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Newton (unit)
Newton  

Unit system  SI derived unit 
Unit of  Force 
Symbol  N 
Named after  Sir Isaac Newton 
In SI base units:  1 N = 1 kg⋅m/s^{2} 
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force. It is named after Isaac Newton in recognition of his work on classical mechanics, specifically Newton's second law of motion.
Contents
Definition
1 Newton is the force needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared.
In 1946, Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) resolution 2 standardized the unit of force in the MKS system of units to be the amount needed to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at the rate of 1 metre per second squared. The 9th CGPM, held in 1948, then adopted the name "newton" for this unit in resolution 7.^{[1]} This name honors the English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton, who laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. The newton thus became the standard unit of force in le Système International d'Unités (SI), or International System of Units.
Newton's second law of motion states that F = ma, where F is the force applied, m is the mass of the object receiving the force, and a is the acceleration of the object. The newton is therefore:^{[2]}
 1 N = 1 kg⋅m/s^{2}
where the following symbols are used for the units:
 <math>{\mathsf F} = \frac{\mathsf {ML}} {{\mathsf T}^2}</math>
where
 F: force
 M: mass
 L: length
 T: time.
This SI unit is named after Isaac Newton. As with every International System of Units (SI) unit whose name is derived from the proper name of a person, the first letter of its symbol is upper case (N). However, when an SI unit is spelled out in English, it should always begin with a lower case letter (newton), except in a situation where any word in that position would be capitalized, such as at the beginning of a sentence or in material using title case. Note that "degree Celsius" conforms to this rule because the "d" is lowercase.— Based on The International System of Units, section 5.2.
Examples
 1 N is the force of Earth's gravity on a mass of about 102 g = (^{1}⁄_{9.81} kg).
 On Earth's surface, a mass of 1 kg exerts a force of approximately 9.81 N [down] (or 1.0 kilogramforce; 1 kgf = 9.80665 N by definition). The approximation of 1 kgf corresponding to 10 N (1 decanewton or daN) is sometimes used as an approximation in everyday life and in engineering.
 The force of Earth's gravity on (= the weight of) a human being with a mass of 70 kg is approximately 686 N.
 The dot product of force and distance is mechanical work. Thus, in SI units, a force of 1 N exerted over a distance of 1 m is 1 N⋅m of work. The WorkEnergy Theorem states that the work done on a body is equal to the change in energy of the body. 1 N⋅m = 1 J (joule), the SI unit of energy.
 It is common to see forces expressed in kilonewtons or kN, where 1 kN = 1,000 N. See SI prefix.
Common use of kilonewtons in construction
Kilonewtons are often used for stating safety holding values of fasteners, anchors, and more in the building industry. They are also often used in the specifications for rock climbing equipment. The safe working loads in both tension and shear measurements can be stated in kilonewtons. Injection moulding machines, used to manufacture plastic parts, are classed by kilonewton (i.e., the amount of clamping force they apply to the mould).
On the Earth's surface, 1 kN is about 101.97162 kilogramforce of load, so multiplying the kilonewton value by 100 (i.e. using a slightly conservative and easier to calculate value) is a good approximation.^{[3]}
Conversion factors
newton (SI unit) 
dyne  kilogramforce, kilopond 
poundforce  poundal  

1 N  ≡ 1 kg⋅m/s^{2}  = 10^{5} dyn  ≈ 0.10197 kp  ≈ 0.22481 lb_{F}  ≈ 7.2330 pdl 
1 dyn  = 10^{−5} N  ≡ 1 g⋅cm/s^{2}  ≈ 1.0197 × 10^{−6} kp  ≈ 2.2481 × 10^{−6} lb_{F}  ≈ 7.2330 × 10^{−5} pdl 
1 kp  = 9.80665 N  = 980665 dyn  ≡ g_{n}⋅(1 kg)  ≈ 2.2046 lb_{F}  ≈ 70.932 pdl 
1 lb_{F}  ≈ 4.448222 N  ≈ 444822 dyn  ≈ 0.45359 kp  ≡ g_{n}⋅(1 lb)  ≈ 32.174 pdl 
1 pdl  ≈ 0.138255 N  ≈ 13825 dyn  ≈ 0.014098 kp  ≈ 0.031081 lb_{F}  ≡ 1 lb⋅ft/s^{2} 
The value of g_{n} as used in the official definition of the kilogramforce is used here for all gravitational units. 
See also
 Force gauge
 International System of Units (SI)
 Joule, SI unit of energy, 1 newton exerted over a distance of 1 metre
 Kilogramforce, force exerted by Earth's gravity at sea level on one kilogram of mass
 Kip (unit)
 Pascal, SI unit of pressure, 1 newton acting on an area of 1 square metre
 Orders of magnitude (force)
 Pound (force)
 Sthène
 Newton metre, SI unit of torque
Notes and references
 ^ International Bureau of Weights and Measures (1977), The international system of units (330–331) (3rd ed.), U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, p. 17, ISBN 0745649742.
 ^ "Table 3. Coherent derived units in the SI with special names and symbols". The International System of Units (SI). International Bureau of Weights and Measures. 2006.
 ^ Convert kilonewtons to kilogramsforce  Conversion of Measurement Units
 ^ Michael R. Lindeburg (2011). Civil Engineering Reference Manual for the Pe Exam. Professional Publications. ISBN 1591263417.
 ^ Wurbs, Ralph A, Fort Hood Review Sessions for Professional Engineering Exam (PDF), retrieved October 26, 2011
