The New Mutants #1. Art by Bob McLeod.
Clockwise from top: Cannonball, Sunspot, Wolfsbane, Karma, Dani Moonstar, Professor X (purple in background).
|First appearance||Marvel Graphic Novel #4 (December 1982)|
|Base(s)||Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters, Ship|
Professor X (trainer)
|See:List of New Mutants members|
The New Mutants is a group of teenaged mutant superheroes-in-training appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. They have been the main characters of three successive comic book series, which were spin-offs of the X-Men franchise.
The first team of New Mutants characters was created by Chris Claremont and artist Bob McLeod. They first appeared in 1982's Marvel Graphic Novel #4 and are subsequently featured in their own title from 1983 until 1991. Like its parent title, The New Mutants highlighted interpersonal and group conflict as well as action and adventure, and featured a large ensemble cast, including the introduction of cult figure Deadpool. With the end of the first series, the characters were relaunched as X-Force in a new, eponymous series.
The second New Mutants series, launched in 2003, featured a new group of teenage mutants. Unlike the original New Mutants, they were part of a huge cast of students at the Xavier Institute. In 2004, it was relaunched as New X-Men: Academy X, after which the central group was formally dubbed the "New Mutants." In the aftermath of the "M-Day" crossover storyline in late 2005, the remaining students were merged into one junior team, the New X-Men.
The third New Mutants series, reuniting most of the original team, was launched in May 2009.
The New Mutants, vol. 1
The first appearance of The New Mutants can be found in the Comic Book Amazing Heroes #16, from October 1982. By the early 1980s, Uncanny X-Men (under the authorship of Chris Claremont) had become one of the comic book industry's most successful titles, prompting Marvel editor-in-chief Jim Shooter to launch The New Mutants, the first of several X-Men spin-offs. X-Men editor Louise Simonson recalled "Neither Chris [Claremont] or I really wanted to do it. We wanted X-Men to be special and by itself, but Shooter told us that if we didn't come up with a new 'mutant' book, someone else would." The name was a modification of Stan Lee's original name for the X-Men, "The Mutants".
The New Mutants were teenaged students of Professor Charles Xavier's School for Gifted Youngsters, much like the original X-Men, who had since grown into adulthood. These students, however, rather resembled the "All-New, All-Different X-Men" in terms of ethnic diversity. The original team consisted of:
- Cannonball (Samuel Guthrie), a mild-mannered Kentuckian and eventual co-leader, who became nigh-invulnerable when rocketing through the air.
- Karma (Xi'an Coy Manh), a 19-year-old Vietnamese girl and the team's original leader, who could mentally possess other people's bodies.
- Mirage (Danielle Moonstar, originally codenamed Psyche), a Cheyenne and eventual co-leader after Karma's "death," who could create visual empathic three-dimensional illusions.
- Sunspot (Roberto da Costa), a Brazilian who gained superhuman strength fueled by sunlight and could store solar energy in his body to use his super strength during the night.
- Wolfsbane (Rahne Sinclair), a Scot who could transform into a wolf-like creature.
The team was intended to debut in their own series. However, as the first issue was nearing completion, Shooter ordered it to be reworked into a graphic novel so that Marvel Graphic Novel could make its deadline for the next issue. Thus, the New Mutants debuted in Marvel Graphic Novel #4 (December 1982), which continued a plotline from Uncanny X-Men. (Despite Shooter's wheeling and dealing, however, the graphic novel missed its shipping slot by two weeks due to artist Bob McLeod's honeymoon.)
The series was originally written by Claremont and illustrated by McLeod, the team's co-creators, but McLeod soon passed artistic duties on to Sal Buscema. Claremont gave the series a darker tone, which was heightened with the arrival of artist Bill Sienkiewicz. In addition to very serious depictions of teenage angst and growing pains, the series featured themes of mysticism and psychic boundaries. The stories also relied on wilder, more far-fetched premises than were typical of X-Men at the time. Locales included demonic dimensions, alternate futures, and an ancient Roman civilization hidden within the Amazon rainforest. The New Mutants also encountered a secret society called the Hellfire Club, and began a rivalry with their young apprentices, the Hellions.
After the apparent death of Karma, Cannonball and Dani Moonstar act as co-leaders. New recruits included:
- Cypher (Douglas Ramsey), an otherwise ordinary young man who could learn any language, spoken or written, at an exponential rate, whether it was human, alien, or machine, making him an unmatched computer expert.
- Magma (Amara Juliana Olivians Aquilla), a fiercely tempered native of a secret Roman society in the Amazon who can control lava.
- Magik (Illyana Rasputin), sister of the Russian X-Man Colossus and long-time resident of the X-Mansion, an accomplished mystic who could open "teleportation discs" allowing travel to Limbo and from there, any point on Earth.
- Warlock, an extraterrestrial of the techno-organic race known as the Technarchy.
In 1986, Professor X was written out of the series. Before he left, he made the X-Men's one-time nemesis, Magneto, headmaster of his school. Magneto would be the team's longest-running headmaster, holding the position from New Mutants #35 through to #75. Fiercely overprotective of his students, particularly after the events of the "Mutant Massacre" and "Fall of the Mutants", he was increasingly used as an uptight foil for the adventurous New Mutants, setting rules that they would inevitably break in the interests of helping their friends.
With Claremont taking on Wolverine and Excalibur, he left The New Mutants and the series was turned over to writer Louise Simonson and illustrator Bret Blevins with issue #55 (Sept. 1987). Simonson was intended to be only a fill-in writer for the six months Claremont needed to get the two new series launched, but he ultimately remained with his new projects, and Simonson ended up writing the series for over three years. During her run, Magma is written out of the book and Magik is de-aged back to childhood. Due to his unpopularity with New Mutants readers and artists, Cypher is killed off. Simonson recalled, "He wasn't fun to draw. He just stood around and hid behind a tree during a fight... Every artist who ever did him said 'Can't we kill this guy?' We would get letters from fans about how much they hated him." Simonson also folded the X-Terminators, a group of young wards from X-Factor, into the New Mutants.
The X-Terminators added to the team were:
- Boom-Boom (Tabitha Smith), a teen runaway who could create "plasma bombs."
- Rusty Collins, a pyrokinetic wanted by the U.S. government.
- Rictor (Julio Richter), a young Mexican who could create shock waves.
- Skids (Sally Blevins), a former Morlock who could project a frictionless force field around her body.
In 1989, Simonson crafted a saga in which the team journeyed to Asgard, the home of the gods of Norse mythology. The storyline wrote Dani Moonstar out of the series, as she joined the Norse pantheon as one of the Valkyrior. However, the most controversial issue of her run was New Mutants #64. Titled "Instant Replay!", the story deals with the New Mutants' mourning for Cypher, and includes a scene in which Warlock attempts to resurrect Cypher by taking his corpse out of its coffin and showing it to Cypher's loved ones. Simonson holds it to be her favorite New Mutants story, though she acknowledges that many readers found it too morbid.
Sales of the series had slumped for several years, but took a sharp upturn after Rob Liefeld took over the penciling and co-plotting chores at the end of 1989. A new mentor for the group, the mysterious mercenary Cable, was introduced, further helping sales. Over the next year, several longtime team members were written out or killed off. However, the relationship between Liefeld and Simonson was fraught with tension, and Simonson claims that Harras dealt with the situation by rewriting her plots and dialogue so that the characterizations did not make sense: "Although I wasn't being fired, I think I was being shoved out the door with both hands by Bob Harras. Bob was only doing what he had to do, I expect, which was make Rob Liefeld happy." Simonson eventually gave in, leaving after issue #97. When Liefeld and Fabian Nicieza, who wrote dialogue based on Liefeld's plots, took over as writers of the final three issues of the series, they included several harder-edged characters:
- "Domino" (Vanessa Geraldine Carlysle), Cable's pale-skinned, black-garbed mercenary lover. Actually Copycat, impersonating Domino.
- Feral (Maria Callasantos), who possessed a bestial temperament and appearance.
- Shatterstar (Gaveedra Seven), a swashbuckling warrior from another dimension.
- Warpath (James Proudstar), the younger brother of slain X-Man Thunderbird and a former Hellion, an Apache who possessed super strength and speed.
The New Mutants was cancelled in 1991 with issue #100, but the new platoon-like team formed by Cable continued in X-Force, a successful series (whose first issue sold approximately one million copies) that would continue until 2002, and feature a variety of the former New Mutants cast.
The New Mutants has been reprinted in several trade paperbacks, some containing specific story arcs (such as the "Demon Bear Saga" by Claremont and Sienkiewicz), and some collected as part of a larger crossover of the various X-titles. Only in 2006, however, did a chronological reprinting of the series begin, with the commencement of The New Mutants Classic series of trade paperbacks.
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 1||The New Mutants #1–7; Marvel Graphic Novel #4; Uncanny X-Men #167||May 2006||0785121943|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 2||The New Mutants #8–17||January 2007||0785121951|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 3||The New Mutants #18–25, Annual #1||May 2008||0785131191|
|New Mutants: The Demon Bear Saga||The New Mutants #18–21||December 1990||0871356732|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 4||The New Mutants #26–34||March 2009||0785137283|
|Secret Wars II Omnibus||New Mutants #30, #36-37; Secret Wars II #1-9; Uncanny X-Men #198, #202-203; Captain America #308; Iron Man #197; Fantastic Four #282, #285, #288, #316-319; Web of Spider-Man #6; Amazing Spider-Man #268, #273-274; Daredevil #223; Incredible Hulk #312; Avengers #260-261, #265-266; Dazzler #40; Alpha Flight #28; Thing #30; Doctor Strange #74; Cloak and Dagger #4; Power Pack #18; Thor #363; Power Man and Iron Fist #121; Peter Parker, the Spectacular Spider-Man #111; Defenders #152; Quasar #8||May 2009||978-0785131113|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 5||The New Mutants #35–40; New Mutants Special Edition; Uncanny X-Men Annual #9||March 2010||0785144609|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 6||The New Mutants #41-47; Annual #2; Uncanny X-Men Annual #10||August 2011||0785155449|
|X-Men: Mutant Massacre||The New Mutants #46; Uncanny X-Men #210–213; X-Factor #9–11; Thor #373–374; Power Pack #27||October 2001||0785102248|
|New Mutants Classic, Volume 7||The New Mutants #48-54; Annual #3||May 2012||978-0785159711|
|New Mutants Forever||The New Mutants #53-54; New Mutants Forever #1-5||February 2011||9780785147473|
|X-Men: Fall of the Mutants Vol. 1||The New Mutants #55-61; Uncanny X-Men #220-227; Incredible Hulk #340||February 2013||978-0785167440|
|X-Men: Fall of the Mutants||The New Mutants #59–61; Uncanny X-Men #225–227; X-Factor #24–26||February 2002||0785108254|
|X-Men: Fall of the Mutants Omnibus||New Mutants #55-61; Uncanny X-Men #220-227; X-Factor #19-26; Captain America #339; Daredevil #252; Fantastic Four #312; Incredible Hulk #340; Power Pack #35||May 2011||978-0-7851-5822-6|
|X-Men: Inferno Prologue||The New Mutants #62–70, Annual #4; Uncanny X-Men #228–238, Annual #12; X-Factor #27–32, Annual #3; Material from Marvel Age Annual #4; Marvel Fanfare #40||December 2014||0785192735|
|X-Men: Inferno||The New Mutants #71–73; Uncanny X-Men #239–243; X-Factor #36–39||December 1996||0785102221|
|X-Men: Inferno (Hardcover edition)||New Mutants #71-73; Uncanny X-Men #239-243; X-Factor #33-40; X-Terminators #1-4; X-Factor Annual #4||June 2009||978-0785137771|
|Atlantis Attacks Omnibus||New Mutants #76, Annual #5; Silver Surfer Annual #2; Iron Man Annual #10; Marvel Comics Presents #26; Uncanny X-Men Annual #13; Amazing Spider-Man Annual #23; Punisher Annual #2; Spectacular Spider-Man Annual #9; Daredevil Annual #4; Avengers Annual #18; X-Factor Annual #4; Web of Spider-Man Annual #5; Avengers West Coast #56, Annual #4; Thor Annual #14; Fantastic Four Annual #22||March 2011||978-0785144922|
|Acts of Vengeance Crossovers Omnibus||New Mutants #84-86; Uncanny X-Men #256-258; Fantastic Four #334-336; Wolverine #19-20; Dr. Strange, Sorcerer Supreme #11-13; Incredible Hulk #363; Punisher #28-29; Punisher War Journal #12-13; Marc Spector: Moon Knight #8-10; Daredevil #275-276; Power Pack #53; Alpha Flight #79-80; X-Factor #49-50; Damage Control #1-4; and Web of Spider-Man #64-65||August 2011||978-0-7851-4488-5|
|Cable and the New Mutants||The New Mutants #86–94, New Mutants Annual #5||January 2011||0785149705|
|Cable Classic, Volume 1||The New Mutants #87; Cable: Blood and Metal #1–2; Cable #1–4||March 2008||078513123X|
|X-Men: X-Tinction Agenda||The New Mutants #95–97; Uncanny X-Men #270–272; X-Factor #60–62||November 1991||0871359227|
|X-Men: X-Tinction Agenda (Hardcover edition)||New Mutants #95-97; Uncanny X-Men #235-238 & #270-272; X-Factor (1986) #60-62||August 2011||978-0785155317|
|Deadpool Classic, Volume 1||The New Mutants #98; Deadpool ("The Circle Chase") #1–4; Deadpool, vol. 2 ("Sins of the Past") #1–4; Deadpool, vol. 3 #1||May 2008||0785131248|
|X-Force: Shatterstar||The New Mutants #99–100; X-Force: Shatterstar #1–4||August 2005||0785116338|
|X-Force: A Force to be Reckoned With||The New Mutants #98-100, X-Force #1-4, Spider-Man #16||January 2011||978-0785149842|
The New Mutants, vol. 2
|New Mutants (Training Squad)|
The New Mutants from New X-Men: Academy X #2. Art by Randy Green.
From left to right: Danielle Moonstar, Surge, Prodigy, Wind Dancer, Elixir, Wallflower.
|First appearance||New X-Men: Academy X #2 (August 2004)|
|Base(s)||Xavier Institute for Higher Learning|
Danielle Moonstar (advisor)|
The second incarnation of the New Mutants debuted in 2003 with an ongoing series of the same name, written by Nunzio DeFilippis and Christina Weir. The series would continue for 13 issues, until June 2004, before being relaunched as New X-Men: Academy X in July 2004, with a new #1.
The series featured a handful of the dozens of mutant teenagers attending the Xavier Institute, as well as their instructors, which included various X-Men as well as former members of the original New Mutants (Karma, Magma, Dani Moonstar, and Wolfsbane).
The featured group of students never refer to themselves as "the New Mutants" before the series relaunch as New X-Men: Academy X in 2004, and the reorganization of the Xavier Institute student body into various training squads. The New Mutants, advised by Dani Moonstar, were:
- Elixir (Josh Foley) - Josh is an Omega-Level mutant who can manipulate his or others’ biologies to heal or harm. In addition, Elixir possesses gold skin which converts to black when he uses his powers offensively. He was one of the 27 students at the Xavier Institute to retain his powers after "M-Day". His current whereabouts are unknown.
- Icarus (Joshua "Jay" Guthrie) - Jay possesses red angelic wings on his back that allow him to fly and which grant him an accelerated healing process. Furthermore, he possesses the ability to manipulate his own voice. He was one of the 27 students at the Xavier Institute to retain his powers after "M-Day". Jay's wings are amputated by Stryker, who later kills him.
- Prodigy (David Alleyne) - David was the team's co-leader who could temporarily gain the knowledge and skills of those near him. Although he was de-powered after "M-Day", he has retained all the knowledge he had acquired prior to the "Decimation". Current member of the Young Avengers.
- Surge (Noriko Ashida) - Noriko is Japanese. She absorbs electricity from her environment which she can discharge as powerful electric blasts or utilize as superhuman speed. She requires mechanical gauntlets to prevent overcharge. Surge was one of the 27 students at the Xavier Institute to retain her powers after "M-Day". She is currently a student of the Jean Grey School for Higher Learning and a member of the X-Men.
- Wallflower (Laurie Collins) - Laurie is a shy girl who generates highly potent pheromones that influence people's emotions. She was one of the 27 students at the Xavier Institute to retain her powers after "M-Day". Laurie was later killed by one of Stryker's men.
- Wind Dancer (Sofia Mantega) - Sofia was the other co-leader and she could manipulate the wind. She was depowered after "M-Day". Her current whereabouts are unknown.
- Wither (Kevin Ford) - Kevin could cause organic material to decay with his touch. He eventually switches to the Hellions squad. He is later killed by Elixir.
Another such group, advised by Emma Frost, was known as the Hellions and, like their predecessor, was the arch-rival of the New Mutants. Whereas the original New Mutants series revolved around battles with world-threatening menaces, New Mutants volume 2 focused on the characters' personal relationships and struggles with controlling their powers.
After "M-Day", the cataclysmic event that decimated the world's mutant population, only 27 of the 182 students enrolled at the Xavier Institute retained their powers. The New Mutants and the other training squads were disbanded, and the remaining students were folded into a single junior team, the New X-Men.
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|New Mutants: Back to School||New Mutants, vol. 2 #1–6||March 2005||0785112421|
New Mutants, vol. 3
Variant cover to New Mutants, vol. 3 #1. Art by Bob McLeod.
|First appearance||New Mutants #1 (2009)|
Zeb Wells (writer)|
Diogenes Neves (artist)
1128 Mission Street, San Francisco
In May 2009, a third volume of New Mutants was launched. The series is written by Zeb Wells and pencilled by Diogenes Neves with many original characters returning to form a new field team for the X-Men. The team is a reunion of sorts for the original cast from the first volume and consists of Cannonball, Karma, Magik, Magma, Dani Moonstar and Sunspot. The reunion is spun from events from the limited series X-Infernus.
Magik shows up at the X-Men headquarters in San Francisco, claiming to be from the future and warning that Dani Moonstar and Karma are in danger. Once tests show that Illyanna is not an imposter, Cannonball leads a rescue mission with her. They are joined by Magma and Sunspot. They end up taking on Legion. During the mission, Cannonball acts as the leader and treats Dani as an outsider. Once Legion has been defeated, Sam does not include her as part of the team because she no longer has her powers. Dani shows her displeasure during a sparring session in the Danger Room. Sam relents and allows her on the team. Meanwhile, Warlock returns to Earth and finds that Cypher's grave is empty.
Cypher secretly observes a reunion between the team and Professor X. Now under the control of Selene, he attacks Magma. It is revealed that his powers now allow him to read body language and he holds his own against the team. Eventually he is defeated and Warlock attempts to override Selene's virus with the stored version of Doug's personality that he has saved. After battling Selene and her resurrected Hellions, Warlock uses Magik's Soulsword to purge Selene's virus from Cypher completely.
During the run of the series, the team takes part in several crossover storylines. During "Siege", Hela empowers Dani (now going by the codename Mirage) as a Valkyrie to bring the souls of the fallen Asgardians to her. During "X-Men: Second Coming", Karma loses her leg after being repeatedly stabbed by Cameron Hodge. It is replaced with a bionic one.
Magik leads the team to Limbo, supposedly to rescue Pixie. Pixie, Karma and Magik escape. But instead of trying to rescue the rest of the team, Illyanna tells Karma that she lied when she originally showed up and said she was there to save the team. She was only there to save Karma. Eventually the team is rescued, and finally the truth is revealed. Everything the team had been through in Limbo was part of Illyanna's plan for revenge against the Elder Gods. Cyclops confronts her about this and when she shows no remorse, has her imprisoned. In the same issue, Cannonball leaves the team. He claims he needs time to recover from the wounds he received in the "Age of X" storyline. Karma also leaves, choosing to take care of Face, the grown Inferno baby that saved her in Limbo.
Cyclops makes Dani the new team leader and gives the team a new agenda. It is now to handle X-Men's "unfinished business". Their first assignment is to track down Nate Grey. After successfully rescuing him from Sugar Man, Nate joins the team. During the "Fear Itself" storyline, the team is in Hel trying to save Hela. Dani is once again using her Valkyrie powers.
When the X-Men split in X-Men: Schism, the team chooses to side with Cyclops and stay on Utopia. Their next mission is to find Blink. After locating her and helping her defeat a mutant rock band (Diskhord), Blink returns with them but decides to join the X-Men at the Jean Grey School of Higher Learning. She does join them during the last issues of the series.
|Title||Material collected||Publication date||ISBN|
|New Mutants: Return of Legion||New Mutants, vol. 3 #1–5; Marvel Spotlight: New Mutants||December 2009||0785139923|
|New Mutants: Necrosha||New Mutants, vol. 3 #6–11||May 2010||0785139935|
|X-Necrosha||New X-Men #32; X-Force vol. 3 #11, #21–25; New Mutants vol. 3 #6–8; X-Men: Legacy #231–234; X-Force/New Mutants: Necrosha One-Shot; X Necrosha: The Gathering; material from X-Force vol. 3 Annual #1||December 2010||078514675X|
|X-Men: Second Coming||Second Coming: Prepare; Second Coming #1–2; Uncanny X-Men #523–525; New Mutants, vol. 3 #12–14; X-Men Legacy #235–237; X-Force vol. 3 #26–28||September 2010||0785146784|
|New Mutants: Fall of the New Mutants||New Mutants, vol. 3 #15–21||March 2011||0785145834|
|X-Men: Age of X||Age of X: Alpha; X-Men Legacy #245–247; New Mutants, vol. 3 #22–24; Age of X: Universe #1–2||July 2011||078515289X|
|New Mutants: Unfinished Business||New Mutants, vol. 3 #25–28||October 2011||0785152309|
|Fear Itself: Wolverine/New Mutants||Fear Itself: Wolverine #1–3; New Mutants, vol. 3 #29–32||April 2012||0785152309|
|New Mutants: A Date with the Devil||New Mutants, vol. 3 #33–37||April 2012||0785152323|
|New Mutants: De-Animator||New Mutants, vol. 3 #38-41||November 2012||0785161608|
|Journey Into Mystery/New Mutants: Exiled||New Mutants, vol. 3 #42-43, Exiled #1, Journey Into Mystery #637-638||September 2012||0785165408|
|New Mutants: Fight the Future||New Mutants, vol. 3 #44-50||December 2012||0785161619|
Rahne of Terra
The graphic novel Rahne of Terra, by Peter David, is set in a heroic fantasy universe in which Wolfsbane's counterpart is Princess Rain of Geshem. Other denizens of Terra include Rain's lady-in-waiting Tabby (Boom-Boom), the knights Richard (Rictor), Robert (Sunspot), and Samuel (Cannonball) and the peasant boy Douglas (Cypher). The Terrans all duplicate the powers of their counterparts in one way or another.
New Mutants: Truth or Death
In 1997, a three-issue reunion series written by Ben Raab and illustrated by Bernard Chang, New Mutants: Truth or Death, featured the young New Mutants traveling forward in time to meet their older, jaded selves in X-Force.
In Ultimate X-Men, the Academy of Tomorrow (previously called New Mutants) is founded by Emma Frost. It is loosely linked to the X-Men via Emma Frost's professional relationship with her former lover and teacher Charles Xavier. This Academy accepts any talented students, regardless of their genetic status. The team is headed by a non-telepathic and more pacifistic version of Emma Frost and headed by field leader Havok. During Ultimatum, the Academy of Tomorrow is destroyed in a terrorist attack by Multiple Man. Former members include Angel, Beast, Cannonball, Cypher, Dazzler, Karma, Northstar, Polaris, and Sunspot.
In other media
- The animated TV series X-Men: Evolution (2000–2003) featured a group called the New Mutants who, like their comic book counterparts, were a junior team living at the Xavier Institute concurrently with the X-Men. The team featured Boom-Boom, Cannonball, Magma, Sunspot and Wolfsbane. Other members, such as Berzerker, Iceman, Jubilee, and Multiple Man were not New Mutants in the comic book series, but were featured in other X-Men comics. Mirage also appeared in the show's penultimate episode where she joined the team in a dream she projected into Shadowcat's head.
- New Mutants is the name given to the 'race' of Mutants on the television show Mutant X.
- The live-action film X-Men: Days of Future Past (2014) featured several of the New Mutants characters in supporting roles. They are Blink (Fan Bingbing), Warpath (Booboo Stewart), and Sunspot (Adan Canto).
- In May 2015, 20th Century Fox announced Josh Boone will direct a film adaptation of the New Mutants. Lauren Shuler Donner and Simon Kinberg will be producing the film, while Boone and Knate Gwaltney are writing the script.
- Grant, Paul J. (August 1993). "Poor Dead Doug, and Other Mutant Memories". Wizard: X-Men Turn Thirty. pp. 66–69.
- The New Mutants #7 (September 1983)
- Uncanny X-Men #200 (December 1985)
- The New Mutants #57 (November 1987)
- The New Mutants #73 (March 1989)
- The New Mutants #60 (February 1988)
- The New Mutants #76 (June 1989)
- The New Mutants #87 (March 1990)
- New X-Men vol. 2, #23 (April 2006)
- New X-Men vol. 2, #27 (August 2006)
- New X-Men vol. 2, #43 (December 2007)
- New X-Men vol. 2, #25 (June 2006)
- New X-Men: Academy X #6 (December 2004)
- X-Force vol. 3, #25 (Released March 2010, Published May 2010)
- New X-Men vol 2, #23 (April 2006)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #1 (July 2009)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #5 (Released September 2009, Published November 2009)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #6 (Released October 2009, Published December 2009)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #8 (Released December 2009, Published February 2010)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #10 (Released February 2010, Published April 2010)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #13 (Released May 2010, Published July 2010)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #25 (Released May 2011, Published July 2011)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #28 (Published July 2011, Released September 2011)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #32 (Published October 2011, Released December 2011)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #33 (Published November 2011, Released January 2012)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #36 (Published January 2012, Released March 2012)
- New Mutants vol. 3, #45 (Published July 2012, Released September 2012)
- Wolverine: Rahne of Terra (Aug. 1991)
- Ultimatum #3 (May 2009)
- "X-Men: Days of Future Past Comic-Con 2013 - Full Panel". July 21, 2013. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "Empire X-Men: Days Of Future Past Exclusive - Blink Cover". Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- "Empire X-Men: Days Of Future Past Exclusive - Warpath Cover". Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Canto, Adan (June 24, 2013). "Twitter / adancanto: "@ghosthunter: @X4X5Campaign I'm excited for @adancanto as Sunspot!!" Thanks! Next summer.". Retrieved July 21, 2013.
- "Empire X-Men: Days Of Future Past Exclusive - Sunspot Cover". Retrieved January 30, 2014.
- Fleming, Jr, Mike (May 13, 2015). "Fox Mints 'The New Mutants' X-Men Spinoff; 'The Fault In Our Stars' Helmer Josh Boone To Direct". Deadline.
- MDP: New Mutants at the Marvel Database Project
- X-Men Diaries article on the original Hellions and New Mutants
- The Demon Bear Saga
- X-Men comics at Marvel.com