National Liberal Party, the 15 vice-presidents of the Central Standing Bureau (7 with specific attributions and 8 responsible for the development regions, 23 judges of The Honor and Referee Court (Romanian: Curtea de Onoare şi Arbitraj), 7 members of The Central Committee of Censors (Romanian: Comisia Centrală de Cenzori).
The last Congress took place between 5–6 March 2010, as both an Extraordinary and Ordinary Congress. The Extraordinary Congress took place on 5 March, because it was called three months earlier than the scheduled Ordinary Congress. It changed the Statute of the party. On 6 March the Congress was Ordinary, based on the new Statute.
Born - Died
|Portrait||Term start||Term end||Duration|
|1|| Ion Brătianu
1821 - 1891
|60px||24 May 1875||4 May 1891||15 years, 345 days|
|2|| Dumitru Brătianu
1818 - 1892
|60px||21 May 1891||8 June 1892||1 year, 18 days|
|3|| Dimitrie Sturdza
1833 - 1914
|60px||20 November 1892||10 January 1909||16 years, 51 days|
|4|| Ion I. C. Brătianu
1864 - 1927
|60px||11 January 1909||24 November 1927||18 years, 317 days|
|5|| Vintilă Brătianu
1867 - 1930
|60px||24 November 1927||21 December 1930||3 years, 27 days|
|6|| Ion Duca
1879 - 1933
|60px||28 December 1930||29 December 1933||3 years, 1 day|
|7|| Dinu Brătianu
1866 - 1950
|60px||4 January 1934||November 1947||13 years, 304 days|
|8|| Radu Câmpeanu
|60px||15 January 1990||28 February 1993||3 years, 44 days|
|9|| Mircea Ionescu Quintus
|28 February 1993||18 February 2001||7 years, 356 days|
|10|| Valeriu Stoica
|60px||18 February 2001||24 August 2002||1 year, 187 days|
|11|| Theodor Stolojan
|60px||24 August 2002||2 October 2004||2 years, 39 days|
|12|| Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
|60px||2 October 2004||20 March 2009||4 years, 169 days|
|13|| Crin Antonescu
|60px||20 March 2009||2 June 2014||5 years, 74 days|
|14|| Klaus Iohannis
|60px||28 June 2014||18 December 2014||199 days|
|15|| Alina Gorghiu
|18 December 2014||incumbent||1 year, 48 days|
Former members before November 1947, when the Romanian Communists dissolved the party:
- Ion C. Brătianu, Prime Minister of Romania and honorary member of the Romanian Academy
- Ion I. C. Brătianu, Prime Minister
- Ion G. Duca, Prime Minister, Minister of Education, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Internal Affairs
- Ion Ghica, economist, mathematician, Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Mihail Kogălniceanu, lawyer, historian, publicist, Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Internal Affairs
- Emilian Pake-Protopopescu, mayor of Bucharest
- C. A. Rosetti, publicist and leader of the Wallachian Revolution of 1848
Former members after 1989:
- Klaus Iohannis, 5th President of Romania
- Teodor Meleșcanu, Director of the Foreign Intelligence Service, Foreign Minister and Minister of National Defence
- Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, Prime Minister and President of the Senate
- Eduard Hellvig, member of the European Parliament and Director of the Romanian Intelligence Service
- Mircea Diaconu, actor, Minister of Culture and member of the European Parliament
- Mihai Stănișoară, Minister of National Defence
- Ovidiu Silaghi, Minister for Small and Medium Enterprises and Minister of Transport
- Radu Stroe, Minister of Interior
- Andrei Marga, Minister of Education, Minister of External Affairs and rector of the Babeș-Bolyai University
- Crin Antonescu, leader of the party between 2009 and 2014, Minister of Youth and Sports, President of the Senate and Acting President of Romania (July–August 2012)
- Daniel Dăianu, MEP, Minister of Finance and member of the Romanian Academy
- Ludovic Orban, Minister of Transport
- Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, leader of the party between 1993 and 2001, President of the Senate and Minister of Justice
- Norica Nicolai, MEP
- Radu Câmpeanu, first leader of the party after the 1989 revolution
- Ramona Mănescu, MEP and Minister of Transport
- Renate Weber, jurist and MEP
- Sorin Frunzăverde, President of the Caraș-Severin County Council, MEP, Minister of Environment, Minister of Tourism and Defence Minister
- Contributions to liberal theory
- Liberal democracy
- Liberalism and radicalism in Romania
- Liberalism worldwide
- List of liberal parties
- Manciu, Andi (23 January 2015). "Ionuț Stroe este noul purtător de cuvânt al PNL". Mediafax.ro (in Romanian).
- Scurtu, Ioan (2003). Enciclopedia partidelor politice din România, 1859-2003 (in Romanian). Bucharest: Meronia.
- Iván Zoltán Dénes (2006). Liberty and the Search for Identity: Liberal Nationalisms and the Legacy of Empires. Central European University Press. p. 383. ISBN 978-963-7326-44-8.
- "Scurt istoric". PNL (in Romanian).
- Neagu, Alina (6 October 2014). "Tribunalul București a admis fuziunea prin contopire dintre PNL și PDL". HotNews.ro (in Romanian).
- Miron, Denisa (10 September 2014). "Precizare ACL privind numărul de membri". Știri pe surse (in Romanian).
- "National Liberal Party". Visegrad+. 15 September 2014.
- Donnacha Ó Beacháin; Vera Sheridan; Sabina Stan (2012). Life in Post-communist Eastern Europe After EU Membership: Happy Ever After?. Routledge. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-415-68084-4.
- Wolfram Nordsieck. "Parties and Elections in Europe".
- "Înțelegere politică pentru noul partid de dreapta. PNL și PDL vor cânta de acum "Verde-nrourat"". Digi24 (in Romanian). 17 August 2014.
- "Grupurile parlamentare". Chamber of Deputies (in Romanian).
- Villy Tsakona; Diana Elena Popa (2011). Studies in Political Humour: In Between Political Critique and Public Entertainment. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 162. ISBN 90-272-0637-6.
- "Antonescu: La 138 de ani de la înființarea sa destinul PNL este strâns legat de evoluția României și de parcursul european". Agerpres (in Romanian). 24 May 2013.
- "EPP concerned over actions of radical Islamic militant groups and over latest political developments in Romania; welcomes five new member parties". European People's Party. 12 September 2014.
- "Romanian Oppositions Form Alliance". English.cri.cn. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- "FOCUS Information Agency". Focus-fen.net. Retrieved 2011-11-13.
- "Romania’s Liberals to leave ruling coalition, government". The Sofia Globe. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- EurActiv (2014-05-26). "Romanian liberals seek EPP affiliation". EurActiv. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Antonescu: I’ll have talks with EPP in June". Actmedia.eu. 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "ALDE MEP details". Alde.eu. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Romania’s largest rightist parties agree on presidential candidate, fusion | Independent Balkan News Agency". Balkaneu.com. 2014-05-29. Retrieved 2014-07-16.
- "Name of new party from PDL-PNL merger is PNL". Actmedia.eu. Retrieved 2014-07-19.
- Invalid language code. The structure of the Party
- "Biroul Politic Național". PNL. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- PNL website retrieved 8 September 2012
- Cliveti, Gheorghe, Liberalismul românesc. Eseu istoriografic, Editura Fundației "AXIS", Iași, 1996;
- Istoricul PNL de la 1848 până astăzi, București, 1923;
- Rădulescu – Zoner, Șerban (coord.), Cliveti, Gheorghe, Stan, Apostol, Onişoru, Gheorghe, Șandru, Dumitru, Istoria Partidului Național Liberal, Editura All, București, 2000;
- Stan, Apostol, Iosa, Mircea, Liberalismul politic în România. De la origini până la 1918, Editura Enciclopedică, București, 1996;
- Naumescu, Valentin,Despre liberalism în România.Realităţi,dileme, perspective, EFES, Cluj-Napoca, 2001;
- Șomlea, Vasile-Florin, Mișcarea liberală din România post'1989, Editura Ecumenica Press, Cluj-Napoca, 2006;
- Official website
- National Liberal Youth official site
- Liberal Students Clubs official site
- Organization of Liberal Women official site
- League of the Local Representatives of the National Liberal Party official site