|This article needs additional citations for verification. (November 2011)|
Network Ten Logo
|Launched||1 August 1964|
|Owned by||Ten Network Holdings|
|Picture format||PAL (576i) 16:9|
|Audience share||17.9% Nationally (2014 Ratings Year, )|
|Slogan||Turn on 10|
|Broadcast area||Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide, Perth|
|Affiliates||Southern Cross Ten (NSW/QLD/VIC/TAS/Darwin/NT), Prime/WIN (Mildura/WA)|
|Headquarters||Pyrmont, New South Wales|
Independent Television System (1965–1970)|
The 0/10 Network (1970–1980)
|1573 @ 11 (219.5 MHz)|
|1589 @ 11 (219.5 MHz)|
|TVQ Brisbane/Gold Coast|
|1605 @ 11 (219.5 MHz)|
|1621 @ 11 (219.5 MHz)|
|1669 @ 11 (219.5 MHz)|
|Freeview Ten owned (virtual)||10|
|Freeview Ten affiliate (virtual)||5|
1061 @ 12094 MHz|
(Foxtel Optus D3)
1031 @ 12094 MHz|
(Foxtel Optus D3)
1011 @ 12094 MHz|
(Foxtel Optus D3)
Network Ten (commonly known as Channel Ten or simply Ten, stylised as ten), is an Australian commercial broadcasting network owned by Ten Network Holdings, and is headquartered in Pyrmont, New South Wales. It is the third Australian free-to-air television network to make its debut after Nine Network in 1956 and Network Seven in 1956. It first aired on August 1, 1964 in Melbourne. Network Ten is the fourth of all the five national free-to-air networks in Australia, after the ABC. Its affiliate owned-and-operated stations can be found in the capital cities of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Adelaide and Perth, while affiliates extend the network to cover most of the country. The channel's name originally stood for "The Entertainment Network" during the early-1990s.
From the introduction of TV in 1956 until 1965 there were only two commercial television networks in Australia, the National Television Network (now the Nine Network) and the Australian Television Network (now the Seven Network), as well as the public Australian Broadcasting Corporation (then Commission). In the early 1960s, the federal government began canvassing the idea of licensing a third commercial television station in each capital city. This decision was seen by some as a way for the government to defuse growing public dissatisfaction with the dominance of imported overseas programming and the paucity of local content. The first of these "third" licences was granted to United Telecasters Sydney was granted on 4 April 1963.
Structurally, the Australian television industry was closely modelled on the two-tiered system that had been in place in Australian radio since the late 1930s. One tier consisted of a network of publicly funded television stations run by the ABC, which was funded by government budget allocation and (until 1972) by fees from television viewer licences. The second tier consisted of the commercial networks and independent stations owned by private operators, whose income came from selling advertising time.
The network was launched as ATV-0 in Melbourne opened on 1 August 1964 and was owned by the Ansett transport and media group, which at the time owned one of Australia's two domestic airlines. TEN-10 in Sydney, which opened on 5 April 1965, was originally owned by United Telecasters Sydney Ltd (UTSL), which also in July that year opened TVQ-0 in Brisbane. Also opened that month was SAS-10, serving the city of Adelaide in South Australia.
The new television network was initially dubbed the "Independent Television System" or ITS, but in 1970 adopted the title "The 0/10 Network" which reflected the names of the first two stations launched in the group.
For its first five years, the 0/10 Network led a hand-to-mouth existence. By the beginning of the 1970s the network was in a precarious financial position and there were predictions that it would fail.
In 1971, the 0/10 network first aired Young Talent Time, which was a huge ratings success, and ran for 17 years.
However, the network's true financial reprise came about due to the adult soap opera serial Number 96, which premiered in March 1972 on the night that "Australian TV lost its virginity". The series broke new ground for Australian television and captured the imagination of viewers like few programs before or since. For the next three years it was consistently Australia's top-rating television program and, not surprisingly, its huge popularity attracted advertisers to Ten en masse, with the result that its revenue increased significantly from A$1 million in 1971 to more than A$10 million in 1972.
However, the pattern of ratings dominance was already set, and for most of the next four decades mid-1960s there was little deviation from the prevalent rankings, with the Nine Network typically in first place, the Seven Network second, Network Ten third and ABC fourth.
The gradual evolution of Network Ten into its current form has its origins in the ongoing attempts by media mogul Rupert Murdoch to acquire a prized commercial television licence in Australia's largest capital city market, Sydney. This began when Murdoch's News Ltd purchased the Wollongong station WIN Television in the early 1960s, around the same time he bought Festival Records. In 1977, frustrated by regulatory blocks that prevented him from expanding into the Sydney market, Murdoch sold WIN and purchased a 46% share in Ten Sydney.
In 1979, Murdoch made an unsuccessful takeover bid for the Melbourne-based The Herald and Weekly Times media group. Although the bid failed, he gained a 50% stake in Ansett, which thus gave him control of channel 0 in Melbourne.
In 1979, 0/10 first aired soap opera Prisoner, which was a huge ratings success.
On 20 January 1980, the 0/10 Network became known as Network Ten to reflect ATV moving from channel 0 to channel 10 – although the Brisbane station continued to broadcast as TVQ-0 until 10 September 1988 when the station changed to TVQ-10. In 1987 Adelaide's Network Ten affiliate (SAS-10) and Seven Network affiliate (ADS-7) successfully negotiated to exchange affiliation rights and channel frequencies. On 27 December 1987, the exchange came into effect and ADS-7 became ADS-10 with SAS-10 converting to SAS-7.
When Murdoch became an American citizen in 1985 so that he could expand his media empire in the United States, Australia's media ownership laws obliged him to dispose of the flagship television stations, which were sold to The Northern Star, an offshoot of the Westfield Group conglomerate controlled by property tycoon Frank Lowy. However, Westfield was badly hit by the stock market crash of 1987, and in 1989 sold Network Ten to a consortium led by Charles Curran and former television journalist Steve Cosser.
The network became fully national in 1988 with the launch of NEW-10 in Perth, after the introduction of satellite facilities made it economical for the network to broadcast to Western Australia.
In 1989, Ten's ratings were in decline, so on 23 July 1989, recently recruited network boss Bob Shanks relaunched Network Ten as 10 TV Australia and introduced several new programs, including four new prime time game shows. However, by the end of 1989 the ratings had failed to improve and most of the new programs were cancelled, except for its Eyewitness News newscasts, Neighbours and E Street.
In 1990, both Network Ten and the Seven Network filed for receivership. In 1992, the network's flagship stations were sold to the Canadian-based Canwest media group, which held a controlling stake in the network until 2009. Ten also has an affiliate broadcasting agreement with Southern Cross Broadcasting, which owns numerous regional stations in New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland and Tasmania.
In the early 1990s, Ten also referred to itself by the backronym "The Entertainment Network" in network promotions.
Network Ten was nearly folded into the Seven Network in the early 1990s, but due to the lobbying power of billionaire Kerry Packer former owner of the Nine Network, this was successfully resisted.
In 2001, Ten opened its doors to reality television with the first season of Big Brother Australia, the opening night of the show was the most watched programs of the night.
In 2004, Network Ten enjoyed its best year since the 1970s and at one stage threatened to pass Seven as runner-up to long-dominant Nine. Otherwise, ratings for Network Ten have always placed it 3rd in every ratings year since 2000.
In 2005, Canwest was in discussions with newspaper publisher John Fairfax Holdings about a possible sale of the network, after the federal government indicated it may consider relaxing Australia's media cross-ownership laws. Previously, newspaper owners could not own television stations in the same city. Fairfax owned the Seven Network until 1988, and had been looking for a way back into television for a long time.
On 21 August 2005, the network celebrated its 40th birthday with a two-hour highlights package called Ten: Seriously 40 hosted by Bert Newton and Rove McManus. From 2006 to 2008, Ten was the official broadcaster of Sydney New Year's Eve. The rights returned to the Nine Network from 2009.
Along with the Seven Network, Network Ten paid A$780 million for the rights to the Australian Football League. Some media commentators, however, believe the figure may have been overpriced given the fact that both Seven and Ten struggled to onsell games to Pay TV provider Foxtel. Ten eventually brokered a deal that saw Foxtel gain the rights to 4 live games each round, as well as replay rights for all games, shown on their Fox Sports One channel. Foxtel will pay an estimated A$50 million a year for these rights.
On 7 August 2007, Network Ten and Foxtel signed a new agreement allowing Ten's digital signal to be transmitted via Foxtel's cable and satellite services. Prior to this, Network Ten was only transmitted via cable on Foxtel in an analogue format and Austar in Std Digital via Mystar. Similarly in October 2007, Network Ten and Optus announced that Ten's digital signal would be available on its cable network from 1 December 2007.
On 16 December 2007, Ten HD was officially launched, becoming the first new commercial television channel in metropolitan areas of Australia since 1988. Ten HD ceased broadcasting on 25 March 2009 when it was replaced by what was a sports-only High Definition channel, One HD.
On 24 September 2009, Canwest announced that it was selling its 50.1% stake in Ten Network Holdings for A$680 million, to pay down its significant debt. In late 2009, Canwest filed for creditor bankruptcy protection, due to C$4 billion mounting debt across radio, television broadcasting and publishing assets in several countries.
On 26 August 2010, Ten confirmed that it would be launching its third digital channel, entitled Eleven, on 11 January 2011. The network indicated that Eleven would be aimed toward a "distinctly youthful" audience between the ages of 13 and 29, with programs such as Neighbours and The Simpsons migrating to the new channel. As part of its plans, Ten said that it was planning a joint venture with the international distributor CBS Studios International to provide content for the new channel.
On 20 October 2010, four years after he sold shares in PBL Media to private equity firm CVC Asia Pacific, James Packer made a bid for Network TEN shares. He purchased 16 per cent of TEN through his traditional investment bank, UBS.
Network Ten launched a new digital channel, Eleven, on 11 January with The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson at 11.00 am. On 8 May 2011, Ten relaunched its sports based channel One, with general entertainment programming aimed at males taking over the schedule. It is aimed at a similar audience to 7mate.
In 2012, Ten launched many new programs such as Being Lara Bingle, Breakfast, Bikie Wars: Brothers in Arms, Puberty Blues, Underground: The Julian Assange Story and a now-ill-fated revival of junior talent series Young Talent Time. From July 2012, Ten launched new local programs, Don't Tell The Bride, Everybody Dance Now, I Will Survive and The Shire. This did not have any success; rather, it led to Ten's ratings dropping to fourth place behind ABC TV for over thirty straight nights and resulted in David Mott's resignation.
On 24 February 2014, Channel 10 changed its on-air theme. This included a new look for program advisory ratings, program listings, new classification ratings on PRG, program advertisements and promos.
In 2015, Channel 10 introduced new programming to revitalise the struggling network. The programs include Life In A Glasshouse, local editions of Dragons Den/Shark Tank, Gogglebox and I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here! as well as a revival of Thank God You're Here.
Ten's current Australian program line-up consists of television shows such as: Studio 10, Offspring, Puberty Blues, Wonderland, MasterChef Australia, The Biggest Loser, Family Feud, The Project, Bondi Rescue, Bondi Vet, The Living Room, I'm a Celebrity...Get Me Out of Here!, This Week Live, So You Think You Can Dance Australia, Good Chef Bad Chef, Everyday Gourmet with Justine Schofield, Huey's Kitchen, and IFISH
Overseas programming on Ten includes; Modern Family, The Graham Norton Show, Homeland, Entertainment Tonight, Law & Order, NCIS, NCIS: Los Angeles, Elementary, The Good Wife, Hawaii Five-0, The Bold and the Beautiful, The Doctors, Last Man Standing, Dr. Phil, Judge Judy and Late Show with David Letterman.
Feature films broadcast on Network Ten are sourced from its studio-output deals and their subsidiaries including: 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, DreamWorks, DreamWorks Animation share with Seven and Paramount Pictures.
In 2009, Network Ten lost the rights to Universal Pictures after more than twenty years of movies and film broadcasting when Seven Network won the $500 billion and long-term deal with the movie and television studio broadcast rights.
The network formerly broadcasts catalogue movie and television titles from the Universal Pictures produced from the 1989 prior to 2009, Sony Pictures produced in 1994 prior to 2008. Seven Network & Foxtel share broadcast rights to Universal Pictures, with very expensive rights for Sony Pictures now being fully broadcast by the Seven Network from 2013 onwards.
News and current affairs
Network Ten's news service is called Ten Eyewitness News (previously Ten News and Ten News at Five). It produces the following bulletins and programs: Meet The Press, The Bolt Report, Revealed as well as Ten Eyewitness News (the flagship locally produced 5pm bulletins).
Ten has an exclusive contract with CBS News for international news coverage.
In November 2006, Network Ten struck a deal with CBS, reportedly worth A$6 million a year. This allows Network Ten the rights to air all CBS News footage, as well as access to its 60 Minutes, Dr. Phil, Late Show with David Letterman and 48 Hours programs. This deal occurred after CBS's talks with the Nine Network broke down, with Nine refusing to pay A$8 million a year to continue its 40-year deal with CBS. Ten in turn struck a cheaper deal, and has onsold CBS's 60 Minutes stories to Nine.
In 2008, Network Ten rebranded its news service as Ten News at Five with a new identity, new graphics and new look.
In late 2012, Ten reported a loss of $12.9m as it battled poor advertising markets and failed to hold larger audience numbers. They made positions at the station redundant and said that production may become centralised.
Ten is a major player in Australian sports broadcasting.
In 2001, Ten acquired partial broadcast rights for Saturday afternoon and Saturday night games in the Australian Football League, the elite Australian rules football competition, displacing the Seven Network which had held the rights for more than 40 years. The deal also assigned the exclusive rights for finals broadcasting to Network Ten. Ten subsequently placed a successful bid to jointly broadcast the game from 2007 to 2011, with Seven. Ten ended broadcasting the AFL after the conclusion of the 2011 season, with its final ever broadcast, the 2011 AFL Grand Final.
Ten has continued to broadcast the Saturday component of the competition. However, unlike the previous deal Ten will not hold the exclusive rights to the finals series. Instead, the networks will share the broadcasting of the finals series and will alternate the broadcast of the grand final. In years when Ten does not televise the Grand Final (2008 and 2010), it will show the Brownlow Medal presentation.
Network Ten broadcast the AFL and the 2007 Rugby World Cup in the 1080i High Definition format. As of 2008, AFL matches have been shown in prime time in all capital cities except Sydney, which receives the telecast usually after 10:30 pm unless the Sydney Swans are playing. Previously, all AFL matches were replayed into the Brisbane and Sydney markets, usually after 10:30 pm unless the Brisbane Lions or Sydney Swans were playing. In 2007, all the finals Network Ten were assigned to were shown live into both markets although neither the Lions nor Swans were participating, thus putting it head to head with the NRL finals which were aired on the Nine Network. Before 2005, all finals were delayed into both markets unless their teams were playing.
In 2003, Network Ten started broadcasting the Formula One World Championship after Channel Nine dropped the rights in 2002 after more than twenty years of coverage. In 2007 they also started showing coverage of the qualification on tape delay early on Sunday mornings in most states. In 2008, Ten introduced live coverage of race day on its HD channel, Ten HD. All races from the 2008 French Grand Prix up until the 2012 Bahrain Grand Prix have been shown live on One. From 22 April 2012, the European races will be televised live on TEN to the eastern seaboard states, and live on ONE elsewhere.
First time realising the need to broadcast cricket in Australia to increase viewership, Network Ten bought the broadcast rights to the Indian Premier League (IPL) Cricket, which started on 18 April 2008. The network will broadcast the event annually for the next 5 years although there is some doubt that the Australian contracted national players will be available for the tournament.
In November 2014 Network TEN signed Australia's Mixed Martial Arts event series BRACE to a multi event contract for live broadcasts on the TENplay digital platform
After all three major commercial networks pulled out of bidding on rights to both the 2014 and 2016 Olympic Games due to cost concerns (which included Nine Network, who had lost AUD$22 million on its joint coverage of the 2012 Games with Foxtel, and Seven Network, whose bid was rejected for being lower than what Nine/Foxtel paid), the IOC awarded broadcast rights to the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia to Network Ten for AUD$20 million.
Network Ten is available in standard definition and formerly in 1080i high definition. Ten's core programming is fibre fed out of ATV Melbourne to its sister stations and regional affiliates with TEN Sydney providing national news programming. The receiving stations and affiliates then insert their own localised news and advertising which is then broadcast in metropolitan areas via Network Ten owned-and-operated stations, these include TEN Sydney, ATV Melbourne, TVQ Brisbane, ADS Adelaide, and NEW Perth. Channel Ten programming is also carried into other areas of regional Australia by various affiliate networks and stations including Southern Cross Ten, Southern Cross Television, Tasmanian Digital Television, Mildura Digital Television, Darwin Digital Television, Ten West and WIN Television. In addition to this, Network Ten is retransmitted via Foxtel, Optus and Austar Digital cable and satellite pay television services.
For the 2006 series of Big Brother, Network Ten appointed two censors to review the show instead of one. The Federal Minister for Communications, Senator Helen Coonan, was reported to have said that she would be keeping a "close watch on the show's 2006 series". This controversy resulted in Big Brother Uncut being renamed Big Brother: Adults Only for the 2006 season of Big Brother. In two separate findings, the Australian Communications and Media Authority determined Network Ten breached clause 2.4 of the Commercial Television Industry Code of Practice. These two breaches were in relation to the broadcast of Big Brother Uncut on 30 May, 13 June and 4 July 2005. The broadcast material was not classified according to the Television Classification Guidelines.
Despite toning down Big Brother: Adults Only significantly in comparison to 2005, the series continued to attract controversy. After Big Brother: Adults Only was abruptly cancelled several weeks early, a subsequent incident of alleged sexual assault in the house saw the removal of two housemates and a huge public outcry calling for the series to be cancelled entirely. This incident generated significant publicity for the show, even prompting the Prime Minister of Australia to call on Network Ten to "do a bit of self-regulation and get this stupid program off the air."
Just prior to the fifth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, Network Ten broadcast 911: In Plane Site, a documentary that examined conspiracy theories about the terrorist attacks. Federal Labor politician Michael Danby demanded that the programming director of the station be sacked.
Network Ten were highly criticised for their broadcast of the 2006 New Year's Eve celebrations, mostly for the sexual innuendo witnessed between high-profile musician John Foreman and Matthew Newton, TV personality Bert Newton's son. Many other complaints were received, particularly in regards to the use of explicit language and crude humour (including a "pashing contest"). This was the first year Ten broadcast the celebrations and fireworks, with Nine Network previously broadcasting the event since 1995.
On 8 October 2008, the Australian Communications and Media Authority (ACMA) found Network Ten guilty of breaching the Commercial Television Industry Code of Practice by using subliminal advertising during the broadcast of the 2007 ARIA Music Awards on 28 October 2007. Network Ten had inserted single frames (lasting 1/25th of a second) into the program broadcast. This was exposed on ABC's Media Watch program.
From 1964 to 1984 Network Ten's four stations – ATV-0 /ATV-10 Melbourne, TEN-10 Sydney, TVQ-0 Brisbane and SAS-10 Adelaide – used different logos to identify themselves. There had also been a number of network-wide logos used from the mid-1960s through to the early 1980s.
By late-1984 ATV-10, SAS-10 and TEN-10 were all using the same logo – a circle with "TEN" in the centre, somewhat in the style of a neon sign. This logo had been introduced by TEN-10 in January 1983, was adopted by ATV-10 in June 1984 and by SAS-10 in October 1984. The logo was also similar to the new logo adopted by Brisbane's TVQ-0 in April 1983, when that station became branded as TV0 – a neon sign-style circle with "TV" in the centre.
Kicking off three years of some upheaval for Network Ten, On 24 January 1988 ATV-10, ADS-10 and TEN-10 all adopted the "X TEN" logo, followed by Perth's NEW-10 when it launched in May 1988, then TVQ-0 which adopted the logo on 10 September 1988 when it changed frequency and became TVQ-10.
On 23 July 1989, the network rebranded again to "10 TV Australia". On 13 January 1991, in conjunction with their "The Entertainment Network" promo, all Ten stations were rebranded to the first version of the current "TEN" logo, Which consists of a blue circle with a yellow ring enclosing the blue circle with the text "Ten" in lower case, with yellow text. However, when the current logo was launched, the ring was white. It was not until September 1999, when Ten relaunched its graphics to the "Electric" ident that the ring became yellow on a permanent basis. In January 2008, the logo was enhanced for HD with a glossy "ball" effect similar to the logo of the US American Broadcasting Company. The current version dates from 22 June 2013, when the ring and lettering became blue as well.
ATV-0: July 1974 – 20 January 1980; TVQ-0: 1974–83
ATV-10: 20 January 1980 – 3 June 1984; SAS-10: 1983 – October 1984
- Channel Ten logo (1983-1988).svg
TEN-10: 1983 – 24 January 1988; ATV-10: 3 June 1984 – 24 January 1988; SAS-10: October 1984 – 27 December 1987; ADS-10: 27 December 1987 – 24 January 1988
- Channel Ten logo (1988-1989).svg
ATV-10, ADS-10, TEN-10: 24 January 1988 – 23 July 1989; NEW-10: 20 May 1988 – 23 July 1989; TVQ-10: 10 September 1988 – 23 July 1989
23 July 1989 – 13 January 1991
13 January 1991 – 22 June 2013
- Channel Ten logo 2013.png
22 June 2013 – present
- "2014 Ratings". TV Tonight. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- "Seven and Ten win AFL rights". ABC Sport. 5 January 2006. Retrieved 7 February 2008.[dead link]
- "Ten and Foxtel sign breakthrough digital retransmission agreement" (PDF). Ten Network Holdings Limited. 7 August 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "Ten Joins Optus TV Featuring Foxtel Platform" (PDF). Ten Network Holdings Limited. 31 October 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2008.
- "New channel, new era: Introducing TEN HD". Ten Network Holdings Limited. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2007.
- McFarland, Lyndal (24 September 2009). "CanWest sells Ten Network stake for $680m". The Australian. Dow Jones Newswires. Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- Clark, Andrew (6 October 2009). "Canwest Global Communications files for bankruptcy protection". The Guardian (England). Retrieved 9 July 2011.
- "Ten announces launch of Eleven". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 26 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "Neighbours moving to Eleven". The Spy Report (Media Spy). 26 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- "ONE to broaden its horizons". TV Tonight. Retrieved 9 November 2011.
- Idato, Michael (17 September 2012). "Seriously, Ten struggles to keep up with ABC". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- Idato, Michael (24 August 2012). "Ten's dismal ratings claim prized scalp". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 October 2013.
- "Ten gives HD sporting chance". The Australian. australianit.news.com.au. 7 December 2006. Retrieved 16 December 2006.
- "Network Ten Wins Rights To Indian Premier League". ESPNcricinfo. 11 February 2008. Retrieved 11 February 2008.
- "TEN and Foxtel win 2010 Commonwealth Games". TV Tonight. 16 January 2008. Retrieved 17 January 2008.
- "Olympic fury over rules for TV sport". The Australian. 7 April 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- "Seven withdraws from bidding for Olympics as price tag proves too great for TV networks". Fox Sports. 8 April 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- MacKay, Duncan (12 May 2013). "Ten Network signs $20 million deal to broadcast Sochi 2014 in Australia, claim reports". Inside the Games. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- (3 July 2006), "Big Brother in bigger bother", The Age, Retrieved 4 July 2006.
- "Get this stupid program off". The Sydney Morning Herald. 3 June 2006. Retrieved 12 September 2006.
- Butterly, Nick (11 September 2006). "Labor MP attacks Ten on 9/11 documentary". News.com.au. Retrieved 12 September 2006.[dead link]
- New channel, new era: GUILTY OF SUBLIMINAL ADVERTISING, Ten Network Holdings Limited, 2008-010-08, retrieved 8 October 2008 Check date values in:
- "Flash Dance" (TRANSCRIPT). Media Watch (Australia). 5 November 2007. Retrieved 7 November 2007.
- "Mediawatch – ARIA Awards 2007 Subliminal Ads – Wrap up story". YouTube. 13 October 2008. Retrieved 9 November 2011.