Open Access Articles- Top Results for Nebivolol


File:Nebivolol ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Nebilet, Bystolic
AHFS/ monograph
MedlinePlus a608029
Licence data US FDA:link
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 98%
Metabolism Hepatic (CYP2D6-mediated)
Half-life 10 hours
Excretion Renal and fecal
99200-09-6 7pxN
PubChem CID 71301
DrugBank DB04861 7pxY
ChemSpider 64421 7pxY
UNII 030Y90569U 7pxY
KEGG D05127 7pxY
ChEMBL CHEMBL434394 7pxY
Chemical data
Formula C22H25F2NO4
405.435 g/mol
 14pxN (what is this?)  (verify)

Nebivolol is a β1 receptor blocker with nitric oxide-potentiating vasodilatory effect used in treatment of hypertension and, in Europe, also for left ventricular failure.[1] It is highly cardioselective under certain circumstances.[1]

Pharmacology and biochemistry

β1 Selectivity

Beta blockers help patients with cardiovascular disease by blocking β receptors, while many of the side-effects of these medications are caused by their blockade of β2 receptors.[2] For this reason, beta blockers that selectively block β1 adrenergic receptors (termed cardioselective or β1-selective beta blockers) produce fewer adverse effects (for instance, bronchoconstriction) than those drugs that non-selectively block both β1 and β2 receptors. Nebivolol has been marketed by Cipla Ltd under brand name Nebicip; by Forest Laboratories under the name Bystolic; by Micro Labs under the brand name Nebilong; ; and by Menarini under the names Hypoloc, Lobivon, Nebilet, Nebilox, Nebiten, and Temerit.

In a laboratory experiment conducted on biopsied heart tissue, nebivolol proved to be the most β1-selective of the β-blockers tested, being approximately 3.5 times more β1-selective than bisoprolol.[3] However, the drug's receptor selectivity in humans is more complex and depends on the drug dose and the genetic profile of the patient taking the medication.[4] The drug is highly cardioselective at 5 mg.[5] In addition, at doses above 10 mg, nebivolol loses its cardioselectivity and blocks both β1 and β2 receptors.[4] (While the recommended starting dose of nebivolol is 5 mg, sufficient control of blood pressure may require doses up to 40 mg).[4] Furthermore, nebivolol is also not cardioselective when taken by patients with a genetic makeup that makes them "poor metabolizers" of nebivolol (and other drugs) or with CYP2D6 inhibitors.[4] As many as 1 in 10 whites and even more blacks are poor CYP2D6 metabolizers and therefore might benefit less from nebivolol's cardioselectivity although currently there are no directly comparable studies.[citation needed]

Vasodilator action

Nebivolol is unique as a beta-blocker.[6] Unlike carvedilol, it has a nitric oxide (NO)-potentiating, vasodilatory effect.[7][8] Along with labetalol, celiprolol and carvedilol, it is one of four beta blockers to cause dilation of blood vessels in addition to effects on the heart.[8] However, recent studies question the clinical relevance of this property to Nebivolol's efficacy.[9]

Antihypertensive effect

Nebivolol lowers blood pressure (BP) by reducing peripheral vascular resistance, and significantly increases stroke volume with preservation of cardiac output.[10] The net hemodynamic effect of nebivolol is the result of a balance between the depressant effects of beta-blockade and an action that maintains cardiac output.[11] Antihypertensive responses were significantly higher with nebivolol than with placebo in trials enrolling patient groups considered representative of the U.S. hypertensive population, in Black patients, and in those receiving concurrent treatment with other antihypertensive drugs.[12]

Pharmacology of side-effects

Several studies have suggested that nebivolol has reduced typical beta-blocker-related side effects, such as fatigue, clinical depression, bradycardia, or impotence.[13][14][15] However, according to the FDA[16]

FDA warning letter about advertising claims

In late August 2008, the FDA issued a Warning Letter to Forest Laboratories citing exaggerated and misleading claims in their launch journal ad, in particular over claims of superiority and novelty of action.[16]


  • Hepatic insufficiency
  • Children
  • Pregnancy
  • Lactation

Adverse drug reactions


Mylan Laboratories licensed the U.S. and Canadian rights to nebivolol from Janssen Pharmaceutica N.V. in 2001. Nebivolol is already registered and successfully marketed in more than 50 countries, including the United States where it is marketed under the brand name Bystolic from Mylan Laboratories and Forest Laboratories. Nebivolol is manufactured by Forest Laboratories.

In India, nebivolol is available as Nebistol (Eris life-sciences), Nebicip (Cipla ltd), Nebilong (Micro Labs), Nebistar (Lupin ltd), Nebicard (Torrent), Nubeta (Abbott Healthcare Pvt Ltd – India), and Nodon (Cadila Pharmaceuticals). In Greece and Italy, nebivolol is marketed by Menarini as Lobivon. In the Middle East, Russia and in Australia, it is marketed under the name Nebilet and in Pakistan it is marketed by The Searle Company Limited as Byscard.


File:Nebivolol synthesis.svg
Nebivolol synthesis: U.S. Patent 4,654,362 with dihydro, not tetrahydrochromone rings and positional F isomers.

Exhaustive hydrogenation of the chromone (1) leads to a reduction of both the olefin and the ketone group (cf. ablukast also). The carboxylic acid then undergoes partial reduction to an aldehyde (2) by means of DIBAL. Reaction of that intermediate with the ylide from trimethylsulfonium iodide gives the oxirane (3) via an addition-displacement process. Treatment of an excess of that epoxide with benzylamine leads to the addition of two equivalents of that compound with each basic nitrogen (4). The product is then debenzylated by catalytic reduction over palladium to afford nebivolol (5). The presence of four chiral centers in the product predicts existence of 16 chiral pairs.


  1. ^ a b de Boer RA, Voors AA, van Veldhuisen DJ (July 2007). "Nebivolol: third-generation beta-blockade". Expert Opin Pharmacother 8 (10): 1539–50. PMID 17661735. doi:10.1517/14656566.8.10.1539. 
  2. ^ Tafreshi MJ, Weinacker AB (August 1999). "Beta-adrenergic-blocking agents in bronchospastic diseases: a therapeutic dilemma". Pharmacotherapy 19 (8): 974–8. PMID 10453968. doi:10.1592/phco.19.11.974.31575. 
  3. ^ Bundkirchen A, Brixius K, Bölck B, Nguyen Q, Schwinger RH (January 2003). "Beta 1-adrenoceptor selectivity of nebivolol and bisoprolol. A comparison of [3H]CGP 12.177 and [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding studies". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 460 (1): 19–26. PMID 12535855. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(02)02875-3. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Prescribing information for Bystolic" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-11. 
  5. ^ Nuttall SL, Routledge HC, Kendall MJ (June 2003). "A comparison of the beta1-selectivity of three beta1-selective beta-blockers". J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (3): 179–86. PMID 12795776. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00477.x. 
  6. ^ Agabiti Rosei E, Rizzoni D (2007). "Metabolic profile of nebivolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with unique characteristics". Drugs 67 (8): 1097–107. PMID 17521213. doi:10.2165/00003495-200767080-00001. 
  7. ^ Weiss R (2006). "Nebivolol: a novel beta-blocker with nitric oxide-induced vasodilatation". Vasc Health Risk Manag 2 (3): 303–8. PMC 1993984. PMID 17326335. doi:10.2147/vhrm.2006.2.3.303. 
  8. ^ a b Bakris G (May 2009). "An in-depth analysis of vasodilation in the management of hypertension: focus on adrenergic blockade". J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 53 (5): 379–87. PMID 19454898. doi:10.1097/FJC.0b013e31819fd501. 
  9. ^ National Prescribing Service (1 March 2010). "Nebivolol (Nebilet) for chronic heart failure". Retrieved 12 March 2010. 
  10. ^ Kamp O, Sieswerda GT, Visser CA (August 2003). "Comparison of effects on systolic and diastolic left ventricular function of nebivolol versus atenolol in patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension". Am. J. Cardiol. 92 (3): 344–8. PMID 12888152. doi:10.1016/S0002-9149(03)00645-3. 
  11. ^ Gielen W, Cleophas TJ, Agrawal R (August 2006). "Nebivolol: a review of its clinical and pharmacological characteristics". Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 44 (8): 344–57. PMID 16961165. doi:10.5414/cpp44344. 
  12. ^ Baldwin CM, Keam SJ. Nebivolol: In the Treatment of Hypertension in the US. Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2009; 9 (4): 253-260. Link text
  13. ^ Pessina AC (December 2001). "Metabolic effects and safety profile of nebivolol". J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 38. Suppl 3: S33–5. PMID 11811391. 
  14. ^ Weber MA (December 2005). "The role of the new beta-blockers in treating cardiovascular disease". Am. J. Hypertens. 18 (12 Pt 2): 169S–176S. PMID 16373195. doi:10.1016/j.amjhyper.2005.09.009. 
  15. ^ Poirier L, Cléroux J, Nadeau A, Lacourcière Y (August 2001). "Effects of nebivolol and atenolol on insulin sensitivity and haemodynamics in hypertensive patients". J. Hypertens. 19 (8): 1429–35. PMID 11518851. doi:10.1097/00004872-200108000-00011. 
  16. ^ a b Thomas Abrams (2008-08-28). "Warning Letter" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2008. FDA is not aware of any substantial evidence or substantial clinical experience that demonstrates that Bystolic represents a 'novel' or 'next generation' beta blocker for the treatment of hypertension. Indeed, we are not aware of any well-designed trials comparing Bystolic to other β-blockers. Furthermore, FDA is not aware of any data that would render Bystolic's mechanism of action 'unique.' 

External links